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SYRACUSE / Psychology / PSY 223 / What type of dyslexia that can read non­words and regularly spelled wo

What type of dyslexia that can read non­words and regularly spelled wo

What type of dyslexia that can read non­words and regularly spelled wo


School: Syracuse University
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Cognitive Neuroscience
Professor: C. white
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: PSY 223: Final Exam Study Guide
Description: All material covered from class. This includes key topics, terms, and definitions, as well as all lecture notes.
Uploaded: 11/02/2015
16 Pages 71 Views 3 Unlocks

Final review for PSY 223

What type of dyslexia that can read non­words and regularly spelled words better than irregularly spelled words?

New Stuff

1. Reading:

word superiority effect: 

● words are easier to recognize and process than non­words

● we are trained to discriminate words

lexical decision​:​task

● priming­ ​the more you are exposed to a word the better you will recall it (recency & frequency)

○ brain’s ability to activate word recognition without awareness

■ behavioral priming­

● repetition to stimulus causes quicker response

● less of a stimulus will create the same response

■ similar stimuli lead to adaptation

Why do we feel anger? guilt?

● “Practice makes perfect”

● routine creates habit

● Semantics=​meaning of word

● Semantic Relationships­ meaning of words are similar

○ search to identify word is easier and faster during word processing


○ ex. Doctor & nurse

● Structural Similarities­ ability to identify words due to it’s common roots­ Latin ○ Morphemes­ smallest section of language with definable meaning If you want to learn more check out What are the sex-linked disorders?

○ ­s, ­ed, ­est, ­er

○ the structures of letters and symbols throughout human history are We also discuss several other topics like Why did brits get concerned about the health of women in india in the 1860s and 1870s?

selected to match those found in objects in natural scenes

■ ex. Hieroglyphics­ pictures define a story and represent


Brain regions:

It is a type of memory that holds information for a brief period of time, what is it?

If you want to learn more check out Why technological process is a source of sustained growth in gdp?

Word recognition: 

→ Visual Recognition is processed in the left Temporal lobe and is tied into language acquisition ( Wernicke's & Brocas)

● words vs objects

○ two different processes, however to recognize words you use edges and structure of word itself (V5)

○ Temporal vs spatial

ventral pathway: 

***FUSIFORM= binding of 2 different pathways to visual information 1. Object Recognition:

● top down­ goal oriented

2. Sensory Recognition:

● bottom up ­ attentional orientation

● Neuronal Recycling: We also discuss several other topics like Who argues that humankind was destined to live at the subsistence level­?

○ visual processing­ primary visual cortex:

■ ventral (what) ­object recognition & direct pathway

○ areas of the brain are “stolen” and used for more representation

Visual Word Form Area:

● Located in the left occipitotemporal gyrus

○ responds to learned letters

○ responds to upper and lower case letters similarly

○ accessed automatically

Plasticity in the VWFA:

● Similar to Long Term Potentiation Don't forget about the age old question of In what year did frederick griffith discover the "transformation factor"?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of sampling design?

● less stimulus required after learned word

Damage to the VWFA:

● pure alexia

○ letter by letter reading 

○ slows reading comprehension­ read sentence letter by letter → word ○ spelling, writing and verbal language are unaffected

● but how can they still read?

○ different area of the brain activated to associate words to make sense Types of Dyslexia:

● Acquired­ deep vs surface

● Developmental­ phonological

● Attentional Dyslexia­ spacing of word is incorrect (visual & semantic deficits) ● Neglect­ they can see info but can not process it

○ can only draw portion of a clock

→ what does Dyslexia tell us

● specific dysfunctions suggest contributions from many systems

● attentional influences ( top­down) interact at many levels

o ­****Surface Dyslexia: Ability to read non­words and regularly spelled words better than irregularly spelled words. Ex. Dove à pronounced “doove” ,“Ch” in Chaosà pronounced like “Ch” in Church

o ­****Deep Dyslexia: Real words are read better than non­words and semantic errors are made in reading. Ex. Cat à read as “Dog”

***2. Executive Function:

pre frontal regions TASKS BY NAME AND WHAT THEY MEASURE (MATCHING!!!) here is 6 executive functions and here are 6 tasks


1. narrowing attention

2. error detection

Controlling Our Spotlight*** ​will be on test

● Exogenous Orienting-​attention is guided by external info 

○ movement, changes, noise, appearance

● Inhibition of Return​- slower to direct attention to a region that you just focused on and “got bored” with.

What to attend to?

● Endogenous Orienting-​attention is guided by internal goals, experiences, and motivation (attentional bias)

○ attend to specific object/feature

Feature integration theory 

**Feature Integration Theory - how a person pieces together separate features of an object to create a more complex perception of the object

● attention affects visual search

1. parallel search- “pop out”

○ word sticks out with less words in crossword puzzle

○ takes less time if less features

2. serial search- “focus attention”

● colors, more saline, and stand out

Feature Integration- binding lower level features together requires focus attention


● Planning and decision-making:

○ Tower of London task= move the balls from initial position to another position

○ Planning, less moves is better

● Error Correction task

○ Wisconsin card sorting task 

■ assess frontal lobe function. Put cards into piles but once the order changes need to detect effort and update rule. (The participant is

presented with stimulus cards with shapes on them. The cards

differ in color of the shapes, number of the shapes, and the form of the shapes. The participant is asked to sort these cards into two

piles. The participant is not told what stimulus dimension to use in order to sort the cards, but the administrator tells the participant if a particular match is correct. During the test, the sorting rules are

changed and the participant must discover the new sorting rule in

order to be successful.)

