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PSY 223: Final Exam Study Guide

by: Emily.nicole

PSY 223: Final Exam Study Guide psy 223

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All material covered from class. This includes key topics, terms, and definitions, as well as all lecture notes.
intro to cognitive Neuroscience
C. White
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to psy 223 at Syracuse University taught by C. White in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 221 views. For similar materials see intro to cognitive Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
Final review for PSY 223  New Stuff    1. Reading:    word superiority effect:  ● words are easier to recognize and process than non­words  ● we are trained to discriminate words       lexical decision​ task  ● priming­ ​ the more you are exposed to a word the better you will recall it (recency  & frequency)    ○ brain’s ability to activate word recognition without awareness  ■ behavioral primin ­ ● repetition to stimulus causes quicker response  ● less of a stimulus will create the same response   ■ similar stimuli lead to adaptation   ● “Practice makes perfect”  ● routine creates ha it  ● Semantics=  meaning of word  ● Semantic Relationships­ meaning of words are similar  ○ search to identify word is easier and faster during word processing  recognition   ○ ex. Doctor & nurse  ● Structural Similarities­ ability to identify words due to it’s common roots­ Latin  ○ Morphemes­ smallest section of language with definable meaning  ○ ­s, ­ed, ­est, ­er  ○ the structures of letters and symbols throughout human history are  selected to match those found in objects in natural scenes  ■ ex. Hieroglyphics­ pictures define a story and represent  sounds       Brain regions:   Word recognition:  → V​isual Recognition is processed in the left Tempo​and is tied into language  acquisition ( Wernicke's & Brocas)  ● words vs objects  ○ two different processes, however to recognize words you use edges and  structure of word itself (V5)   ○ Temporal vs spatial   ventral pathway:  ***FUSIFORM= binding of 2 different pathways to visual information  1. Object Recognition:  ●  top down­ goal oriented  2. Sensory Recognition:  ● bottom up ­ attentional orientation   ● Neuronal Recycling:  ○ visual processing­ primary visual cortex:  ■ ventral (what) ­object recognition & direct pathway   ○ areas of the brain are “stolen” and used for more representation     Visual Word Form Area:  ● Located in the left occipitotemporal gyrus  ○ responds to learned letters  ○ responds to upper and lower case letters similarly  ○ accessed automatically    Plasticity in the VWFA:  ● Similar to Long Term Potentiation   ● less stimulus required after learned word     Damage to the VWFA:  ● pure alexia  ○ letter by letter reading   ○ slows reading comprehension­ read sentence letter by letter → word   ○ spelling, writing and verbal language are unaffected  ● but how can they still read?  ○ different area of the brain activated to associate words to make sense  Types of Dyslexia:  ● Acquired­ deep vs surface   ● Developmental­ phonological  ● Attentional Dyslexia­ spacing of word is incorrect (visual & semantic deficits)   ● Neglect­ they can see info but can not process it  ○ can only draw portion of a clock   → what does Dyslexia tell us  ● specific dysfunctions suggest contributions from many systems  ● attentional influences ( top­down) interact at many levels     o   ­**Surface Dyslexia:​Ability to read non­words and regularly spelled words better  than irregularly spelled words. ExDove​ à pronounced “doove” ,“Ch” in Chaos​à  pronounced like “Ch” in ​hurch  o   ­***Deep Dyslexia:​  Real words are read better than non­words and semantic errors  are made in reading. Ex. ​Cat ​à read as “Dog”    ***2. Executive Function:    pre frontal regions TASKS BY NAME AND WHAT THEY MEASURE (MATCHING!!!)  