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ASU / Psychology / PSY 101 / Who is the researcher of attachment development?

Who is the researcher of attachment development?

Who is the researcher of attachment development?


School: Arizona State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Mae
Term: Winter 2014
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: PSY 101| Study Guide 3
Description: For exam 3
Uploaded: 03/27/2016
7 Pages 124 Views 1 Unlocks

PSY 101 Study Guide 3

Who is the researcher of attachment development?


Mary Ainsworth ­ Researcher of Attachment Development Piaget ­ Researcher of Cognitive Development

Erikson ­ Researcher of Personality Development

Marcia ­ Researcher of Identity Development

Kubler­Ross ­ Researcher of Stages of Grief

Kohlberg ­ Researcher of Moral Development

Research methods in developmental (2) ­

1. Prenatal development

2. Infant development

Prenatal development ­ the development of the zygote to birth. (0­birth) 1. Germinal Stage: 0­2 weeks ­ Zygote

2. Embryonic Stage: 2­8 weeks ­ Embryo

3. Fetal Stage: 8­birth ­ Fetus

What are the stages of grieving & dying?

­Teratogens and examples

Importance of contact/touch ­ An Increase 50% survival Infant attachment styles (3) ­

1. Secure:

a. Most trust

b. Adventurous

c. Cry if caretaker leave

2. Anxious­ambivalent:

a. Over dependence

b. A little longer to play

c. Harder to be comforted

3. Avoidant:

a. Most distrust

b. over­independence

c. play fastest

d. Don’t look around if caretaker leave

US vs Germany vs Japan infant attachments If you want to learn more check out What where the first atomic bomb was created?

Infant temperament styles (3)

1. Secure

2. Fear

3. Defensiveness

What is the study in self actualization theory?

Dendritic spread & pruning in infant brain

“Planet Opposite” study

Cognitive development stages (4)

1. Sensorimotor stage ­ (0­2 yr.)

a. object permanence ­ when the object is out of sight, it is gone

b. scale error ­ cannot tell the difference in size.

2. Preoperational stage ­ (2­7 yr.)

a. Irreversibility ­ concentrate one thing at a time

b. Egocentrism ­ see thing from oneself point­of­view

3. Concrete operations stage ­ (7­11 yr.)

a. Conservation ­ the ability to see that distribution is different and size does not change

b. Hierarchical classification

4. Formal operations stage ­ (11­adolescence)

a. Abstract thinking

b. Systematic thinking and logic

Psychosocial development stages (8)

1. Trust vs Mistrust (1st year)

2. Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt (2­3 yr.)

a. “Can I do it by myself?”

3. Initiative vs Guilt (4­6 yr.)

a. “Am I good or bad?”

4. Industry vs Inferiority (6­puberty)

a. “Am I a competent or worthless?”

5. Identity vs Confusion (adolescence) If you want to learn more check out List and briefly explain the axioms governing consumer preferences.

a. “Who am I?”

6. Intimacy vs Isolation (early adult)

a. “Am I capable of meaningful relationship?”

7. Generativity vs Self Absorption (mid adult)

a. “Will I produce something valuable?”

8. Integrity vs Despair (late adult)

a. “Have I live a full life?”

Identity development statuses (4)

1. Identity Diffusion ­ No crisis or commitment

2. Identity Moratorium ­ No crisis, but have commitment

3. Identity foreclosure ­ Have crisis, but no commitment

4. Identity Achievement ­ Have crisis and commitment

Moral development, 3 levels, 6 orientations

1. Preconventional Level

a. Punishment orientation ­ Determination through the thought of punishments

b. Naïve reward orientation ­ Determination through rewards If you want to learn more check out Who are the nacirema?

2. Conventional Level

a. Good boy/girl orientation ­ Determination through approval

b. Authority orientation ­ Determination through society’s rule

3. Postconventional Level

a. Social Contract orientation ­ Determination through justice

b. Individual principles & conscience orientation ­ Determination through abstract principles equity and justice

Age conscience development begins ­ about age 9

Highlights of adolescence ­

● Identity Crisis

● Stress

● Suicide attempts

Adolescent brain structure & emotion

Highlights of early adulthood ­

● Marriage is now in late 20s­early 30s We also discuss several other topics like What is pollen?

● Increase in alternative lifestyles

● Four parenting styles

● These style will correlates with children

Highlights of middle adulthood

● Marital happiness

○ Kids = happiness?

■ Men = Yes

■ Women = No

● Midlife crisis vs reflection

● Empty nest syndrome vs adjustment

Highlights of later adulthood

● Active neurons

○ Minor decline

● Sensory sensitivity

○ Gradual decline ­ easily corrected

● Fluid intelligence; Crystallized intelligence

○ Decrease fluid

○ Flexibility increase

● Life satisfaction

● Interaction of physical, cognitive, and social health

Parenting styles (4)

1. Authoritarian ­ Excessive control, not responsive

2. Indulgent­permissive ­ little control, high responsive

3. Indifferent­uninvolved ­ no control, not responsive

4. Authoritative ­ high control, high responsive Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 theories about why poverty is bad for kids?

