PHI 197: Exam 1 Review
PHI 197: Exam 1 Review PHI 197
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 197 at Syracuse University taught by Joe Hedger in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Philosophy of Human Nature in PHIL-Philosophy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
PHI 197: Human Nature Exam Questions: Unit One 1. What is Plato’s allegory of the cave? (Tell the story and explain what Plato means y it.) Plato has Socrates describe a gathering of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them, and begin to designate names to these shadows. The shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality. He then explains how the philosopher is like a prisoner who is freed from the cave and comes to understand that the shadows on the wall do not make up reality at all, as he can perceive the true form of reality rather than the mere shadows seen by the prisoners. → Therefore, Plato supports the idea that reality is perception: anything you believe to be real seemingly is real, however it is just perception. 2. In the story of the divided line, Plato says reality can be divided into four different levels. What is the highest level of reality according to Plato? Why does he think this level is the “most real”? How do we come to know the objects of this level? Why don’t physical objects ever give us knowledge? Socrates asks Glaucon to not only envision this unequally bisected line but to imagine further bisecting each of the two segments. Socrates explains that the four resulting segments represent four separate 'affections' of the psycThere are 3 long straight lines, one is longer than the other 2. Plato explains there are 4 different levels of reality Plato’s Heaven part of the visible world 1. Images→ understood by imagining 2. isible Thing→ belief 3. athematical Objects numbers→ understand by reasoning 4. Forms understand by knowledge ( wise/ intelligent people) (5.)The Good Intelligence ● highest one is the hardest to understand, but are “better” ● believes artists and poets are liers Socrates uses his Theory of the Forms to explain his belief that the form of Intelligence is the most real. A Form, unlike qualities in this world, is perfectly itself and does not admit its opposite. ● The Argument of Opposites (correlatives) ● “everything comes out of its opposite” ○ The Form of Beauty does not possess any ugliness at all ● The Theory of Recollection ● “learning is essentially an act of recollecting things we knew before we were born but then forgot” ○ true knowledge= the knowledge of the eternal and unchanging forms that underline perceptible reality ● Form of Equality= innate understanding of what it means for something to be equal even though no 2 things we encounter in experience are “perfectly” equal ● The Argument from Affinity ● “Immortal vs living”distinguishes between those things that are immaterial, invisible, and immortal, and those things that are material, visible, and perishable → Since the Form of Life does not in any way include its opposite—death—the soul cannot in any way be tainted by death. Thus, Socrates concludes, the soul must be immortal. 3. What are the 3 parts of the soul, according to Plato? How are they related in the just person? What are the 3 classes of a society which the parts correspond to? Tripartite souHuman soul has 3 parts ● inner conflict between each part→ similar to Freudian levels of consciousness ○ Reason/ Rational thought processing and reasoning ■ most important part of the soul ○ Spiritua beliefs and emotions ○ Pleasure/Appetitiv physical needs: hunger, libido, thirst ■ wild, and hard to control ● A good person= one whose soul is in balance with reason at the realm of harmony: they will have a wellbalanced personality Reason controls both spirit and appetite, and only this part is immortal. The other 2 parts are subject to die. 3 Classes of Society: People are by nature more inclined to be one of these classes of society. A productive society is pyramid shaped, where less will be at the top. ● If people are naturally suited to be in that class, then society is heading in a progressive direction ● ruling class= the Philosopher’s class → women can also be apart of this elite 4. Why is Socrates not afraid of death? Socrates is not afraid of death because a true philosopher should look forward to death. Philosophical life’s purpose is to free the soul from the needs of the body.Death is the realization of one’s aim: the final separation of soul and body. Thus he concludes the soul belongs to the former category and the body to the latter. The soul, then, is immortal, although this immortality may take very different forms. 5. According to Plato’s dualism, there are two kinds of things which exist. What are they, and how are they different from each other? Dualism: the body and soul (2 realms) ● Philosophical life’s Purpose to free the soul from the needs of the body ● Death= realization of one’s aim: the final separation of soul and body: body dies and soul lives on (immortal) 1. The Argument of Opposites (correlatives) ● “everything comes out of its opposite” ○ life and death are opposites reason that the living become dead and the dead become living ○ life and death are in a perpetual cycle death cannot be a permanent end 2. The Theory of Recollection ● “learning is essentially an act of recollecting things we knew before we were born but then forgot” ○ true knowledge= the knowledge of the eternal and unchanging forms that underline perceptible reality 3. Form of Equality= innate understanding of what it means for something to be equal even though no 2 things we encounter in experience are “perfectly” equal ● since we can grasp this Form of Equality without encountering it in experience, our understanding must be a recollection of immortal knowledge we previously had and forgotten form another life ● this argument implies that the soul must have existed prior to birth, which in turn implies that the soul’s life extends beyond that of the body’s the immortal soul 4.The Argument from Affinity ● “Immortal vs living”distinguishes between