here is 6 executive functions and here are 6 tasks    Types:  1. narrowing attention  2. error detection    Controlling Our Spotlight***will be on test ● Exogenous Orienting-​ attention is guided b​xternal info ○ movement, changes, noise, appearance ● Inhibition of Return- slower to direct attention to a region that you just focused on and “got bored” with. What to attend to? ● Endogenous Orienting-​ attention is guided binternal goal, experiences, and motivation (attentional bias) ○ attend to specific object/feature Feature integration theory **Feature Integration Theory - how a person pieces together separate features of an object to create a more complex perception of the object ● attention affects visual search 1. parallel search- “pop out” ○ word sticks out with less words in crossword puzzle ○ takes less time if less features 2. serial search- “focus attention” ● colors, more saline, and stand out Feature Integration- binding lower level features together requires focus attention     Tasks:   ● Planning and decision-making: ○ Tower of London task​ = move the balls from initial position to another position ○ Planning, less moves is better ● Error Correction task ○ Wisconsin card sorting task ■ assess frontal lobe function. Put cards into piles but once the order  changes need to detect effort and update rule. (The participant is  presented with stimulus cards with shapes on them. The cards  differ in color of the shapes, number of the shapes, and the form of  the shapes. The participant is asked to sort these cards into two  piles. The participant is not told what stimulus dimension to use in  order to sort the cards, but the administrator tells the participant if a  particular match is correct. During the test, the sorting rules are  changed and the participant must discover the new sorting rule in  order to be successful.)  ○ Learn from feedback (color,shape,size) ○ Habituation ● Overcoming habitual Responses ( narrowing attention) ○ stroop task​ - state color as fast as you can ○ then say color or read word ● Sustaining attention and working memory (narrowing attention) ○ N-Back task ○ Look for item that matches the item from N trials ago ○ 3 back is the most difficult, store three letter in working memory instead of just 1 ● Inhibitory Control: our ability to stop or inhibit some action that you were about to do (narrowing attention) ○ stop signal task:​arrow pops up on screen, decided if it points right or left. ○ -In the task ¼ trials you hear a beep to stop ○ -measure stop signal reaction time ○ Right front inferior gyrus and basal ganglia are big in inhibition   Brain:  prefrontal cortex (L/R DLPFC; R VLPFC), ACC  Executive function in the brain Higher level processes associated with prefrontal cortex. Human prefrontal cortex is way larger than other animals. ● left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - what and when to respond, selects appropriate response ● right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - info relevant to task requirement ● anterior cingulate cortex- conflict monitoring error detection ● right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex -inhibiting executive control is related to many psychological disorders   Ex. question:  → What is impaired for ADHD? → can’t sustain attention  → Gambling addiction = inhibitory control   → Autism = conflict detection    3. Emotion:   Emotion vs. Mood  ● Emotion­ temporary state that relates to significance of environmental state (especially in  regards to survival)  ○ ex. Social situations→ job, friends, social groups   ○ 2 Dimensional:  ■ Valiance­ positive vs negative   ● calm= low arousal, positive valiance   ■ Arousal amp up, or bring down  ● angry = high arousal, negative valiance  ● Mood​­ prolonged or continuous experience of a particular emotion  ○ mood disorders­ anxiety & depression  ● Emotional words show better memory:  ○ factors are arousal and valiance, usually high arousal has the most impact    The Purpose of Emotions:  ● Why do we feel anger? Guilt?  ○ reminders to tell you why you feel that way & how to improve  ■ guilt­ concern for the past­ you have acted against your morals→ regret  ● negative emotions are good to change, but if you keep feeling  guilty you have prolonged this emotion→ causes change in mood  ■ worrying­ concern for the future, only good if you have control over that  situation   Emotional Regulation:  ● Don’t want to turn our emotions “off”, but still want control over how we react to them   ○ must have control to keep them in tact  Emotion in the Brain:  ● emotion is thought to be mediated by limbic system:  ○ cingulate cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus   ■ hypothalamus­ regulation arousal: blood pressure, heart rate, breathing  ○ also includes amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex  ■ amygdala­ ​flight or flight  ● implicated in detection of fear­ needed for survival   ○ monkeys with bilateral amygdala lesions show blunted  emotional response  ■ not afraid of things or timid (but should be)  ● involved in the fast (direct) route for identifying threat   ○ sensory signal of fear → thalamus → amygdala   ○ indirect would go thalamus → cortex → amygdala  ■ orbitofrontal­ controlling emotions   → does the physiology come before or after the emotions?  ● Insula­ primary gustatory cortex (taste)  ○ different tastes­ like or not like   ○ related to experiencing disgust (comparing to negative things)  Positive Emotions & Dopamine:  ● Serotonin & dopamine  ○ DA­ primary reward chemical → releases positive feeling   ○ Functions­ reward motivation, motor function, compulsion­ addiction “have  to have it”, preservation­ “can’t leave it”   ­­­­­­­> heavily involvelearning (reinforcement)  ● reward prediction error­ prediction of what you thought would happen and what actually  did happen  ● represents our values    Emotions & Values:  ● values are represented in thentromedial prefrontal cortex  ○ domain for values in general→ compare different scales  ● personal connection/ significance  ○ sensory & interoceptive input  ○ internally generated mental representations  ■ economist studies­ how willing are you to pay for an item:  ● money, snacks, trinkets    Social Behavior:  ● Emotional recognition​ and understanding is very important for social interaction  ○ need to recognize if the conversation is going well or not  ○ empathy­ ​ability to appreciate others’ points of view  ■ “ I feel your pain” → put yourself in their shoes       Mirror Neurons­ fire the same if you do the action or you watch someone else do the action  (mirror the action)  ● Simulation Theory:  ○ the mirror system allows us to simulate what it would be like to experience that  action   ■ can be applied to emotions­ reduced activation   ■ based on how close you are to that person     Mirror Neurons & Theory of Mind:  ● simulation via mirror neurons allows us to put ourselves in another’s shoes  → Theory of Mind:  ● reflected by activation in right temporal­parietal  junction     4. The Numeric Brain:  ● how we process numbers  ● general aspects of numerical processing   ● relation to other processes we have discussed  ● Neural systems involved      Number Processing:  ● a lot of the evidence shows that it is i​(born with)  ■ experiment: test infants to show their attention → novelty preference  ■ show object → blue teddy bear → show red squirrel & blue teddy →  focused on the new object   ○ the more they see something causes habituation  ○ repetition of number of dots but different orientation  ○ if they are right it is the number of dots being processed, and not the visual image  pattern  ■ could also be that there is more purple and not the actual number of dots  ● it is somewhat automatic  ○ number magnitude is processed even when you aren’t trying to   ○ size of number vs actual number  ○ similar tred  Quick Estimation of numbers:  ● processing and memory is good up to 4 numbers    Size & Distance Effect:  ● Distance between numbers  ○ the closer the numbers are the harder it is to tell they are different  ○ similar to how we remember numbers on a number line          ● Size of Number:  ○  the larger the number, the harder it is to tell the difference between them   ■ ex.  7_9   or 2_4   Which is harder?  ○ Suggests a compressed (logarithmic) representation      Logarithmic Representation:      ● It probably should be that we deal with more numbers from 1­10 as opposed to 10k­100k  ● Highly based on experience­ context sensitive  ○ the world we live in uses more of the smaller numbers and since we use them  with so many uses, we think they are more different than usual.   ■ grocery shopping with best price vs. adding a new feature to a car  → ratio/ scale determines the idea of variability   ● Similar to the idea that races are easy to identify faces similar to  their  race.   ○ whites can differentiate whites as opposed whites to asians  Key Characteristics of Number Processing:  ● fairly innate    Math & Numbers is a Language:  ● Symbolic representation of something­ written vs spoken  ○ ex. eight, 8  ● Semantic content & relationships among items­ similarity in meaning  ○ nurse & doctor, 1 & 2  ● Syntax for calculations­ order matters  ○ 8/2 is not = to 2/8     Numerical Processing & calculation:    ● builds up on other cognitive processes (sound & sight) → language specific  1. Arithmetic Internal (abstract) representation for number   ○ phonological → hear  i. morphological  ○ graphemes → read  i. syntax  1 A. Arabic number representation   2. Calculation Mechanisms  ● arithmetic facts  ● calculation procedures  2A. Arabic Mechanism  3. Output  ● speak   ● write     Numerical Processing in the Brain   ● Triple­code Model  ○ many similarities with language processing    1. Semantic Magnitude:  ● intraparietal sulcus representation of size ( magnitude)  2. Verbal System:  ● Left angular gyrus  ○ comprehend/produce spoken numbers system  ○ store arithmetic facts (2 X = 4)  3. Visual Number Form:  ● Fusiform Gyrus  ○ recognizing arabic numerals  ○ workspace for complex operations (123 + 548)          Numbers & Spatial Representation:  ● What the number is and where it is located are often related­ linked in the brain        ○ If seen a small number on the left side is is faster to process than the right  ○ Show small number → get rid of # → show dot → more likely to identify the small  number with the left dot  ■ why? we read left to right, number lines always increase  ■ “Where” pathway­ directing attention in space  ● binding theory       Old stuff  be able to navigate the brain (dorsal (where, top)/ventral (what, bottom) etc):  Know the main roles of brain areas:     1. Memory ● Memory​ - our ability tencode​,store,retain​and subsequently ​recalinformation and past experiences in thehuman brain​ . It can be thought of in general terms as the use of past experience to affect or influence current behaviour. → How memories form ○ Encoding: taking information and converting it into a construct which can be stored in the brain. ○ Storage: the process of placing encoded information and storing it for later use ○ Retrieval: the recall of information that was previously stored in the brain Encoding→ consolidation→ recall ● Types of memory 1. Long Term Memory (LTM) “Recall” ● “Archive” of information about past events and knowledge learned ● Storage stretches from a few moments ago to as far back as one can remember ● More recent memories are more detailed 2 Types of LTM: 1.)Implicit/non-declarative: unconscious memory 1.Repetition priming  ● Presentation of one stimulus affects performance on that stimulus  when it is presented again   ○ Propaganda effect: more likely to rate statements read or  heard before as being true  2.Procedural memory  ● Skill memory: memory for actions  ○ No memory of where or when learned  ○ Perform procedures unaware of how  sensory/motor info → neurocortex ­­. basal ganglia → thalamus → premotorcortex    3.Classical conditioning  ● Pairing a neutral stimulus with a reflexive response  2) Explicit/declarative: conscious memory a.) Episodic: personal events/episodes through recollection ● mental time travel­ no guarantee of accuracy  ○ damaged hippocampus ­ cant relive events from the past b.)Semantic: facts, knowledge ● familiarity  ○ Personal semantic memory: semantic memories that have  personal significance  ○ Can influence what we experience (episodic) by  determining what we attend to 3. Working Memory​ - limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning ● WM is set up to process different types of information simultaneously ● WM has trouble when similar types of information are presented at the same time ● WM is concerned with the processing and manipulation of information that occurs during complex cognition Short Term Memory (STM)- “Encoding” -STM holds information for a brief period of time ● STM is a single component ● 10- 15 seconds ● Digital span- 5 -9 ite s ● Chunking: small units can be combined into larger meaningful units  ○ Ex) Chess players ­ masters better remembering game positions bc  chunking    4. Sensory Memory ability to look at something for a split second but still know what it is o Registers all or most information that hits our visual or auditory receptors  o the retention for brief periods of time of the effects of sensory stimulation   1) Visual Sensory Memory (iconic) ­ less than 1 second  2) Auditory Sensory Memory ( echoic memory) ­ 2­4 seconds  persistence of vision ­ continued perception of a visual stimulus even after it is no  longer present  Neural systems ● Medial Temporal Lobe: ○ hippocampus​ -where memories are formed and where the ​inding process happens 1)parahippocampal-​visuospatial memory (starts to be processed)→ parietal cortex 2)perirhina- visual object memory/recognition (knowing what something looks like and how these things look different from other objects)→ visual cortex 3)entorhinal cort- integrative memory (1st level of integration info) → combination of both parahippocampal & perirhinal (starts to put the pieces together) 4)​hinalcombination of entorhinal & perirhinal    temporal lobe and object identification:    1. Visual system Vision-way of recognizing the world around us ● from the eye to the brain ● Complex processing- in PRIMARY visual cortex & beyond early visual cortex Components of Vision: 1. Sensation- actual effects of stimulus on sensory organs ○ “real