­Island of Okinawa

Stages of grieving & dying

1. Denial

2. Anger

3. Bargaining

4. Depression

5. Acceptance

Two more stages added later

1. Shock ­ testing

2. Sticking , cycling ­ stuck at one phase or goes through phases, but repeat prior stage. Progression


Freud ­ Study in Psychanalytic Theory

Jung ­ Study in Analytic psychology

Adler ­ Study in Individual psychology

Skinner ­ Study in Operant Conditioning ​by rewards and punishment Bandura ­ Study in Social Learning Theory ​by observations We also discuss several other topics like What are the three major decisions of a focus group?

Rogers ­ Study in Person­Centered Theory

Maslow ­ Study in Self Actualization Theory

Eyscenk ­ Study in ENP Theory

Sam Gosling ­ Study in Social Perception and Cross­Species

Personality ­ Durable and pervasive way of life

Trait ­ A way of describing a being

Personality or social situation?

MMPI ­ clinical usage

16 PF Questionnaire ­ personality factor usage

The NEO Personality Inventory ­ normal life usage

Rorschach test ­ looking for recurring themes


● For small group only

● For people who enjoys writing

Self report vs projective tests ­

● Self report ­ fill out survey or questionnaire with or without a investigator ● projective tests ­ designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli to find hidden emotions and internal conflicts

Psychobiography ­ The analysis of historically significant lives through the use of psychological theory and research

Types A, B and D and cardiovascular risk

● Type A ­ Competitive, time urgent, hostile, aggressive

● Type B ­ Relaxed, One thing at a time, express feeling

● Type D ­ Have a negative outlook on live, suppress emotion

○ High risk of cardiovascular risk

Psychodynamic perspectives

● Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory

● Jung’s Analytic psychology

● Adler’s Individual Psychology

Psychoanalytic theory

Focus​: Unconscious

3 components of personality

1. Id ­ Desire, Pleasure

2. Superego ­ Conscience only

3. Ego ­ reality mediator between id and superego

3 levels of awareness

1. Conscious ­ Limited thought

2. Preconscious ­ trigger answer (able to know the answer without thinking) 3. Unconscious ­ imply memory, basically everything else

The iceberg metaphor

Defense mechanisms

1. Repression ­ want to forget

2. Projection ­ portray what you feel

3. Displacement ­ taking frustration on other living organism

4. Reaction formation ­ reaction in a different (opposite) manner

5. Regression ­ Regression back to child­like behavior

6. Rationalization ­ Think something is rational

7. Identification ­ Identify yourself as part of something else because it makes you feel important

The formative years ­ the childhood years

Psychosexual stages

Know age range/body part focus/task/any special characteristic(s) on slide/ possible fixations of each stage

1. Oral Stage

a. 0­1 yr.

b. Explore everything with the mouth

c. Breast feeding

2. Anal Stage

a. 2­3 yr.

b. Obsessed with anything to do with the rectum

c. Potty training

3. Phallic Stage

a. 4­5 yr.

b. Focus on genital / exploring genital

c. Have a “special relationship” with mother or father ­ Oedipus & Electra complex 4. Latency Stage

a. 6­12yr.

b. Sexually repressive

5. Genital Stage

a. Puberty­on

b. Sharing sexuality with others.

Dream symbolism ­ sexuality concept

Freudian slips ­ No innocent error while talking

Analytic Psychology

Focus​: Spirituality

● Personal Unconscious ­

○ Gene and other physical thing pass on

○ Memory can be passed on

● Collective Unconscious ­ Unconscious memory that is shared with the same species. (Example: divine being)

● Introversion ­ Prefer your inner life

● Extroversion ­ Prefer the outer life

Individual Psychology

Focus​: Superiority need ­ a driving need to be better than average

● Inferiority complex ­ is a lack of self­worth

● Compensation ­ Covers up, consciously or unconsciously, feelings

Behavioral perspectives

Focus​: Overt behavior

Operant Conditioning

● Skinner’s Operant Conditioning ­ Personality development is derived from rewards and punishment

Social Learning Theory

● Bandura’s Social Learning Theory ­ Observational Learning

Humanistic perspectives

Focus​: Positive side of Human Nature and Free Will

Person­Centered Theory

● Self­concept

● Incongruency & mental health

● Source of incongruency

○ Lack of unconditional love

Self Actualization Theory

● Self actualized personality

● Fulfillment of the person’s goal. Then go and help fulfill other people's goals. Michele’s marshmallow study ­ the study on children about the impulsiveness. The conclusion of this test showed that the children will little control of their impulse to eat the marshmallow have behavioral issue while the more controlled impulse children have a more successful future. Biological perspectives

Focus​: Genetics and Physiology

ENP Theory

● Higher­order (largely inherited traits)

● Extroversion

● Neuroticism

● Psychoticism

● Personality structure: hierarchical

● First to show effects of personality on physiology

Evolutionary Theory

● Judgment of other

● Natural Selection favors:

○ Reliability

○ Cooperative

○ Generosity

Trait Perspectives

● The Big five

The Big Five

● N: Neuroticism

● E: Extraversion

● O: Openness

● A: Agreeableness ­ How nice somebody is

● C: Conscientiousness ­ detailed ­ productive ­ carful

Neurotransmitters and neuroticism

Health/longevity and personality

Obesity and personality

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