PHI 197: Exam 4 Review
PHI 197: Exam 4 Review PHI 197
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 197 at Syracuse University taught by Joe Hedger in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 224 views. For similar materials see Philosophy of Human Nature in PHIL-Philosophy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
PHI 197: Human Nature Exam Questions: Unit Four 1. What is loss aversion? Why do Kenrick and Griskevicius argue that it’s not irrational when you consider the evolutionary perspective? ● Loss Aversion: ( Kahneman & Tversky) ○ you are more focused on losses than gains of equal value ○ the toll of a loss is more than a gain ○ Loss aversion is not rational from an economic point of view; but the "pain of losing" might have negative dollars associated with it. If, when we have to give up a mug, what we're losing is not just the mug but something more, than it makes sense that people would demand higher prices for what they own. Hunters & Gatherers: ● loss of food affects the whole. People with less loose a little and it is a huge effect Explanation: ● people make decisions due to the survival of behaviors and genes ● “What doesn’t kill you makes you stronger” The skateboarders have more testosterone: mainly males compete for females due to genetics and sexual selection ● show off of combat 2. Name the 7 sub-selves of Kenrick and Griskevicius and briefly explain their function in terms of fitness. ○ The evolutionary challenges that trigger our subselves: pyramidal shape --- in relation to ages and time-line of life 1. avoiding physical harm- racism/ discrimination→ group conformity 2. avoiding disease- immune response is natural → foreigners seen as alien 3. affiliation→ making friends, protection, happiness, communication 4. gaining status→ competition through jobs, dominance, power, goals 5. mate acquisition→ attracting mates with mutual interests in family 6. keeping that mate→ continuation of genes 7. kin selection→ caring for family ● Examples of the Subself: ○ The restaurant→ old special restaurant vs most popular new restaurant ■ changes from mate attraction to self protection sub self ■ makes the restaurant seem bad and harmful ■ based on the context of the story ○ Benz vs. Beimer: ■ people replied to what was seemingly more popular ○ Romantic story vs scary story: ■ mate acquisition=romantic, scary story= protection ■ more loss averse if you are protecting yourselves ■ mate acquisition in males = less loss aversion ● proves more risky behaviors 3. According to Kenrick and Griskevicius, when is loss aversion reversed? What is their explanation of why this happens? Loss Aversion:( Kahneman & Tversky) a. you are more focused on losses than gains of equal value b. the toll of a loss is more than a gain Loss Aversion in Reverse: ● historically, our ancestors had just enough to get by so we are more concerned about the loss than the gains. → when in mate acquisition sub-self ● risky behaviors when you are trying to find a mate, usually seen in males ○ people gave higher bets when females were near gamboling ○ watched romantic movie and felt the girl was more into him 4. Explain the difference between proximate and ultimate reasons for human behavior, and give an example. Proximate vs Ultimate Behavior: ● proximate- immediate reasoning, consciously aware of, unique to the individual ● ultimate behavior- the end goal of the behavior is what intrinsically motivated the goal ○ unaware of the reason of behaviors, broad reason to the species as a whole The Estrous Cycle: ● Hyper aware of the behaviors of animals changing during the specific time of a cycle Study 1: ● shopping study- women given fake money to buy and cash out ○ what kinds of clothes women buy at what time of cycle ○ bought riskier clothing during ovulation Study 2: ● women strippers make more money when they are ovulating ● made twice as much → original explanation female weren’t aware of different behaviors ● now study shows guys know also ○ tshirt study: smelled better when they were ovulating 5. Why is a false alarm type of mistake less costly than missing an opportunity or danger? What are some examples from human behavior which Kenrick and Griskevicius argue demonstrate that our minds are engineered to err on the side of caution, as it were? The Smoke Detector Theory: ● Why is it dangerous to seek the truth? ○ we take a closer look at the biases and mistakes each of your subselves is prone to make, and try to understand why the people in one African nation chose to starve rather than accept help. 2 different types of mistakes: 1. very sensitive- accept the false alarm= hit a. “better to be safe than sorry” b. good for survival 2. miss- assume it is a false alarm a. do we always want to know the truth?