those things that are immaterial, invisible, and immortal, and those things that are material, visible, and perishable ○ the soul belongs to the former category and the body to the latter. The soul, then, is immortal, although this immortality may take very different forms ○ a soul that is not properly detached from the body will become a ghost that will long to return to the flesh, while the philosopher’s detached soul will dwell free in the heavens 6. What are 3 ways in which Aristotle disagreed with his mentor, Plato? Plato Aristotle Dualism: body and soul 2 realms Materialism: only body1 realm of visible Forms: can take on different forms Composites: form & matter Rationalism: knowledge is recollection → Empiricism: all knowledge comes from the senses→ emphasis on innate understanding of the emphasis on learning world Behaviorism: Naturalism: conditioning: reward and punishment slowly recall what was forgotten * Experience understand concept, then taught how to utilize concept Tripartite sou Human soul has 3 parts The Essence of the soul: Nutritive and Sensitive souls ● inner conflict between each part→ Matter, Form, & Composition of Both similar to Freudian levels of ● Potentiality (= proximate matter*) Human consciousness Body** → can NOT separate ○ Reason/ Rational thought 1. First actuality (= formal cause) processing and reasoning Human Soul*** ■ most important part of 2. Second actuality Living Well**** the soul ● The nature of the nutritive and sensitive souls: ● All species of living things, plant or ○ Spiritua beliefs and emotions ○ Pleasure/Appetitive physical animal, must be able to nourish needs: hunger, libido, thirst themselves and reproduce others of the same kind. ■ wild, and hard to control ● All animals have, in addition to the nutritive power, senseperception, and thus they all have at least the sense of touch, which he argues is presupposed ● A good person= one whose soul is in by all other senses, and the ability to feel balance with reason at the realm of pleasure and pain, which is the simplest harmony kind of perception. Hierarchy of Soul Functions: ○ Mind → locomotive → appetitive → sensory → nutritive Society: destined to be part of a certain class Society: 7. What did Aristotle claim was the ultimate good and end goal for human beings? What reasons does he give in support of this? Aristotle believes there is some ultimate good which is both final and selfsufficient, and he defines this good as happiness. He believes there must be one final end of all human actions, because a human action by definition is one which is done on purpose and for a definite goal. ○ Happiness is the highest good and the end at which all our activities ultimately aim. All our activities aim at some end, though most of these ends are means toward other ends. Only happiness is an end in itself, so it is the ultimate end at which all our activities aim. As such, it is the supreme good. ○ An action may be performed for a limited goal, but that goal is a means to larger goal which is a means to another even larger goal, and so on, until one reaches the final goal which is desired for its own sake. ○ All lesser goods, such as wealth, honor, fame, glory, pleasure, et cetera are not desired for themselves but in order to attain happiness. 8. What rule of thumb does Aristotle give as a guide to being virtuous? Be sure to give an example and explain what he means. The Golden Mean is the rule of thumb given to guide us to being virtuous. Aristotle defines moral virtue as disposition to behave in the right manner & a mean between extremes of deficiency and excess: vic. We learn moral virtue through habit and practice rather than through reasoning and instruction. Virtue is a matter of having the appropriate attitude toward pain and pleasure. For example, a coward will suffer undue fear in the face of danger, whereas a rash person will not suffer sufficient fear. A virtuous person exhibits all of the virtues: they do not properly exist as distinct qualities but rather as different aspects of a virtuous life. 9. According to Aristotle, only humans can be truly happy. Why does he think this? "Happiness is a bringing of the soul to the act according to the habit of the best and most perfect virtue, that is, the virtue of the speculative intellect, borne out by easy surroundings and enduring to the length of days" Aristotle determines the ultimate good for man by examining a human being's highest capacities ○ The happiness of man can be defined by determining the function proper to man: this function cannot be one which plants and animals also perform, because it must be particular to human beings. ○ Therefore, man's function must be a part of the practical life of the rational part of man, the term practical implying purposeful conduct, which is possible only for rational beings. ○ 10. How do we become virtuous according to Aristotle? By achieving the Golden Mean of virtue we are virtuous. Moral virtues are acquired only by exercising them: just as skill in the arts and crafts is acquired only through To constitute true happiness this action must persist with continuity throughout a lifetime → while ethical virtue is action in accord with reasointellectual virtue is superior because it employs reasonthe highest part of manin contemplation of the best objects which man has the ability to know. Since it is the most continuous activity, the most pleasant virtuous activity, the most selfsufficient activity, and the only activity which is loved for its own sake, contemplation is the sole operation which meets all of the qualifications of happiness. 