P101 Exam 3 Study Guide
P101 Exam 3 Study Guide PSY 101
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nowak Notetaker on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Thomassen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
MKNOWAK Exam 3 study guide Sensation and Perception Sensation: translating messages (stim) from environment • Sensory neurons • (first) Perception: producing stable interpretations of translated messages • (then) Stim -‐> sensation (physical) -‐>perception (higher order psychological part) -‐> response Sensation: building blocks of experience • data driven ( real info) • bottom-‐up processing • physical • translating the message Perception: experience of stim/events • conceptually driven (from mind) • top-‐down processing (organizing data mentally) • psychological • producing stable interpretations Optical Illusions show the difference btwn sensation and perception • sensory info has not changes • perception changes • we see in 2D and perceive in 3D (depth perception) Hollow Mask Illusion • ignore monocular depth cues of shading MKNOWAK • shadows overridden by top-‐down processing (expectations of reality) Schools Structuralism – Wundt, Fechner, Weber = experiences from basic senses SENSATION Gestaltists (form) = organize principals of visual PERCEPTION -‐ fundamental and innate -‐ how we experience as whole, rather than pieces Sensation • afferent • Axn potentials respond to stim Sight: vision -‐ electromagnetic energy -‐ wavelengths of light Sound: hearing -‐ physical -‐ sound waves thru air Touch -‐ physical -‐ pressure on receptors Smell -‐ chemical -‐ molecules in air or liquid Taste -‐ chemical -‐ molecules on tongue receptors MKNOWAK Transduction: going from physical world (external stim) to the language of the mind (neural impulses) • allows brain to manipulate enviro data • ex) photoreceptors detect light, but eye and brain detect image Transduction occurs w/in photoreceptors (create neural impulses) 400nm-‐700nm: visual colors short=violet/blue medium=yellow/green long=red Rods (about 120 mill/eye) • sensitive to low light, mvmnt • outer eye (peripheral) Cones (about 6 mill/eye) • sensitive to fine detail (visual acuity), color • densely packed in center (fovea) Blind Spot = no receptor cells to transduce visual message • loc: optic nerve leaves back of eye(retina) Dark Adaption Photopigments in photoreceptors chemically react to light • break down in bright • regenerate after low light (=adaption) Processing in Retina (ganglion cells) • tuned respond to specific “trigger” • brightness/contrast/lateral field • receptive fields across retina • magicians and pick pocketers Visual Cortex = neurons pick up and process features MKNOWAK • feature detectors = cells that respond to very specific visual events • damage = prosopagnosia (failure of face recognition) Color Vision Trichromatic Theory • 3 types of cones (blue, red, green) • colors sensed = comparing activation of colors (most are a mix of the colors) • wrong kind of photopigment in cones= certain color blindness Opponent Processes Theory • receptors respond positive to one color and negative to complementary color (afterimages) • yellow – blue • red – green • black – white Stable Interpretations • inborn tendencies • bottom-‐up = physical messages • top-‐down = belief of expectations 5 laws of visual organization (Gestalt) **all TOP-‐DOWN** Proximity = closeness -‐ processed as unit similarity -‐ similar = associated Good Continuity -‐ continuation of lines MKNOWAK Closure -‐ closed figures favored over open Common Fate -‐ moving in same direction = group together Depth Cues Monocular depth cues require input from one eye • anything used in drawing 3D object (relative size, overlap, linear perspective, shading, haze) Binocular depth cues require 2 eyes • Retinal Disparity: diff btwn location of images in each retina • Convergence: how far eyes turn inward to focus on object Phi Phenomenon = illusion of mvmnt when stationary lights are flashed in succession • Apparent motion • Assume motion w/o actual movement • Movies, flipbooks Perceptual Constancy =perceiving properties of an object to remain the same even tho physical properties of sensory message are changing • Perception(mind) of objects far more constant or stable than our retinal images(physical) • top-‐down • sensory messages unstable • size constancy (ex: someone walking away) • Shape constancy (ex: door closing) MKNOWAK Sound Sound is mechanical energy (vibrating stim) -‐ speed of vibrations = Frequency (various pitches) -‐ Intensity of vibrations = Amp (volumes) Transduction: sound energy -‐> neural impulses • Loc: cochlea • Receptor cells: basilar membrane hair cells Localization= compare difference in arrival times and loudness btwn ears Touch Mechanical prs on cell -‐ Pressure-‐sensitive receptor cells in skin Pain “ Close the Gate ” : brain can block pn signals from reaching higher impulses • Signals stopped in spinal cord • Brain releases endorphins Vestibular Sense • Semicircular canals = mvmnt, acceleration • Vestibular sacs = balance Taste and Smell Chemoreceptors ( chemical