History test 2 review
History test 2 review History 1376
Popular in The U.S. Until 1877
Popular in History
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Klak on Friday January 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 1376 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Matthew Clavin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 302 views. For similar materials see The U.S. Until 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
History Review test 2 The First Partv Svstem FEDERALISTS REPUBLICANS powerful group who envisioned America as a genuine nation state with centralized authority and a complex commercial economy the centralizers became known as the federalists and gravitated to the leadership of alexander Hamilton For twelve years the federalists retained rm control of the new government That was in part because George Washington had always envisioned a strong national government Hamilton wanted to create a permanent national debt with new bonds being issued as old ones were paid off The result he believed would be that the wealthy classes who were the most likely to lend money to the government would always have a reason to want the government to survive The federalists consolidated their position by acting effectively in managing the western territories and diplomacy In 1800 election Adams for the federalists After the election of 1800 the only branch of the federal government left in federalist hands was the judiciary Adams stayed up late on his last day in of ce and was appointing people into of ce This became known as the quotmidnight appointmentsquot Created by Alexander Hamilton They were dominant until the members envisioned a more modest national government Rather than aspire to be a highly commercial or urban nation it should remain predominantly rural and agrarian acquired the name Republicans and gathered under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Emerged from a group of people who claimed there needed to be an opposing structure to the menacing and tyrannical Federalists Jefferson promoted an agricultural society He did not scorn urbanization but he said that too much of it could be dangerous The Republicans were stronger in the rural areas of the South and the West In 1800 election Jefferson for the Republicans The Republican s claimed that Adams was trying to make himself king and that would turn everyone into his slave In New York Aaron Burr created the Tammany Society which served as a Republican political machine Jefferson was elected The Republican s believed they were saved from tyranny Republican s wanted to create free public schooling for children but their dreams were incomplete Formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Dominant after 18005 1800s They appealed to the business community mention local businesses marketplace sales o etc Favored Britain because of its political stability and its close ties to American Trade Appealed mostly to farmers and planters harvest family hard work etc Based in the plantation south opposed a strong executive power were hostile to a standing army and navy demanded a limited reading of the constitutional powers of the federal government strongly opposed the Hamilton nancial program ID TERMS Whiskev Rebellion Alexander Hamilton the leader of the federalist party recommended two kinds of taxes to complement the receipts anticipated from the sale of public land antifederalists disagreed with it One was an excise tax on alcoholic beverages a tax that would be most burdensome to whiskey distillers of the backcountry small farmers who converted part of their corn and rye crops into whiskey Protests from farmers later forced revisions to reduce the burden on smaller distillers Farmers refused to pay the excise tax so Washington gathered militia men to march to them They backed down The federal government won the allegiance of the whiskey rebels through intimidation Signi cance it con rms for the rst time that the strong central government might actually work af rms power of federal government in the future if you want to enact political change they must vote The Missouri Compromise In 1819 there were eleven Free states and eleven slave states The admission of Missouri would upset that balance Hence the controversy over slavery and freedom in Missouri Henry Clay threatened that if they didn39t admit Missouri as a slave state they would block Maine from also entering The bills were eventually combined into one Maine would be admitted as a free state Missouri as a slave state No slaves allowed above Missouri state line Return to era of good feelings Signi cance Return to era of good feelings heals of sectional wounds over time brings party back together calms the problem guarantees a catastrophe in the future it didn39t x the problem but put a band aid on it problem there s slavery when declarations says people are equal and shows democracy delaying the inevitable only makes it worse Corrupt Bargain One of the people running was Secretary of State John Quincy Adams But he was a man of cold and forbidding manners with little popular appeal Another contender was Henry Clay the Speaker of the House Andrew Jackson was the fourth major candidate and he wasn t really popular at rst he was