BIO 400: Exam 2 Study Guide
BIO 400: Exam 2 Study Guide BIO 400
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 400 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Paul Gold in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Biology of Adaptive Behaviors in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Identify or define these terms: (Your answers should include enough information to reveal application to this course.) YerkesDodson law Empirical relationship between arousal and performance Relationship between performance and arousal (Inverted U) Increased arousal can improve performance to a certain degree, when arousal becomes excessive performance diminishes. Microdialysis: Tells the concentration of a molecule of interest within an area of the brain do a surgery on the brain put the probe in the brain inject any neurotransmitter (anolyte) in the probe which expels in the brain perfusing different concentrations of neurotransmitter so the concentration in the brain and the conc in the probe is equal net flux = 0 Zeronetflux method: During microdialysis, at least 4 different concentrations of analyte are used, state where the the rate of neurotransmitter leaving the probe is equal to the rate entering NE as a modulator (neurophysiological evidence): at baseline you have 5 cells firing, if you add NE doesnt change add glutamate more cells fire glutamate + NE = MANY CELLS FIRING ● NE alone has no effect, therefore it is a modulation ● NE + Glutamate is excitatory NE + GABA = Few Cells firing Can act as an inhibitor as well Depends on the neurotransmitter its paired with Astrocytes and Memory: astrocytes are glial cells found in the brain capture glucose turn into glycogen ● activated by neurotransmitters glycogen is found in astrocytes helps produce lactate for energy use by the neurons during memory enhancement stores glycogen breaks down glycogen to lactate glycogen is better because it won’t diffuse in as much to explode Glycogenolysis and memory: Breakdown of glycogen and converted to glucose Provides source of energy when demand is high Astrocytes store glycogen DAB blocks the breakdown of glycogen to lactate Lactate and Memory: lactate drug→ inverted U response curve adding 4cin blocks the uptake of glycogen to the neuron by inhibiting MCT2 activity DAB blocks the breakdown of glycogen epinephrine (EPI) neurotransmitter (released by adrenal glands into the blood, does not reach brain) used for memory enhancement (acts as a second messenger) increases blood glucose levels→ glucose enters brain to reg. memory Retrograde enhancement of memory posttraining: training → treatment → test enhancing memory after the experience ANTEROGRADE Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create nememories after the event that caused the amnesia , leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while longterm memories from before the event remain intact. Monocarboxylate transporter: Transporter that takes lactate from astrocyte and brings it to the neuron MCT1 brings lactate out of astrocyte, MCT2 allows uptake of lactate into neuron 4cin inhibits MCT2 activity Serial model of memory consolidation everything goes in order Stimulus → sensory organ → shortterm memory (some lost before converted to LTM) → longterm memory → conscious thought STM DECAYS RAPIDLY PARALLEL AS YOU LOSE SHORT TERM MEMORY..LONG TERM IS FORMING. What symptoms were displayed by WWII soldiers with head injuries? a. anterograde amnesia was seen but uncommon; retrograde amnesia was seen in all patients b. retrograde amnesia was seen but uncommon; anterograde amnesia was seen in all patients. c. anterograde and retrograde amnesia were both seen and extended for the length of time the soldier was in battle d. anterograde and retrograde amnesia were both seen and extended for the same length of time in all soldiers e. anterograde and retrograde amnesia were both seen and extended for different lengths of time depending on the amount of brain damage An overworked undergraduate acquires 3 pills of a new memoryenhancing drug called StuckInHead. The suggested dose is 1 pill but this student feels she/he needs all the help possible and takes all 3 pills when studying the night before an exam. Compared to what would have happened without the pill, how does the student do on the exam? a. The student does great. The 3 pills worked just as well as 1 would have. b. The student does super! The 3 pills worked better than 1 would have. c. The student does okay. The 3 pills didn't do much at all. Just a waste of money. d. The student does awful. The 3 pills seemed to erase the content of any studying he/she had done. e. The student had to go Health Service and missed the exam. There is of course no ‘right’ answer for this fictitious scenario. Please explain whichever answer you pick. Depends on the invertedU. If suggested dose is 1 pill, any amount taken greater than this will have decreased ability to improve memory. Depending on toxicity of the drug, 3 pills may potentially be toxic. Glucose has which of the following effects that may contribute to modulation of memory. a. increases neurotransmitter release b. decreases neurotransmitter release c. yperpolarizes neurons d. provides energy to hardworking neurons a. decreases neuronal glycogen levels b. increases neuronal glycogen levels What evidence leads researchers to believe that epinephrine enhances learning and memory processing and not by other actions such as increasing sensory acuity or motivation for learning? posttraining experiments No other factors that could influence performance on training that could explain later improvements/impairments on tests of memory because no lingering effects of drug ex. Can avoid interpretations of enhanced memory as a result of lingering effects of a drug if can demonstrate that memory enhancement evident when drug administered 24h before testing but not 20 h before testing a. What is the posttraining design, common in studies of memory consolidation? b. What are the benefits of the design as compared to a pretraining design? Professors Mnemona Reef and Engram Ingot cannot agree on very much. Professor Reef tested the effects of estrogens on memory. In discussing her findings, she noted, “These results prove that estrogens improve memory.” Her colleague, Professor Ingot also tested the effects of estrogens on memory. In discussing his findings, he said, “Pshaw. That’s not what I found. My results prove that estrogens impair memory.” What experiments do you think the good Professors might have done to get such opposite results? If they asked you to resolve their