stim) Taste = actual sensation produced (physical, bottom-‐up) Flavor = influenced by taste, smell, visual, expectation (psychological, top-‐down) Sensations absolute threshold = level of intensity that lifts stim enough for rxn/aware MKNOWAK sensory adaption = reduce sensitivity to stim source that remains constant -‐ more sensitive when stim first arrives Weber’s Law = when the just noticeable difference (jnd) for stim magnitude is constant proportion of size of standard stim -‐ stronger standard stim = larger increase needed -‐ jnd depends on how intense standard was -‐ relationship btwn physical and psychological not always direct Consciousness = subjective awareness of internal and external events -‐ limitation of awareness -‐ William James Attention = internal processes used to set priorities for mental functioning -‐ Selectively focus on some while ignoring others -‐ ex) Dichotic Listening Task = cannot listen to both stories -‐ non-‐conscious screening Dichotic Listening Task = different auditory messages presented separately and simultaneously to each ear -‐ cannot attend to both messages (ignore one) Cocktail Party Effect = shut out everything except our conscious awareness -‐ self-‐relevant makes it into consciousness (someone yelling name) Automaticity = Fast and effortless processing w/o attention -‐ requires little or no focus MKNOWAK -‐ more automatic process = less likely consciously aware -‐ more consciousness available for developing new and creative demands Disorders of Attention Visual Neglect: tendency to ignore things on one side of body (usually left) • damage to right parietal lobe • complex disorder • symp: read only one page, dress one side Blindsight: unaware of perceiving stimuli w/in area of visual field • damage to primary visual cortex Prosopagnosia: unable to recognize familiar faces ADHD: difficulties in concentrating or sustaining attention • distractible, cannot finish tasks • psychological disorder Hypnosis = heightened state of suggestibility in a willing participant (social interaction) -‐ Franz Mesmer -‐ Control pn, reduce smoking, improve athletic performance, treating psychological disorders -‐ NOT deep sleep -‐ EEG brain activity resembles waking state Sleep = most common form of consciousness • Reversible state • EEG (monitors electrical activity of brain) = technology used to know when someone is asleep • Circadian rhythms = biological activities that rise and fall in accordance w/ ~24 hr cycle MKNOWAK o Controlled automatically by biological clocks triggering needed activities at appropriate times o Mini cycle = 12 hrs o Normal cycle = little more than 24 hrs o Reg rhythm of sleepiness and wakefulness o Environmental factors including: light, temp, social o traveling eastward = against rhythms • sleep deprivation: hallucinations start @ day 4, disrupt ability to regulate internal functions (temp), loss of weight, immune system and organs fail Sleep maintenance (restorative) = helps repair normal wear and tear Survival Value (Adaptive) = removes organism from hostile • short sleepers (grazers) = predators • long sleepers • less sleep = more food Sleep Cycle • brain waves become slower and more reg & more amp, but during REM it resembles awake state Each REM ~90 mins (~4/5x during night) Awake & drowsy = alpha waves Stage 1 = theta (easily awaken) Stage 2 = (transitional) interrupted via sleep spindles (short) and K complexes (sudden, sharp) Stage 3&4 = delta activity (high activity) synchronized, slow waves -‐majority of sleep in stages 3&4 REM = replaces awake stage (looks similar) • dominates later stages • dreaming • physiological changes MKNOWAK • low-‐amp irregular EEG patterns REM Rebound = increase time spent in REM to make up for REM deprivation Alternate views of Dreams Problem Solving Threat stimulation Activation-‐synthesis Hypothesis = brains attempt to make sense of random patterns of neural activity • subconscious thoughts • high order functions • problem solving Freudian View of Dreams = wish-‐fulfillment of the unconscious (especially sexual desire) • dream in symbols • manifest content = actual symbols/events in dream • latent content = hidden desires Sleep Disorders Dyssomia = problems w/amount, timing, & quality of sleep -‐ Insomnia = difficulty starting or maintain sleep (> month) -‐ Sleep Apnea = sleeper repeatedly stops breathing t/o night -‐ Narcolepsy = sudden extreme sleepiness Parasomonias = abnormal sleep disturbances -‐ Nightmares = frightening, anxiety-‐arousing dreams awaken sleeper • primarily during REM • frequent => psychological disorder -‐ Night Terrors = sleeper awakens suddenly in extreme state of panic • non-‐REM MKNOWAK • goes away w/age -‐ Sleepwalking = sleeper wanders • non-‐REM • goes away w/age -‐ Hypnic Myoclania = jerk to jump start • brain sends signal to wake up body Drugs and Sleep Psychoactive drugs = affect behavior & mental processes thru alterations of conscious awareness -‐ change communication channels of neurons -‐ mimic neurotransmitters (nicotine) -‐ depress/block (sleeping pills) tolerance: increase amounts needed to produce effect -‐ long term