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PSY 101| Study Guide 3

by: Alvin Notetaker

PSY 101| Study Guide 3 PSY 101

Marketplace > Arizona State University > Psychlogy > PSY 101 > PSY 101 Study Guide 3
Alvin Notetaker
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About this Document

For exam 3
Introduction to Psychology
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alvin Notetaker on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Mae in Winter2014. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 03/27/16
PSY 101 Study Guide 3    DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCH  Mary Ainsworth ­ Researcher o​ ttachment Development  Piaget ­ Researcher ​fognitive Development  Erikson ­ Researcher o​ersonality Development  Marcia ­ Researcher oIdentity Development  Kubler­Ross ­ Researcher oStages of Grief   Kohlberg ­ Researcher o​oral Development  Research methods in developmental (2) ­  1. Prenatal development  2. Infant development  Prenatal development ­ the development of the zygote to birth. (0­birth)  1. Germinal Stage: 0­2 weeks ­ Zygote  2. Embryonic Stage: 2­8 weeks ­ Embryo  3. Fetal Stage: 8­birth ­ Fetus  ­Teratogens and examples  Importance of contact/touch ­ An Increase 50% survival  Infant attachment styles (3) ­   1. Secure:  a.  Most trust   b. Adventurous   c. Cry if caretaker leave  2. Anxious­ambivalent:   a. Over dependence   b. A little longer to play   c.  Harder to be comforted  3. Avoidant:   a. Most distrust   b. over­independence   c. play fastest   d. Don’t look around if  caretaker leave  US vs Germany vs Japan infant attachments  Infant temperament styles (3)  1. Secure  2. Fear  3. Defensiveness  Dendritic spread & pruning in infant brain  “Planet Opposite” study  Cognitive development stages (4)  1. Sensorimotor stage ­ (0­2 yr.)   a. object permanence ­ when the object is out of sight, it is gone  b. scale error ­ cannot tell the difference in size.  2. Preoperational stage ­ (2­7 yr.)   a. Irreversibility ­ concentrate one thing at a time  b. Egocentrism ­ see thing from oneself point­of­view  3. Concrete operations stage ­ (7­11 yr.)   a. Conservation ­ the ability to see that distribution is different and size does not  change  b. Hierarchical classification  4. Formal operations stage ­ (11­adolescence)  a. Abstract thinking  b. Systematic thinking and logic  Psychosocial development stages (8)  1. Trust vs Mistrust (1st year)  2. Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt (2­3 yr.)  a. “Can I do it by myself?”  3. Initiative vs Guilt (4­6 yr.)  a. “Am I good or bad?”  4. Industry vs Inferiority (6­puberty)  a. “Am I a competent or worthless?”  5. Identity vs Confusion (adolescence)  a. “Who am I?”  6. Intimacy vs Isolation (early adult)  a. “Am I capable of meaningful relationship?”  7. Generativity vs Self Absorption (mid adult)  a. “Will I produce something valuable?”  8. Integrity vs Despair (late adult)  a. “Have I live a full life?”  Identity development statuses (4)  1. Identity Diffusion ­ No crisis or commitment  2. Identity Moratorium ­ No crisis, but have commitment  3. Identity foreclosure ­ Have crisis, but no commitment  4. Identity Achievement ­ Have crisis and commitment  Moral development, 3 levels, 6 orientations  1. Preconventional Level  a. Punishment orientation ­ Determination through ​ the thought of punishments  b. Naïve reward orientation ­ Determination through ​ rewards  2. Conventional Level  a. Good boy/girl orientation ­ Determination through ​approval  b. Authority orientation ­ Determination through ​society’s rule  3. Postconventional Level  a. Social Contract orientation ­ Determination through ​justice  b. Individual principles & conscience orientation ­ Determination through ​abstract  principles equity and justice   Age conscience development begins ­ about age 9  Highlights of adolescence ­  ● Identity Crisis  ● Stress  ● Suicide attempts  Adolescent brain structure & emotion  Highlights of early adulthood ­   ● Marriage is now in late 20s­early 30s  ● Increase in alternative lifestyles  ● Four parenting styles  ● These style will correlates with children  Highlights of middle adulthood  ● Marital happiness  ○ Kids = happiness?  ■ Men = Yes  ■ Women = No  ● Midlife crisis vs reflection  ● Empty nest syndrome vs adjustment  Highlights of later adulthood  ● Active neurons  ○ Minor decline  ● Sensory sensitivity  ○ Gradual decline ­ easily corrected  ● Fluid intelligence; Crystallized intelligence  ○ Decrease fluid  ○ Flexibility increase  ● Life satisfaction  ● Interaction of physical, cognitive, and social health  Parenting styles (4)  1. Authoritarian ­ Excessive control, not responsive  2. Indulgent­permissive ­ little control, high responsive  3. Indifferent­uninvolved ­ no control, not responsive  4. Authoritative ­ high control, high responsive  ­Island of Okinawa  Stages of grieving & dying  1. Denial  2. Anger  3. Bargaining  4. Depression  5. Acceptance  Two more stages added later  1. Shock ­ testing  2. Sticking , cycling ­ stuck at one phase or goes through phases, but repeat prior stage.  