- NO Explanation: Behavioral Immune system ● men are more likely to misattribute a girl for liking them than a women would 6. Explain the prisoner’s dilemma, and how Kenrick and Griskevicius argue that the values change when your partner is a sibling. Ex.) Prisoner’s Dilemma” ● if it’s your genes you will want it to be as equal as possible ● more likely to cooperate and not bail ○ either cooperate or defect ○ both committed to the crime ■ if defect, you get 80, the other gets nothing ■ if you both cooperate it is 50/50 ● Rational Economics- highest trade off is to defect ● However if you are related to them then you will cooperate instead > Kin selection/ Altruism: ● people favor their family because genetics and altruism ● some will sacrifice so their genes can live on Math changes in economics because it is shared: ● if you have just your sister or brother, the defect would seem like you split half the reward ● used prisoner’s dilemma on identical twins: ○ almost all of them cooperated because the highest pay off ○ now seems rational Home vs Wall street economics: ● Home means in relation to yourself ● Wall street is distant and strictly business Ex.) The Ultimatum Game: ● you decide who gets distribution of $100. ● generally people would do 50./50 if it is known about the offer ● if you do not know, then people will be greedy and do 99 for me 1 for you ○ accept offer= rational ○ decline= irrational 7. Explain why Kenrick and Griskevicius argue that the types of errors people are prone to make sense when viewed from the standpoint of evolution. Smoke Detector & Error Management Theory: ○ Error management theory applies to judgments under uncertainty. Error management theory applies to judgments under uncertainty. ■ Humans need to judge whether sticks are snakes and vice versa. We can make either a falsepositive error (inferring that it is a snake when it is not) or a falsenegative error (inferring it is not a snake when in fact it is). ■ In making uncertain judgments like this, the costs of committing the two errors are often unequal; in this particular case, a falsenegative might lead to being bitten by a snake, whereas a falsepositive results only in added caution. This is why we judge sticks to be snakes when walking in the woods but rarely judge snakes to be harmless sticks. Because the costs of errors are asymmetric, we err on the “safe side” by assuming the worst. 1. False positive 2. False negative ● Predicts that biases will evolve in human judgments and decisions whenever the following criteria are met (a) the decision had recurrent impacts on fitness (reproductive success), (b) the decision is based on uncertain information, and (c) the costs of false-positive and false-negative errors associated with that decision were recurrently asymmetrical over evolutionary time 8. According to Kenrick and Griskevicius, why are certain cognitive tasks very difficult for us? Why does changing the way the question is framed dramatically improve performance? Modern Cavemen ● How can illiterate jungle dwellers pass a test that tricks Harvard philosophers? ○ we investigate how understanding our subselves can help us make better decisions, asking why uneducated members of tribes deep in the Amazon can solve logical problems that stump students at Harvard. “ we have a cave man brain in a modern world” ● explains that we are better at communication and language because it was the earliest cognitive task, as opposed to math which is a much more recent concept 9. What is life history theory? Life-history theory is to show how people switch off the efforts of somatic and reproductive efforts. There are 2 different strategies, both fast and slow. It is believed that the slow strategy is best. Stressful situations can switch which strategy you are engaging in. 2 Efforts: ● somatic effort- developing your body into a healthy adult (personal survival) ● reproductive effort- facilitating the replication of their genes into future generations ○ mating ○ raising children Fast vs. Slow Strategy: > Environment & Stability ● Fast- less on somatic and longer on reproductive ● r-selected species - expecting an unpredictable life, within an unstable environment ○ rabbits ● Slow- less on reproductive and more on somatic ● k-selected species- long life & stable environment ● people & elephants ○ differences within predictability of resources/long-term stability ■ better stability= slow ○ environmental safety ■ violence= fast 10. According to Kenrick and Griskevicius, when do people tend to use fast strategies as opposed to slow ones? People tend to use fast strategies when they have grown up in an unstable or violent environment. Teen pregnancies, although seemingly not beneficial, are choosing the fast route since they rush right into reproduction. Reading a newspaper article of a murder vs. a neutral article. When people grew up with an unstable environment, those that read the