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PSY 223: Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Emily.nicole

PSY 223: Exam 2 Study Guide psy 223

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All material covered for exam 2. This includes key topics, terms, and definitions, as well as all lecture notes up til the exam.
intro to cognitive Neuroscience
C. White
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to psy 223 at Syracuse University taught by C. White in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see intro to cognitive Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
General Topics: 1. Visual system Vision-way of recognizing the world around us ● from the eye to the brain ● Complex processing- in PRIMARY visual cortex & beyond early visual cortex Components of Vision: 1. Sensation- actual effects of stimulus on sensory organs ○ “real input” 2. Perception- post processing affected by knowledge & expectations ● “internal experience of the external world” ○ brain’s way to conceptualize the world ex.) people make themselves sound better than they are by faking a story ■ similar to Plato & Aristotle’s idea of Dualism: the mind is used for cognition & emotions, while the brain is the substance ■ “ There is every reason to doubt what you think is real” - Descartes → memory/ perception of reality The Human Eye: ● Retina- surface of eye that has photoreceptors ○ photoreceptors- receptors that represent light 1. rods- low light (night vision) 2. cones- light & color (day vision) ○ sensitive to different wavelengths 2 Routes of Perception: 1. Direct/Pure Route- fast ● “ the what”- important in understanding low levels of information ● ex.) object → receives photons of light → stimulates the retina receptors on the back of the eye→ travels through the optic nerve → brain recognizes object→ action/attention 2. Indirect/Cortical Route ( aka Geniculostriate Pathway) - slow ● “where/ how”- involved in decision making (executive function) ● contains the Primary Visual Cortex VI: The Primary Visual Cortex ● 1st stage of visual “processing” ○ low level of input of features ■ contains local wavelengths of color ○ provides building blocks for detecting edges in the: ■ ventral “the what” - bottom ■ dorsal “where” - top ○ Retinotopic Organization- maintains spatial layout in relation to the input from retina ■ close in space on the retina= close in V1 ex.) scotoma & anopia- forms of cortical blindness due to damage in the area where your brain processes that specific information Disorders: ● Blindsight ● impaired vision & loss of awareness- “loss of conscious perception” ● can’t report what is shown to them ○ direct route can still work b/c you can assume what should be there Areas of V1:​​athway to V1 (primary visual cortex and striate cortex) 1. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus- visual relays in the thalamus ○ paracellular- small details & color ○ magnocellular- motion & rough outlines ■ Note* right eye process visual info on left side of brain and left on the right 2. Striate (stripped) Cortex- early visual cortex V4: color ● the main color center in the brain ○ lesions to this region results in loss of color vision ○ only see a small amount of light that is present in the real world ● color constancy- we perceive an object to be the same color even though it is brighter (like an apple you think it might be different colors because you see it under a light but really the whole apple is the same color) ● contains relative wavelengths V5: motion ● 90% of cells respond to motion & prefer a direction ○ each neuron is specific to its feature ● can perceive biological motion with damage ● if damage to this area, you still have the direct pathway Complex Visual Perception: ● combination of both visual processing 1. Top-down ○ frontal cortex, temporal lobe ○ knowledge, expectations, cortex, stuff in your head like (oh I hate emily or rachel or seb) 2. Bottom- up ○ V1→ V5 : what & where ○ colors, edges, motion (external world eg light) Gestalt principles: ● Object Permanence ○ the whole is greater than the sum of the parts→ Abstract Thinking 1) proximity: close together 2) similarity: linked together 3) Continuation: edges grouped together 4) Closure: missing parts are filled in 5) Common fate: elements move together are grouped together Object Recognition: ● object constancy- perceive as the same object even if shown in different views (zebra; shown from top side bottom and like from an angel) ○ carried out in the temporal lobe - objects & their properties ● “what” pathway → ventral region ○ Inferior Temporal Gyrus- involved in representation of objects, independent view ○ specific to categories ■ hypothesis that different types of categories are represented differently in the brain ○ False processing- complex stimuli & very important to social functioning ■ prosopagnosia- can’t identify faces 2. Attention Attention: ● Visual perception is dependent on what we attend to ○ we are constantly bombarded by sensory information ● Attended Information: the ​ incoming sensory input ​that gets priority for conscious processing (what we are aware of) ○ ex.) depression- attended inner negative thoughts ● Unattended Information: ​ doesn’t reach conscious awareness​ , but might still affect the brain (and behavior) Why Pay Attention ? ● limited resources to filter info-can’t process everything at one time ○ ignore/supress irrelevant info & boost/enhance important info What to Attend to ? ● Spatial Attention- where/location ○ “spotlight metaphor”- if we are aware of something it is in our spotlight and you are processing that sensory info ○ addiction- causes mind to attend to specific attention ● Feature/Object Attention- what/ things Endogenous vs exogenous attentional cueing Controling Our Spotlight**will be on test ● Exogneous O ​ rienting- attention is guided by external info ○ movement, changes, noise, appearance ● Inhibition of Return- slower to direct attention to a region that you just focused on and “got bored” with. BASICALLY YOU ARE LOOKING AT SOMETHING AND THEN YOU TELL YOUR BRAIN THAT ITS BORING SO YOU LOOK SOMEWHERE. BUT IF YOU HAVE TO GO BACK TO THE ORIGINAL PLACE YOU WERE LOOKING AT IT ACTUALLY IS HARDER TO LOOK BECAUSE YOU JUST TOLD YOUR BRAIN THAT NOTHING IS GOING ON AND NOTHING IMPORTANT IS THERE. THEREFORE, YOU PICK UP WHAT IS HAPPENING SOMEWHERE ELSE FASTER ○ vary cue target delay- time between stimulus & cue ○ small difference, much faster response= effective cue -attention doesn’t have to be with eye movement What to attend to? ● Endogenous Orienting-​ attention is guided by internal goals, experiences, and motivation ( attentional bias) ○ attend to specific object/feature -anxiety disorders- people attend to feared anxiety ● Cognitive Baised Theory- people with high anxiety always focus on negative, redirect to focus on positive cue and let that be the only option,--> gets rid of anxiety Shrinking the spotlight- zoom in ● Flanker Task: tests anxiety & attentional control w/ cue ○ delay& less shapes= better performance ○ impulse- quick response,decreases performance Feature integration theory **Feature Integration Theory - how a person pieces together separate features of an object to create a more complex perception of the object ● attention affects visual search 1. parallel search- “pop out” ○ word sticks out with less words in crossword puzzle ○ takes less time if less features 2. seriel search- ‘focus attention” ● colors, more saline, and stand out Feature Integration- binding lower level features together requires focus attention Neural system Parietal Lobe & Directing Attention: ● cell in parietal lobe reflect both: ○ spatial location of visual info (reinotopic) ○ bodily information- posture, eye posititon → Spatial Attention (superior parietal) ^ in above theory of perception Disorders 1. Inattentional Blindness/ Change Blindness ● you are recieving information but not processing in awareness ○ ex. multitasking Executive Function- task switch cost from one rule to another 2. Hemineglect-damage​ to one hemisphere of the brain is sustained, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space is observed. ● It is defined by the inability of a person to process and perceive stimuli on one side of the body or environment, where that inability is not due to a lack of sensation ● hemieglect is very commonly ​ contralaterato the damaged hemisphere, but instances of ipsilesional neglect (on the same side as the lesion) have been reported Parietal Lobe & Patient Models: Symptoms: ● Neglect- specific to side of brain ○ The patient actually ignores half of their body. They get dressed on one side of the body, put makeup on one side of their face. ● Extinction: deny object was there when given in good & bad hemifiled, but identify it when in only good side ● Denial: in complete denial of blindness ○ Example: grab a patient's right arm and ask them what it is. "It's my arm." Grab their left arm and ask them what it is. "It's AN arm." "Whose arm is it?" "I don't know. It's not mine. It must be yours." ● Spatial orientation deficit: Patients can be confused in familiar surroundings. ○ aware of most normal things but not all ○ Example: a person goes to/from work the same way every day for 20 years. On the way home on the bus they suffer a mild right parietal lobe stroke. They get off the bus. They see a drug store in front of them. They know it's the store near their house. They know this is the bus stop they get off at every day but they have no idea how to get home. There's no "vision" problem - they can see and recognize the store. 