just a military hero Jackson received more popular and electoral votes than any other candidate but not a majority The Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution passed in the aftermath of the contested 1800 election required the House of Representatives to choose among the three candidates with the largest numbers of electoral votes Adams appointed Clay secretary of state after he won of ce People who became secretary of state at that time typically became the next president Jackson should of won because he won the electoral vote and the popular vote but not 51 percent so house of representatives have to choose which henry clay was the leader and was the third president running Signi cance collapse of democraticrepublic party into Whigs vs Jacksonian democrats Problem also because Quincy was a son of another president so him being elected looked like the US was falling back into a monarchy The Second Party System By the time of the 1828 presidential election the new twoparty system was now in place WHIGS JACKSONIAN DEMOCRATS On one side stood the supporters Opposing them were the ofjohn Quincy Adams and the followers of Andrew Jackson and national republicans the Democratic Republicans Adams attracted the support of 0 Jackson appealed to a broad most of the remaining federalists coalition that opposed the They called him Jackson a quoteconomic aristocracyquot murderer and distributed a Jackson39s victory led the nation quotcof n handbillquot And they called into the quotera of the common his wife a bigamist manquot The antiJackson forces began to Jackson39s followers called call themselves the Whigs themselves Democrats Despised Jackson s doings in the 0 Jackson required that men should bank war have quotequal protection and equal Were against Andrew Jackson bene tsquot Supported the supremacy of 0 Jackson lled the of ce with his congress over the presidency own supporters Role models were Daniel 0 He gave out these jobs like political rewards and it became known as the quotspoils systemquot Love whatJackson did in the Webster William henry Harrison Zachary Taylor and Win eld Scott Bank War Believed that the common white man is the most important factor in the government society Hated Native Americans Their preeminent leader was henry clay 0 Strong national government Promote tax on manufactured goods Nulli cation Calhoun developed the theory of nulli cation Drawing from the ideas of Madison and Jefferson and citing the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution Calhoun argued that since the federal government was a creation of the states the states not the courts or Congress were the nal arbiters of the constitutionality of federal laws If a state concluded that Congress had passed an unconstitutional law then it could hold a special convention and declare the federal law null and void within the state Brinkley The Un nished Nation The nulli cation doctrine attracted support from South Carolina Jackson insisted that nulli cation was treason He strengthened the federal forts in South Carolina and ordered a warship to Charleston When Congress convened early in 1833 Jackson proposed a force bill authorizing the president to use the military to see that acts of Congress were obeyed Violence seemed a real possibility Brinkley The Un nished Nation Clay proposed a compromise where tariff would be lowered gradually so that by 1842 it would reach about the same level as in 1816 That wasn39t good enough for South Carolina They wanted the last word 18281832 John c Calhoun vice president of Andrew Jackson 1829 Calhoun publishes exposition and protest pamphlet which says we are equal and sovereign states and also says we have authority to declare tariffs and federal law null and voided greatest challenge to federal constitution since whislq rebellion Two years pass and south Carolinians are red up they39re ignoring the tariff they re also the only ones to do so Calhoun resigns as vice president as great act of de ance and becomes senator of South Carolina rst vice president to resign Tariff reduced to appease South Carolina but they39re still outraged Calhoun organizes convention South Carolina adopts ordinance of nulli cation they threaten if government makes South Carolina pay they will secede This all happens in the year 1832 because its election year and they want Jackson to rule in their favor Jackson intervenes by sending troops saying they39ll kill them if they don39t pay the tariff He does this because his authority is being challenged and because of his pride and doesn39t want them to secede while he s in of ce South Carolina backs down 0 Signi cance We39ve always had taxes and always had tariffs but they nearly start a civil war over a tax because the issue of slavery tariff is a smokescreen Slavery is going away in most places by 1830 and southerners are becoming fearful because it is clear that the world is abolishing slavery They39re trying to establish a precedent that they can null federal law just in case they try to take slavery away tariff is a test case for slavery Slavery is at the root of the whole problem South Carolina is the only one to try this because slavery is more deeply imbedded in their culture and economy the lesson for south Carolina In order to stand up