11. What is the method Descartes uses in hisMeditations? What is the end goal of using this method? He employs the Method of Doubt in his Meditations. His idea oFoundationalism is → view of knowledge is that things are built off of one another. Descartes was worried that basics of science are taken for granted… he wants to have a full understanding of what is known truly exists, and that the assumptions are true. → End goal is to have a true understanding that he is certain about something. Therefore, there is some reason to doubt my foundation belief, and thus all my beliefs about the world are doubtful; none of them can serve as the foundation for science. ○ All of the ideas that I form through imagination are composed out of components that come from the senses. Nothing is in the imagination that was not first in the senses. ○ I sense pain and pleasure in my body, but not in objects external to me. 12. What is Descartes’s Dreaming argument? What is it supposed to show? Dreaming argument is to go against first argument: → Reasons for doubting that these things show that material objects exist. ● senses are misleading, and you can believe you are feeling things that exist that don’t ● false sense of having senses→ must be dreaming! ● you are able to deceive yourself: dream seems and feels real ○ I may be constituted by nature so as to be deceived about things I think I see clearly → There may be some unknown faculty in me that produces these ideas in me even against my will. → Wants to understand what is real and how it is proven to be real 13. What is Descartes’s Evil Demon argument? What is it supposed to show? 1. Only an imperfect (less than perfectly good) being could practice deliberate deception. Therefore, God is no deceiver. 2. Since my faculty of judgment comes from God, I can make no mistake as long as I use it properly. But it is not an infinite facu I make mistakes when I judge things that I don't really know. 3. God also gave me free will which is infinite and therefore extends beyond my finite intellect This is why it i possible to deceive myself: I am free to jump to conclusions or to proclaim as knowledge things that I don't know with absolute certainty. 4. I therefore know now that if I know something with absolute certainty (clearly and distinctly), then I cannot be mistaken, because God is no deceiver. The correct way to proceed is to avoid mistakes and limit my claims to knowledge to those things I know clearly and distinctly. 14. What is the one thing which Descartes claims we can be certain of? Why does he say this? He believes that we can be certain that the experimenter exists because the mind exists. If all my beliefs about the world are doubtful, is there any truth which can be absolutely certain? Yes. Even if all of my experience is an illusion, it cannot be doubted that the experience is taking place. And this means that I, the experiencer, must exist. ● It is possible that all knowledge of external objects, including my body, could be false as the result of the actions of an evil demon. It is not, however, possible that I could be deceived about my existence or my nature as a thinking thing. → Introduction to the problem of the existence of material things. ● I know that material objects exist insofar as they are objects of pure mathematics, since I clearly and distinctly perceive the mathematical primary properties of corporeal objects. ● It also seems that my imagination gives me evidence of the existence of external objects. Therefore, we must investigate this faculty. ● Since the only evidence I have that I exist is that I am thinking (experiencing), then it is also absolutely certain that I am a thing that thinks (experiences), that is, a mind. The wax argument: ● All the properties of the piece of wax that we perceive with the senses change as the wax melts. → This is true as well of its primary properties such as shape, extension, and size. ● Yet the wax remains the same piece of wax as it melts. ● Implies tha we know through our mind and faculty of judgment, not through our senses or imagination → every act of clear and distinct knowledge of corporeal matter also provides even more certain evidence for the existence and nature of ourselves as thinking things. → our mind is much more clearly and distinctly known to us than our body. ** humans are conscious- we have a mind, we think, we can not doubt this because we can reason with it 15. Explain one reason Descartes gives in order to demonstrate that our minds and bodies are distinct. → The distinction of mind and body. The argument from knowledge ● If I clearly and distinctly understand one thing as distinct from another it is so. ● I am certain that I exist as a thinking thing, while I am not certain of the existence of my body. → I am a thinking thing and nothing else. My mind is distinct from my body. The argument from extension ● I am a thing that thinks and not an extended thing. ● I have a distinct idea of body as an extended thing. → My mind is distinct from my body. FINAL CONCLUSION: The argument that material objects exist. 1. I can understand myself without imagination and sense, but I cannot understand imagination and sense without attributing them to a thing that thinks. 2. Movement is a power of mine, but movement is a power only of extended things Therefore, 3. It seems that although I am essentially a thinking thing, I am not only a thinking thing. It at least seems to me that I also have an extended body, but we must now see how we can be certain of this. 4. I not only have the power of passive sense, of examining the contents of my mind, but I also have active sense, the power of originating ideas within my mind. This faculty of active sense cannot be within me for two reasons: ● No intellection is required for this active sensing. ● These ideas come to me by active sense against my will. → 5. This faculty is in a substance other than myself. 6. This substance must have as much reality as the objective reality of the ideas it produces. → 7. This substance must be either God or an external extended body. 8. God is no deceiver. 9. He created me and gave me a great inclination to believe that these ideas come from corporeal things. 10. If they do not come from external objects, then God must be a deceiver. But this is an absurdity. → 11. Material objects exist. >>>>> These objects, however, may not be as they seem to us through the senses. Having established the existence of external objects, Descartes goes on to consider whether our senses tell us the truth about them.
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