differences, what would you tell them? wasn’t this on the last quiz? The good professors used an adequate amount of estrogens, while on the other hand Professor Ingot probably used too much estrogen therefore impairing memory. Investigators perform an experiment to examine the timedependent processes of memory formation. Specifically, rats are trained using the inhibitory avoidance paradigm and then treated with an amnesiainducing drug 1, 2, or 12 hours later. The retention latency of the rats is tested 48 hours after training. They find that rats receiving the drug 1 or 2 hours after training have no memory for the task, whereas those receiving the drug 12 hours after training have maximum retention latencies. They publish a paper arguing that memory consolidation for inhibitory avoidance learning in rats takes between 2 and 12 hours. Do you agree with the conclusions made by the investigators? Why or why not? Some talking points/hints. a. Would you expect the same results if a much lower dose of the drug were used? Why or why not? lower dose would stop inducing amnesia before 12 hours b. What do you think would happen if a much higher dose were used? h igher dose would stop inducing amnesia after 12 hours results would tell us properties of the drug used, not of memory consolidation because of the variability variability of decay gradients makes this conclusion debatable Do you remember what clothes you wore on the second day of class? Why or why not? If not, describe a situation in which you would have remembered what you wore? Using s pecific information from research on the neurobiology of memory, explain what would lead (or did lead) to remembering what you wore. A: What you were wearing on the second day of class was a minor detail in the grand scheme of the course. Unless something major happened which drew attention to the outfit, there would not be a reason for your brain to commit it to memory. However, let’s say that the professor commented on how much he liked how your shirt matched your pants, then you would most likely remember it because of the event associated with it. Something would have to have happened which was out of the ordinary involving the outfit in question in order for your brain to recall it so easily. ← No evidence, just remember professor talking about something of this nature. Feel free to completely prove me wrong on this haha. ^^I think that’s a good explanation. But I think it can be made even more specific if any other big event occurs on that day ex. you get in a car accident, this will also make you more likely to remember what you were wearing that day due to the flashbulb memory. However, because flashbulb memory can lead to the formation of false memories, what you thought you wore that day might not actually be correct. Lecture 10 Damage Hippocampus can’t do PlaceStriatum works harder to compensate Damage Striatum can’t do ResponseHippocampus works harder to compensate Damage Amygdala Can’t do CCPHippocampus works harder to compensate Lidocaine inactivates hippocampus ● Improves Response Tasks ● Hinders Place Tasks Acute Stress ● Improves Response ● Hinders Place Young Rats prefer using place strategy Old Rats prefer using response strategy There is no difference in learning rates between Old and Young rats. They just prefer different methods of achieving the goal. Place vs Response. After doing Place vs Response tests after a while the rats will eventually use response significantly more. HPLC High Performance Liquid Chromatography ACSF Artificial Cerebrospinal Fluid Microdialysis Surgery that uses diffusion to determine the concentration of a chemical in the brain. In CCP the hippocampus releases a lot of ach...therefore it beats out the amygdala Lecture 11 Memory Consolidation StimulusSensory Organs(Eyes,Ears,Touch)sensory memoryshort term memorylong term memory. Sensory Memorymillisecond to 1 second Short term memory seconds to hours Long term memory days, weeks, years Long lasting memoryLifetime Retrograde Amnesia: is a loss of memoryaccess to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease. To test Retrograde: Train Wait up to 6 hours Damage Brain Wait 24 hours Test INHIBITORY AVOIDANCE TRAINING Stay in the light area the mice have to learn that the dark area shocks them Retrograde Amnesia Gradient:recent memories are more likely to be lost than the more remote memories. Short term memory decay gradient treat first and see how long it takes to consolidate the memories. Epinephrine enhancement avoidance training???? Smart Drugs??? any memory enhacning drugs aderol/ridilon glucose Long Term Potentiation???? Lecture 12 Epinephrine enhances memory Inverted U curve of learning Epinephrine creates more glucose in the peripheral body Glucose follows the pattern of the inverted U YerkesDodson The relationship between stress and memory YerkesDodson is also an inverted U curve The simpler the task the better performance with high amounts of stress medium shock intensity is best for learning rather than low or high The more difficult the task the more important of the middle amount of stress Stress is not good for spatial memory aka Place response stress hinders Glucose in the brain!! To determine one uses microdialysis extracellular glucose concentration is determined by zeroflux: During microdialysis, at least 4 different concentrations of analyte are used, state where the the rate of neurotransmitter leaving the probe is equal to the rate entering Glucose enhances spontaneous alternation and spatial memory in rats Maze testing depletes glucose in the hippocampus of rats Lecture 13 neurotransmitters and memory The glucose enables ach to be released more in hippocampus and enhances memory. In normal untreated rats, the normal amount of glucose, doesn’t increase the amount of ach being released. Norepinephrine and Glutamate= More synapse firing than either by itself Norepinephrine and GABA= Less firing than that of either by itself Heat creates shorter wavelength and higher frequency Cold creates longer wavelength and smaller frequency Lecture 14 ASTROCYTIC REGULATION OF MEMORY PROCESSING VIA GLYCOGEN Glycogen is found in astrocytes but not neurons Astrocyte: a starshaped glial cell of the central nervous system. Diagram?????? Biosensor used for lactate measurements: The biosensor contains a layer of lactate oxidase, which selectively breaks down lactate. The hydrogen peroxide produced is measured via electron transfer to a platinum wire in the probe. Glucose can be made from lactate. Glucose is a monosaccharide Glycogen is a disaccharide
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