input” 2. Perception- post processing affected by knowledge & expectations ● “internal experience of the external world” ○ brain’s way to conceptualize the world ex.) people make themselves sound better than they are by faking a story ■ similar to Plato & Aristotle’s idea of Dualism: the mind is used for cognition & emotions, while the brain is the substance ■ “ There is every reason to doubt what you think is real” - Descartes → memory/ perception of reality The Human Eye: ● Retina- surface of eye that has photoreceptors ○ photoreceptors- receptors that represent light 1. rods- low light (night vision) 2. cones- light & color (day vision) ○ sensitive to different wavelengths 2 Routes of Perception: 1. Direct/Pure Route- fast ● “ the what”- important in understanding low levels of information ● ex.) object → receives photons of light → stimulates the retina receptors on the back of the eye→ travels through the optic nerve → brain recognizes object→ action/attention 2. Indirect/Cortical Route ( aka Geniculostriate Pathway) - slow ● “where/ how”- involved in decision making (executive function) ● contains the Primary Visual Cortex VI: The Primary Visual Cortex ● 1st stage of visual “processing” ○ low level of input of features ■ contains local wavelengths of color ○ provides building blocks for detecting edges in the: ■ ventral “the what” - bottom ■ dorsal “where” - top ○ Retinotopic Organization- maintains spatial layout in relation to the input from retina ■ close in space on the retina= close in V1 ex.) scotoma & anopia- forms of cortical blindness due to damage in the area where your brain processes that specific information Areas of V1:​ athway to V1 (primary visual cortex and striate cortex) 1. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus- visual relays in the thalamus ○ paracellular- small details & color ○ magnocellular- motion & rough outlines ■ Note* right eye process visual info on left side of brain and left on the right 2. Striate (stripped) Cortex- early visual cortex Complex Visual Perception: ● combination of both visual processing 1. Top-down ○ frontal cortex, temporal lobe ○ knowledge, expectations, cortex, stuff in your head like (oh I hate emily or rachel or seb) 2. Bottom- up ○ V1→ V5 : what & where ○ colors, edges, motion (external world ex. light)  V4:​ color  V5​: motion    3.Motor Cortex: M1 ● primary cortex ○ Somato organization of M1​ - activates neurons similar in motor cortex due to location on body ○ size of brain area shows intensity of sensation ■ direct correlation with number of nerve endings Top down- what you want to do → goal Bottom-up- where am I and where is the cup → location ● spatial memory- dorsal & ventral Execution= combination of both → knowledge of plan Action= motion Basal Ganglia: ● inhibits motor activation unless cortex sends a signal to “release the breaks” ● involved in the subcortex → Double Inhibition: 1. gets rid or hindrance→ globus pallidus 2. activates thalamus Process: M1( primary motor cortex) → putamen → globus pallidus : ( outer → inner) → thalamus → CORTEX Sternbergs Theory of Decision Making: a. encoding, evaluation (comparison), decision, response    frontal lobe and executive function:  1.  Movement and action Neural systems Goal Directed Movement- basic circuit for executing planned movement ● generally we are good at this ● ex.) coffee mug analogy 1. Goal- grab the coffee mug 2. identify info: ● Where am I? → dorsal ○ Somatosensation- sensory info about the body ■ Proprioception- knowledge about position of limbs in space ○ Where is this cup? → ventral 3. How: Parietal Lobe 4. Action - grab cup Executive function- higher level of thinking ● goals, motivations, decision-making ● represented in prefrontal cortex ○ Motor→ premotor, supplementary areas        alot more brain space dedicated to small numbers 1 is very different to 2 in our brain we  see 101 and 102 more similar  children both knowing numbers? 2 dots 2 dots 2 dots then you show them 3 dots and  they get more excited.  evidence that numbers are processed automatically = show 2 numbers and decide  which is physically larger between 4 and 9. 4 is the front size bigger but 9 is numerically  bigger so hard to decide which is actually bigger  TRIPPLE CODE MODEL** HAVING 3 REPRESENTATIONS ALPHA NUMERIC,  VERBAL. EIGHT, 8 OR SIZE OF NUMBER AND VALUE 3 WAYS TO CODE  NUMBERS    


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"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

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Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.