3. Movement and action Neural systems Goal Directed Movement- basic circuit for executing planned movement ● generally we are good at this ● ex.) coffee mug analogy 1. Goal- grab the coffee mug 2. identify info: ● Where am I? → dorsal ○ Somatosensation- sensory info about the body ■ Proprioception- knowledge about position of limbs in space ○ Where is this cup? → ventral 3. How: Parietal Lobe 4. Action - grab cup Executive function- higher level of thinking ● goals, motivations, decision-making ● represented in prefrontal cortex ○ Motor→ premotor, supplementary areas Motor Cortex: M1 ● primary cortex ○ Somato organization of M1- activates neurons similar in motor cortex due to location on body ○ size of brain area shows intensity of sensation ■ direct correlation with number of nerve endings Top down- what you want to do → goal Bottom-up- where am I and where is the cup → location ● spatial memory- dorsal & ventral Execution= combination of both → knowledge of plan Action= motion Basal Ganglia: ● inhibits motor activation unless cortex sends a signal to “release the breaks” ● involved in the subcortex → Double Inhibition: 1. gets rid or hinderence→ globus palidus 2. activates thalamus Process: M1( primary motor cortex) → putamen → globus pallidus : ( outer → inner) → thalamus → CORTEX Disorders: → regulated by dopamine response 1. Hypokinetic Disorder- reduction of planned movement ○ Parkinsons 2. Hyperkinetic Disorder- increase in movement (against will) - Choratic movements- no control over them because continuous loop with motor planning ● Huntingtons Disease, Tourettes → Treatment: brain stimulation, L-dopa drugs 4. Memory ● Memory​ - our ability encode​,stor, retainand subsequently recalinformation and past experiences in thhuman brain​. It can be thought of in general terms as the use of past experience to affect or influence current behaviour. → How memories form ○ Encoding: taking information and converting it into a construct which can be stored in the brain. ○ Storage: the process of placing encoded information and storing it for later use ○ Retrieval: the recall of information that was previously stored in the brain Encoding→ consolidation→ recall ● Types of memory 1. Long Term Memory (LTM) “Recall” ● “Archive” of information about past events and knowledge learned ● Storage stretches from a few moments ago to as far back as one can remember ● More recent memories are more detailed 2 Types of LTM: 1.)Implicit/non-declarative: unconscious memory 1.Repetition priming  ● Presentation of one stimulus affects performance on that stimulus  when it is presented again   ○ Propaganda effect: more likely to rate statements read or  heard before as being true  2.Procedural memory  ● Skill memory: memory for actions  ○ No memory of where or when learned  ○ Perform procedures unaware of how  sensory/motor info → neurocortex ­­. basal ganglia → thalamus → premotorcortex    3.Classical conditioning  ● Pairing a neutral stimulus with a reflexive response  2) Explicit/declarative: conscious memory a.) Episodic: personal events/episodes through recollection ● mental time travel­ no guarantee of accuracy  ○ damaged hippocampus ­ cant relive events from the past b.)Semantic: facts, knowledge ● familiarity  ○ Personal semantic memory: semantic memories that have  personal significance  ○ Can influence what we experience (episodic) by  determining what we attend to  3. Working Memory​ - limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning ● WM is set up to process different types of information simultaneously ● WM has trouble when similar types of information are presented at the same time ● WM is concerned with the processing and manipulation of information that occurs during complex cognition Short Term Memory (STM)- “Encoding” -STM holds information for a brief period of time ● STM is a single component ● 10- 15 seconds ● Digital span- 5 -9 item  ● Chunking: small units can be combined into larger meaningful units  ○ Ex) Chess players ­ masters better