Progression      PERSONALITY PSYCH  Freud ­ Study inPsychanalytic Theory  Jung ­ Study inAnalytic psychology  Adler ­ Study iIndividual psychology  Skinner ­ Study iOperant Conditioning ​ by rewards and punishment  Bandura ­ Study in​ocial Learning Theory ​by observations  Rogers ­ Study inPerson­Centered Theory  Maslow ­ Study in Self Actualization Theory  Eyscenk ­ Study in​NP Theory  Sam Gosling ­ Study in​ocial Perception and Cross­Species  Personality ­ Durable and pervasive way of life  Trait ­ A way of describing a being  Personality or social situation?  MMPI ­ clinical usage  16 PF Questionnaire ­ personality factor usage  The NEO Personality Inventory ­ normal life usage  Rorschach test ­ looking for recurring themes  The TAT  ● For small group only  ● For people who enjoys writing  Self report vs projective tests ­   ● Self report ­ fill out survey or questionnaire with or without a investigator  ● projective tests ­ designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli to find hidden  emotions and internal conflicts  Psychobiography ­ The analysis of historically significant lives through the use of psychological  theory and research  Types A, B and D and cardiovascular risk  ● Type A ­ Competitive, time urgent, hostile, aggressive  ● Type B ­ Relaxed, One thing at a time, express feeling  ● Type D ­ Have a negative outlook on live, suppress emotion  ○ High risk of cardiovascular risk  Psychodynamic perspectives  ● Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory  ● Jung’s Analytic psychology  ● Adler’s Individual Psychology  Psychoanalytic theory  Focus:​ Unconscious  3 components of personality  1. Id ­ Desire, Pleasure  2. Superego ­ Conscience only  3. Ego ­ reality mediator between id and superego  3 levels of awareness  1. Conscious ­ Limited thought  2. Preconscious ­ trigger answer (able to know the answer without thinking)  3. Unconscious ­ imply memory, basically everything else  The iceberg metaphor  Defense mechanisms  1. Repression ­ want to forget  2. Projection ­ portray what you feel  3. Displacement ­ taking frustration on other living organism  4. Reaction formation  ­ reaction in a different (opposite) manner  5. Regression ­ Regression back to child­like behavior  6. Rationalization ­ Think something is rational  7. Identification ­ Identify yourself as part of something else because it makes you feel  important  The formative years ­ the childhood years  Psychosexual stages  Know age range/body part focus/task/any special characteristic(s) on slide/  possible fixations of each stage  1. Oral Stage  a. 0­1 yr.  b. Explore everything with the mouth  c. Breast feeding  2. Anal Stage  a. 2­3 yr.  b. Obsessed with anything to do with the rectum  c. Potty training  3. Phallic Stage  a. 4­5 yr.  b. Focus on genital / exploring genital  c. Have a “special relationship” with mother or father ­ Oedipus & Electra complex  4. Latency Stage  a. 6­12yr.  b. Sexually repressive  5. Genital Stage  a. Puberty­on  b. Sharing sexuality with others.  Dream symbolism ­ sexuality concept  Freudian slips ­ No innocent error while talking  Analytic Psychology  Focus: Spirituality  ● Personal Unconscious ­   ○ Gene and other physical thing pass on  ○ Memory can be passed on  ● Collective Unconscious ­ Unconscious memory that is shared with the same species.  (Example: divine being)  ● Introversion ­ Prefer your inner life  ● Extroversion ­ Prefer the outer life  Individual Psychology  Focus​: Superiority need ­ a driving need to be better than average  ● Inferiority complex ­ is a lack of self­worth  ● Compensation  ­ Covers up, consciously or unconsciously, feelings  Behavioral perspectives  Focus: Overt behavior  Operant Conditioning  ● Skinner’s Operant Conditioning ­ Personality development is derived from rewards and  punishment  Social Learning Theory  ● Bandura’s Social Learning Theory ­ Observational Learning  Humanistic perspectives  Focus​: Positive side of Human Nature and Free Will  Person­Centered Theory  ● Self­concept  ● Incongruency & mental health  ● Source of incongruency  ○ Lack of unconditional love  Self Actualization Theory  ● Self actualized personality  ● Fulfillment of the person’s goal. Then go and help fulfill other people's goals.  Michele’s marshmallow study ­ the study on children about the impulsiveness. The conclusion of  this test showed that the children will little control of their impulse to eat the marshmallow have  behavioral issue while the more controlled impulse children have a more successful future.  Biological perspectives  Focus​: Genetics and Physiology  ENP Theory  ● Higher­order (largely inherited traits)  ● Extroversion  ● Neuroticism  ● Psychoticism  ● Personality structure: hierarchical   ● First to show effects of personality on physiology  Evolutionary Theory  ● Judgment of other  ● Natural Selection favors:  ○ Reliability  ○ Cooperative  ○ Generosity  Trait Perspectives  ● The Big five  The Big Five  ● N: Neuroticism  ● E: Extraversion  ● O: Openness  ● A: Agreeableness ­ How nice somebody is  ● C: Conscientiousness ­ detailed ­ productive ­ carful  Neurotransmitters and neuroticism  Health/longevity and personality  Obesity and personality     


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