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Fundmntls Horticulture

by: Dr. Bria Wolff

Fundmntls Horticulture HORT 101

Dr. Bria Wolff
GPA 3.56

M. Bosela

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M. Bosela
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dr. Bria Wolff on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HORT 101 at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne taught by M. Bosela in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see /class/233527/hort-101-indiana-university-purdue-university-fort-wayne in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Indiana University Purdue University - Fort Wayne.

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Date Created: 11/01/15
HORTICULTURE 101 READING GUIDE PESTS NEMATODES AND INSECTS Chapter 16 pp 431 446 1 What is another name for nematodes What types of root defects are diagnostic of nematode injury Would nematodes be more likely or less likely to be a problem for crops grown hydroponically 2 What are the basic body parts of an insect What polysaccharide is diagnostic of insect exoskeletons 3 What is ovipositioning 4 Why is molting prerequisite for insect growth What are the periods insects between molts termed In metamorphism the morphology of the insect changes between molts What is the difference between a simple and complete metamorphosis What terms are used to describe the immature initial insects for species exhibiting complete metamorphosis What about for all other insects 5 What are the three types of insect mouthparts Give examples of plant pests with each type of mouthpart 6 For each statement below indicate the type of mouthpart for the insect Leaves with elongate scraped areas 7 Portions of the affected leaves removed and digested leaves with tunnels or missing whole sections Leaves with little or no visible external damage but sticky with honeydew 7 7 What are the two secondary problems diseases that may be caused by piercesucking insects 8 What are galls What bene ts do they provide to insects See Stem Damage 9 What are leaf miners and how do they damage leaves Why are they most difficult to control during their feeding stage 10 Why does the prompt removal of dead plant tissues leaves etc contribute to insect control 11 What are biological controls Give some eXplants Is complete elimination of the targeted pest likely Explain 12 What is BT What types of insects are especially susceptible to BT 13 What are the four basic classes of chemical pesticide discussed in the textbook Why are insects with chewing mouthparts and sucking mouthparts differentially susceptible to stomach poisons 14 How can mites be distinguished from insects They are different classes of anthropods What symptoms are diagnostic of spider mite damage What environmental conditions favor spider mite population growth HORT 101 STUDY GUIDE PLANT MORPHOLOGY Chapter 3 pp 30 49 I ROOTS 1 What at the major functions of roots listed in your textbook Can you think of any additional functions 2 What are root hairs where are they localized at on roots and by what mechanism do they facilitate water and nutrient absorption 3 What is a taproot 4 What are adventitious roots Give three examples of adventitious roots II STEMS 1 What nodes and intemodes At what position are buds typically found 2 Tubers are swollen underground stems modified for food storage What characteristics could be used to distinguish a tuber from a tuberous root 3 Corms and bulbs are compacted verticallyoriented sections of stem that are modified for food storage What are the primary differences between corms and bulbs 4 The production of corms and bulbs is limited to what class of owering plants monocots vs dicots 5 What are the two primary horticultural uses for tubers and bulbs NOTE You may have to use your imagination here 6 What are the differences between bulbils and bulblets 7 Stolons and rhizomes are horizontallyorientated stems that are modi ed for vegetative reproduction In what ways do they differ 8 What are runners Give two examples of horticultural crops that produce runners III LEAVES 1 What is the leaf cuticle 2 What are stomata and what is the relationship between guard cells and stomata HORTICULTURE 101 READING GUIDE HORMONES AND PLANT GROWTH I Chapter 11 pp 298 311 Chapter 12 320 326 1 Several types of auxins are listed in the textbook For each indicate its full name acronyms and whether it is synthetic or natural 2 Why are synthetic auxins preferred over natural auxins especially 1AA for most horticultural applications especially when the hormones are exogenously applied 3 What regions or parts of plants have high concentrations of auxin 1AA suggesting a role in auxin synthesis 4 How are auxins used to facilitate the process of stem cutting propagation What speci c auxins appear to be most effective in this role 5 Gibberellins GAs were discovered in the context of research on the foolish seedling disease of rice What role do GAs play in contributing to disease development 6 What is callus and what two classes of plant hormones interact synergistically to induce callus formation in tissue culture 7 What are the five speci c cytokinins discussed in your textbook Which are n produced naturally by plants and which are synthetic What abbreviations are provided 8 What plant organs are major sites for cytokinin biosynthesis 9 For each of the following processes indicate whether cytokinins tend to promote or inhibit the process leaf growth leaf senescence especially at the level of chlorophyll breakdown stem elongation and stem branching 10 What are witches brooms and what is their utility in relation to development of tree and shrub cultivars See also p 90 in the text CHAPTER 12 11 What are the three types of dormancy recognized in your textbook How are they distinguished from one another and which of the three types may be hormonallymediated 12 Explain the contrasting effects of ABA GA and cytokinins on seed and bud dormancy 13 What is apical dominance What are the primary effects of auxins and cytokinins on apical dominance lateral bud growth as determined experimentally 14 Give at least two examples of horticultural crops where growth retardation is desirable and at least two examples where the opposite enhanced elongation is desirable as achieved Via GA application HORTICULTURE 101 READING GUIDE LIGHT AND PLANT GROWTH Chapter 5 l Pigments are molecules that absorb light What four types of pigments are present in chloroplasts Which is directly involved in photosynthesis and which are accessory pigments What are accessory pigments 2 Which portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are considered quotphotosyntheticallyactive Are all wavelengths of light within this range utilized absorbed to an equivalent degree during photosynthesis Please explain HINT See Figure 54 3 What is unique about the process of photosynthesis in plants exhibiting crassulacean acid metabolism termed CAM plants When is carbon dioxide absorbed and what are the chemical products of this initial xation reaction When are cai39 39 J quot 39 J by pl 1 Jutl i day or night How do these metabolic adaptations facilitate water conservation 4 Plants that are grown in the dark for a suf cient length of time to induce changes in their phenotype are said to be etiolated What symptoms are characteristic of the etiolated condition 5 What is blanching What are some of the horticultural uses for blanching discussed in your textbook 6 In the case of fall color development and nutrient deficiencymediated chlorosis does the change in leaf color from green to yellow or orange result from carotenoid biosynthesis with carotenoids being the only plant pigments that confer yellow or orange colors Explain 7 For many lightdependent processes the light detection perception process is mediated by the pigment phytochrome Referring to Fig 523 and the text explain the basis for the photo reversibility of many phytochrome mediated responses in terms of what we know about the molecular behavior of the phytochrome molecule 8 Phytochrome is synthesized in what form Pr or Pfr What is the active form of phytochrome 9 Explain the differences in growth rate under incandescent vs uorescent cool white in terms of differences in proportion of red to far red wavelengths for each light source See p 116 10 What environmental factors affect the degree of anthocyanin production in fruits and leaves in the fall What conditions favor maximal anthocyanin synthesis See also p 49 on Fall leaf coloration ll Define the terms light compensation point and light saturation point 12 In general plants should not be abruptly transferred between environments differing significantly in light intensity To avoid injury or death the plants must be acclimated to the new light environment prior to transfer Can you explain acclimization in terms of the concept of sun and shade leaves


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