remembering game positions bc  chunking    4. Sensory Memory ability to look at something for a split second but still know what it is o Registers all or most information that hits our visual or auditory receptors  o the retention for brief periods of time of the effects of sensory stimulation   1) Visual Sensory Memory (iconic) ­ less than 1 second  2) Auditory Sensory Memory ( echoic memory) ­ 2­4 seconds  persistence of vision ­ continued perception of a visual stimulus even after it is no  longer present  Neural systems ● Medial Temporal Lobe: ○ hippocampus-where memories are formed and where the b ​inding process happens 1) parahippocampal- visuospatial memory (starts to be processed)→ parietal cortex 2) perirhinal- visual object memory/recognition (knowing what something looks like and how these things look different from other objects)→ visual cortex 3) entorhenal cortex- integrative memory (1st level of integration info) → combination of both parahippocampal & perirhinal (starts to put the pieces together) 4) rhinal- combination of entorhinal & perirhinal Damage ​(different types of amnesia) 1. Retrograde Amnesia:is a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease. 2. Anterograde: can’t make new memories because of the damage to your hippocampus 3. Korsakoff: amnesia from long term alch abuse H.M.: what type of amnesia he had and why H.M. had​nterograde amnesia​because he was unable to form new longterm memories Clive Wearing: what type of amnesia he had and why Clive Wearing ha​nterograde amnesiabecause he was unable to form new longterm memories Long-term potentiatio: increase long term responsiveness of postsynaptic neurons ● Enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation ● Structural changes and enhanced responding → synapse recieves stimulus → firing of acom to communicate to other neuron → repeated stimulus causes structural changes → develops complex connections: increases firing rate, and even with same stimulus --------->>>> Therefore Memory Enhancement   5. Hearing and speaking Primary auditory cortex (A1) and it’s role: ● processes sound for the brain Sounds: ● pitch- frequency of vibrations measured in herts ( wavelengths) ● loudness- amplitude, function of sound wave intensity (size of wave) ● timbre- complexity Choclea: ● part of basilar membrane- filled with fluid ○ sound hits fluid and bends hairs on the membrane which translate to neuronal activity via the auditory nerve ○ auditor nerve: sensation → perception → auditory canal → tympatic membrane → oval window → osicles (3 bones- move with vibration) → cochlea → auditory nerve Auditory Pathways: Central Auditory System: ● choclea nuclei → superior olivary complex → inferior colliculi → medial geniculate cortex → primary auditory complex - single cell recordings - show specifity, depends on intensity 2 Pathways of Processing: 1. Ventral → temporal - identify sounds “what pathway” 2. Dorsal → parietal Posterior Parietal Cortex- where Word/speech processing ● Fundamentals of speech: ○ phoneme- smallest unit of sound “th” sound ○ morphemes- smallest unit with meaning ( -ed, re-) ● Understanding speech: ○ seperate imporant speech vs noise ○ co-articulation- previous words influence articuation of sequential words Motor Theory of Speech Production: ● Top down- auditory signal is matched to motor representaions( recognizes phenomes-articulation) ○ Mcgurick effect Word Recognition: ● stored in mental lexicon ○ systemic organization of vocab represented in mind ● Semantic priming- connects similar words together Cohort Model: a​ ll words that are consistent are active until “ununiquness point” ● rapid spoken word recognition (250 ms) ● a large # of words are initially considered, then we narrow through articulation evidence ● Bottom up= process of elimination Lexical access of new word → selection through narrowing → integration with semantic meaning of words Word Retrieval: ● producing words through recency- recall vs recognition ○ Recall­ subjects are asked to report stimuli they have previously seen or heard  ○ Recognition­ identifying a stimulus that was encountered earlier   ● Discrete vs Interactive  ○ Discretre­  all semantic processing is done before phonological  ○ Interactive­ semantic and phonological overlap and can go up and down Broca’s -speech production and syntax - damage is called agrammatism Wernicke’s areas (speech comprehension and semantics) Dorsal/posterior (top and where) vs ventral/anterior pathways (bottom and what)  


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