depression, anhedonia dependency: physical or psychological need for drug -‐ physical dependency = withdrawal mental set: expectations of drug -‐ familiarity, enviro, physical state influence Drugs: • depressants (decrease CNS) o alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers (Valium, Xanax) • Stimulants (increase CNS) o Caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine • Opiates (decrease CNS) -‐> decrease anxiety and pain, increase mood o Mimic brain chemicals (endorphins) o Strong physical and psychological attachment/dependency MKNOWAK o Opium, heroin, morphine • Hallucinogens (disrupt normal mental&emotional functioning) o Alter perception o Mescaline, psilocybin, LSD Memory = capacity to preserve and recover info Processes: • Encoding (how formed) • Storage (how kept) • Retrieval (how recovered and translated into performance) 3 phases • sensory • working memory (STM) • long-‐term memory (LTM) Sensory Memory Iconic (Visual) Echoic (Auditory) Eidetic (Photographic) • iconic memory • big difference: persists in time • 2-‐6% children have this Memory = capacity to preserve and recover info encoding = how formed storage = how maintained retrieval = how recovered & translated into performance MKNOWAK Atkinson/Shiffrin Model Sensory Memory = exact replica, lasts < 1 sec Working Memory / STM = hold info temporarily, rapidly forgotten w/o rehearsal Long Term Memory Sensory Memory Iconic: visual, lingering trace Echoic: auditory, lingering echo Eidetic: photographic • iconic memory • big difference: persists in time • 2-‐6% children have • generally fades @ ages 5/6 Sperling Tachistoscope = visual displays fore carefully controlled durations Working/STM • temporarily stored MKNOWAK • “seat of consciousness” = what we are aware of @ the moment • duration ~ 5 seconds • allows for conversation and to read Increasing STM Capacity • maintenance rehearsal: repeat info in form its presented o only 1 cue (less desirable for LTM) o interference ends attention • chunking: rearranging incoming info into meaningful/familiar patterns o hold 7+/-‐ 2 chunks of info STM Lost • Decay: memories not kept active & lost overtime • Interference: form new w/old LTM (encoded) = maintain info for extended periods of time -‐ duration & capacity “limitless” Declarative (or Cognitive) Memory • explicit (conscious willful recall) Semantic: knowledge about world w/ no specific reference to particular past episode -‐ general info, undated -‐ ex) facts, rules, questions on exams Episodic: particular events or episodes that happened personally to us -‐ episodes of life, dated images, emotions Procedural Memory = knowledge on how to do something -‐ Implicit (remembering w/o conscious awareness) -‐ ex) sports, driving MKNOWAK Elaboration = encoding process of actively relating new info to existing info already stored in LTM • assists in retrieving info later • deep processing improves recall • deep= self-‐relevant, elaboration, concerned w/meaning • shallow= simple, flash cards mnemonics give retrieval cues consolidation allows memories to form while sleeping Mnemonic Devices = mental tricks that help people think about material in ways that improve later material Flashbulb Memories = rich records of circumstances surrounding emotionally significant and surprising events • NOT accurate: schema guides encoding & combine present w/past Visual Imagery: construct internal visual image Distributed Practice: space out repetitions -‐ memory records more elaborate and distinctive Serial Positions Primacy Effect = Proactive Interference -‐ remember beginning list best -‐ old (first heard) over new (last heard) Reccency Effect = Retroactive Interference -‐ remember end of lost -‐ new (last heard) interferes w/ old (first heard) Context-‐Dependent Encoding = same enviro for encoding and retrieval MKNOWAK State-‐Dependent Encoding = encoding in particular state eases retrieval when in same state -‐ mood dependent Transfer-‐Appropriate Processing = encoding and retrieval use same kind of mental Processes -‐ constant conditions Free Recall: remember info w/o explicit retrieval cues • essay, fill in blank Cued Recall: remember based on retrieval cue provided • recognition rather than recall • produces better performance/results • multiple choice, word bank Effective Recall: when encoding and retrieval cues match Encoding Failure • info never encoded into LTM • STM loss due to decay or interference Forgetting = loss of accessibility to previously stored material • Cue-‐dependent • Must continuously update memory • Main cause: failure to use right retrieval cues Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve • Longer delay = longer time needed to recall Retroactive Interference = Receny • new interferes w/ old MKNOWAK • end list favored Proactive Interference =Primacy • old prevents new • begin list favored Amnesia = forgetting due to physiological damage or trauma -‐ Retrograde: don’t remember prior to event o Recover slowly -‐ Anterograde: don’t remember after event o Can’t form new o Memento o “10 – second Tom” MKNOWAK
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