dangerous news story were more likely to be impulsive, impatient, and anxious. Marshmellow Theory: 11. How do Kenrick and Griskevicius explain conspicuous consumption? Conspicuous consumption - spending of money on and the acquiring of luxurygoods and services to publicly display economic power—either the buyer's income or the buyer's accumulated wealth. ● Sociologically, to the conspicuous consumer, such a public display ofdiscretionary economic power is a means either of attaining or of maintaining a given social statu. ● Invidious consumption, a more specialized sociological term, denotes the deliberate conspicuous consumption of goods and services intended to provoke the envyof other people, as a means of displaying the buyer’s superior socio-economic status. → People activate different subselves due to status because they are trying to get a new job. ● Do people buy a gold Porsche and a green Toyota Prius for the same reason? ○ we ask whether people might buy a shiny gold Cadillac and a dull green Toyota Prius for some of the very same reasons, even if they’re not consciously aware of them. Women say that conspicuous consumption is only good for the immediate, but not long-term. The guy with the Porsche increases testosterone when he drives the car and therefore is more confident into attracting their mates. Ex.) Baurer Bird: ● male builds elaborate nest with colorful colors to attract the mate. The showy appeal is what drives them to it showing status as opposed to functionality. 12. What reason do Kenrick and Griskevicius provide for the difference in “sexual economics” between men and women? Give one of their examples of this difference in action. Sexual Economics: ● due to parental investment and time spent findings a mate Men: ● obligated to invest less in producing offspring and have higher reproductive potential than females ○ a man could potentially produce many more offspring over his lifetime than a woman could over hers ○ In the ancestral past, men could substantially increase their reproductive success by mating more often, whereas by virtue of the necessary time and energetic costs of pregnancy, women generally could not. → Throughout evolutionary time, women, more so than men, gained fitness advantages by being selective in choosing partners Women Error Management 7 benefited from choosing men who either displayed cues of high-fitness genes that could be transmitted to offspring or provided resources that were helpful in raising offspring through their long juvenile period to reproductive maturity Women: ● seek out commitment, men seek out best fit women. Ex.) Escorts- men more likely to pay for it than women. 13. According to Kenrick and Griskevicius, what are some differences between the mate preferences of men and women? Briefly explain why they differ in this way. Why does the difference seem to disappear when we ask men and women about their ideal partner? Ex.) College study- stranger asks opposite sex to just have sex or go on a date Attractive Guy asks girl: → just sex= 0% → date = 50% Girl asks guy: → just sex= 50% → date = 70% Differences are due to type and duration of relationship. One night stands are more common in men. Men lower standards to have more partners, and women, if they do engage in one- night stand will higher standards. Men base mate on attractiveness & kindness. Physically attractive and good personality. Women focus on status, resources, and their power Male is more likely to say I love you. This goes against belief that women are more emotional so they will, but men are 70% more likely to say it first and 1.5 months earlier. Because the smoke detector theory→ rather have the hit or the miss? Guys want the immediate answer, women try to avoid the risk. 14. According to Kenrick and Griskevicius, how can we avoid getting duped by “deep rationality parasites”? → Deeply rational tendencies can open us up to exploitation by clever parasites in the modern world, many of whom are hiding behind respectable business suits and sincere smiles. 3 Tips of Advice: ● know your enemy what are they getting out of it ? ● know your situation which subself they are activating ? ○ give it time to fully know which subself is activated→ avoid manipulation ○ out it into context ● know yourself what do you need to get out of this ? Tipping waitress: ● more likely to tip at dinner when they are together. ○ men shows power and wealth ○ women shows generosity and caring nature Spending Money: ● Economic downturns ○ women spend more on luxuries such as cosmetics Pharmaceutical Industry( 4th leading cause of deaths is legal prescriptions that have many side effects), Shoes ( average increased to men having 5 and women having 11) → activate different subselves to market things that aren’t needed for its function
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