PHI 197: Exam 2 Review
PHI 197: Exam 2 Review PHI 197
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 197 at Syracuse University taught by Joe Hedger in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Philosophy of Human Nature in PHIL-Philosophy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
PHI 197 Human Nature Exam Questions Unit Two 1 According to Marx what is unique and essential about human nature Explain why he thinks this The purpose of human beings is to flourish given they are creative Creativity is unique to each individual and it is crucial to be your own person He uses the Estrangement of Labor to show 5 alienations of the worker that hide their own creativity This takes away their own purpose and pride in life and causes an estrangement 2 What is llIarx s view of the role of government and how does it differ from the view of Plato Marx believes if we could we should go without government because it is evil Government coercion is a widespread issue where we agree to have gov for benefits of the whole however we give up our freedoms so we can have these services provided for our own It should have censorship be careful what public know and don t know He quotes From each according to his means and to his needs meaning not everybody has the same resources as a whole everybody should be able to have what they need Similar to Aristotle s view he believes we should be able to reason and live up to our abilities in achieving happiness 3 llIarx gives five reasons why he thinks that capitalism creates alienation for the working class the quotProetarians Explain two of them 1st Alienation o the workers not only suffer impoverishment but also experience an estrangement or alienation from the world 0 This estrangement occurs because the worker relates to the product of his work as an object alien and even hostile to himself 0 The worker puts his life into the object and his labor is invested in the object yet because the worker does not own the fruits of his labor which in capitalism are appropriated from him he becomes more estranged with the more production gt couldn t take pride in work amp creativity I Everything he makes contributes to a world outside of him to which he does not belong I He shrinks in comparison to this world of objects that he helps create but does not possess division of labor gt This first type of alienation is the estrangement of the worker from the product of his work 2nd Alienation o the estrangement of the worker from the activity of production 0 The work that the worker performs does not belong to the worker but is a means of survival that the worker is forced to perform for someone else I As such his working activity does not spring spontaneously from within as a natural act of creativity but rather exists outside of him and signifies a loss of his self 4 What does Sartre mean when he says that our existence precedes our essence Sartre means that our ability to conceptualize rationalizing is there before what you are actually experiencing sensory inputs Similar to the forms he believes that our perception is what drives what we experience We have predisposed ideas of what we are experiencing and these ideas are from our essence our mind This is why he believes in free will and that awareness of the conscious mind 5 Why does Sartre say that our freedom is a kind of curse which causes anguish He believes our freedoms create anguish out of fear in choosing our freedoms Our choice should be guided by our values what we believe in to be good nature and genuine However he believes that there is a sense of past and future anguish that people live in when they deny their freedoms Although denying their freedom might be what is best for them you will still face the common choice of doing or resisting a freedom that could potentially have more control of you than you do over your freedom This is similar to an addiction Although choosing to do something is a right to your freedomin excess this freedom can take over your choice to do this Therefore your freedom is tainted by what it feels adapt to doing through habit and routine Routines eliminate intrinsic meaning and purpose to our behaviors and this can cause anguish Having justification of an action will eliminate anguish 6 According to Sartre what is unique and essential about human nature Explain why he thinks this He believes that human freedom is unique and essential to human nature He thinks that people are individuals and should choose how they utilize their freedoms People have freedoms and they need to be aware of them Each person can act on their behavior with purpose Whether it is intrinsic or extrinsic determines if you are utilizing your freedoms to its potential Denying a freedom in choosing to do something is living in quotbad faith 7 Explain what Camus means when he says that human existence is absurd It seems that to a large extent the absurd life is a matter of selfconsciously playing a role Camus wants to convince us that living the absurd life is the only way that we can truly live but this life often is simply a matter of pretending of mimicking the lives and passions of people who by Camus39s analysis are not truly living We have the desire to understand things and their meaning Each person has their own passion their own interests and values However since we are all different we can pursue this freedom but the only way of understanding this freedom why you are interested in this is through the routines Revolting against this routine gives you the ability to steer away from the routine and follow your passionbut this does not have meaning 8 According to Camus what is the most rational response to the Absurd Explain what he means We recall that Camus defines the absurd life as being characterized by revolt freedom and passion We can see all three in evidence in the life of the actor The contradiction between our desire for unity and clarity on the one hand and the meaninglessness of the universe on the other hand is what defines the absurd and the struggle against that contradiction defines the revolt of the absurd man The absurd man wants unity and clarity above all and will struggle to achieve it even though he knows that it is a doomed enterprise On one hand he is aware that each role he plays is as limited and as empty as every other one but on the other hand he plays out these various roles in a constant search for meaning and clarity He wants to live as many lives as possible because he wants to find life he wants to be able to live free of the irony that tells him he is always only playing a role 9 What way out of or dealing with the Absurd does Woody Allen suggest in Hannah and Her Sisters Explain Woody Allen suggests that our way of dealing with the Absurd is that it is pointless to find an answer to life because nothing is certain It is important to enjoy the little things and continue experiencing life There might not be a true meaning through the small things but it is enough to keep going
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