to the government there needs to be more than one state therefore they make connections with slave owning states to stand up to the federal government in the future The Bank War 0 The Bank of the United States held a monopoly on federal deposits provided credit to growing enterprises issued banknotes that served as a dependable medium of exchange and exercised a restraining effect on the less well managed state banks Brinkley The Un nished Nation 0 Many Americans including Andrew Jackson wanted to destroy it 0 Opposition came from the quotsoft moneyquot and quothard moneyquot groups 0 The soft money group objected to the Bank because it restrained state banks from issuing notes freely The hardmoney group believed that coin was the only safe currency and they didn39t want all banks that issued banknotes Jackson supported hardmoney and he said that he would not renew the charter of the Bank of the United States which was going to expire in 1836 0 Congress did a recharter bill in 1832 four years ahead of the expected time Congress passed the recharter bill Jackson vetoed it and Congress failed to override the veto Jackson weakened the bank by removing the government39s deposits from it When his secretary of the treasury declined to follow orders Jackson red him When the new secretary did the same thing Jackson red him too Taney took the government39s deposits out of the Bank of the United States and put them in state banks 0 When the Bank of the United States died in 1836 the country was had an unstable banking system that would take its toll on the economy for many years 0 Jackson very quickly vetoed the bank because it39s helping the rich at the expense of the poor 0 Signi cance Clear cut case of victory of early democracy in early America president of the United States ghts for the common man which is rare it39s to bene t the economy meaning the mechanists and farmers and the average American very infrequently has the president ever sided with laborers at the expense of the elite39s The Market Revolution The American economy entered a new and more complex stage of development as it moves away from agriculture towards industry and technology basically move from pre modern to modern economy We switch away from a subsistence economy localized economy that lives just to support themselves to a market economy causes subsistence farmers to specialize in one area such as dozens of chickens to go to a market and sell them no longer selling to your neighbor causes less diversi cation if there39s a boom you lose if there39s a lack you thrive Things that happened in the market revolution 1 Technological Revolution 0 Steam engine boats trains Steam engine printing press 2 Transportation Revolution 0 The national road had tolls Erie canal had 88 locks spurred the economy caused economic boom Railroads emerged caused south and north to separate even more caused transformation of information across the north 3 Industrial Revolution 0 Mills for water power hardworking American39s lose their status south is still agricultural north is mainly industrial Switch from rural to urban positive Its more exciting more events more opportunity forjobs higher wages diversity Negative more disease crime resulting from poverty pollution Women working more in factories and in mills mostly immigrant women women denied work once allowed to work they39re excited about it men are not submissive they ght for better pay and better working conditions The American family Splinters of the family tight knit family becomes very fragmented quotunder attackquot Middle class Largely emerging more elaborate homes money to spend on leisure activities people can own servants Circus and theatres become popular also baseball become the quotnational pastimequot Signi cance Sectionalism south remains agriculture north is industrial pre modern subsistence economy to modern industrial economy consumerism diversity capitalist wealth Battle of New Orleans British are trying to take New Orleans The American army outnumber the British 21 Americans slaughter the British After the battle Andrew Jackson is the new idol for the American s Signi cance all the founding fathers are old or dead so having someone to look up to and have hope for was important Americans are nally proud to be Americans Battle of Negro Fort Was initially for Native Americans but they abandoned the fort because they no longer trusted the British Only runaway slaves are left at the fort These slaves are trained in warfare or are innocent civiliansslaves Largest marooned colony in the US They are heavily armed have boats three leaders farms and living comfortably After a year Andrew Jackson will not stand for the fort being alive so contacts Spain for help because he this the Negroes are savages Spain says they are powerless and decline to help Jackson The Battle of Negro Fort 1816 American ship launches cannon into stock of forts blasting powder and 300400 slaves killed It39s another victory underJackson s belt Signi cance First example that the federalists backed up slavery for example of America invading a foreign country and government was actively bene ting slave owners it symbolizes expansion of slavery government supporting slavery
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