○ Learn from feedback (color,shape,size)

○ Habituation

● Overcoming habitual Responses ( narrowing attention)

○ stroop task - state color as fast as you can

○ then say color or read word

● Sustaining attention and working memory (narrowing attention) ○ N-Back task 

○ Look for item that matches the item from N trials ago

○ 3 back is the most difficult, store three letter in working memory instead of just 1

● Inhibitory Control: our ability to stop or inhibit some action that you were about to do (narrowing attention)

○ stop signal task: arrow pops up on screen, decided if it points right or left. ○ -In the task ¼ trials you hear a beep to stop

○ -measure stop signal reaction time

○ Right front inferior gyrus and basal ganglia are big in inhibition

Brain: prefrontal cortex (L/R DLPFC; R VLPFC), ACC

Executive function in the brain 

Higher level processes associated with prefrontal cortex. Human prefrontal cortex is way larger than other animals.

● left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - what and when to respond, selects appropriate response

● right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - info relevant to task requirement

● anterior cingulate cortex- conflict monitoring error detection

● right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex -inhibiting

executive control is related to many psychological disorders

Ex. question:

→ What is impaired for ADHD? → can’t sustain attention

→ Gambling addiction = inhibitory control

→ Autism = conflict detection

3. Emotion:

Emotion vs. Mood

● Emotion­ temporary state that relates to significance of environmental state (especially in regards to survival)

○ ex. Social situations→ job, friends, social groups

○ 2 Dimensional:

■ Valiance­ positive vs negative

● calm= low arousal, positive valiance

■ Arousal­ amp up, or bring down

● angry = high arousal, negative valiance

● Mood­ prolonged or continuous experience of a particular emotion

○ mood disorders­ anxiety & depression

● Emotional words show better memory: 

○ factors are arousal and valiance, usually high arousal has the most impact

The Purpose of Emotions:

● Why do we feel anger? Guilt?

○ reminders to tell you why you feel that way & how to improve

■ guilt­ concern for the past­ you have acted against your morals→ regret ● negative emotions are good to change, but if you keep feeling

guilty you have prolonged this emotion→ causes change in mood

■ worrying­ concern for the future, only good if you have control over that situation

Emotional Regulation:

● Don’t want to turn our emotions “off”, but still want control over how we react to them ○ must have control to keep them in tact

Emotion in the Brain: 

● emotion is thought to be mediated by the limbic system: 

○ cingulate cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus 

■ hypothalamus­ regulation arousal: blood pressure, heart rate, breathing ○ also includes amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex

■ amygdala­​flight or flight

● implicated in detection of fear­ needed for survival

○ monkeys with bilateral amygdala lesions show blunted

emotional response

■ not afraid of things or timid (but should be)

● involved in the fast (direct) route for identifying threat

○ sensory signal of fear → thalamus → amygdala

○ indirect would go thalamus → cortex → amygdala

■ orbitofrontal­ controlling emotions

→ does the physiology come before or after the emotions?

● Insula​­ primary gustatory cortex (taste)

○ different tastes­ like or not like

○ related to experiencing disgust (comparing to negative things)

Positive Emotions & Dopamine: 

● Serotonin & dopamine

○ DA­ primary reward chemical → releases positive feeling

○ Functions­ reward motivation, motor function, compulsion­ addiction “have to have it”, preservation­ “can’t leave it”

­­­­­­­> heavily involved in learning (reinforcement) 

● reward prediction error­ prediction of what you thought would happen and what actually did happen

● represents our values

Emotions & Values: 

● values are represented in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

○ domain for values in general→ compare different scales

● personal connection/ significance

○ sensory & interoceptive input

○ internally generated mental representations

■ economist studies­ how willing are you to pay for an item:

● money, snacks, trinkets

Social Behavior:

● Emotional recognition​and understanding is very important for social interaction ○ need to recognize if the conversation is going well or not

○ empathy­​ability to appreciate others’ points of view

■ “ I feel your pain” → put yourself in their shoes

Mirror Neurons­ fire the same if you do the action or you watch someone else do the action (mirror the action)

● Simulation Theory:

○ the mirror system allows us to simulate what it would be like to experience that action

■ can be applied to emotions­ reduced activation

■ based on how close you are to that person

Mirror Neurons & Theory of Mind:

● simulation via mirror neurons allows us to put ourselves in another’s shoes → Theory of Mind:

● reflected by activation in right temporal­parietal junction

4. The Numeric Brain:

● how we process numbers

● general aspects of numerical processing

● relation to other processes we have discussed

● Neural systems involved

Number Processing: 

● a lot of the evidence shows that it is innate (born with)

■ experiment: test infants to show their attention → novelty preference

■ show object → blue teddy bear → show red squirrel & blue teddy →

focused on the new object

○ the more they see something causes habituation

○ repetition of number of dots but different orientation

○ if they are right it is the number of dots being processed, and not the visual image pattern

■ could also be that there is more purple and not the actual number of dots ● it is somewhat automatic

○ number magnitude is processed even when you aren’t trying to

○ size of number vs actual number

○ similar to red

Quick Estimation of numbers:

● processing and memory is good up to 4 numbers

Size & Distance Effect: 

● Distance between numbers

○ the closer the numbers are the harder it is to tell they are different

○ similar to how we remember numbers on a number line

● Size of Number:

○ the larger the number, the harder it is to tell the difference between them ■ ex. 7_9 or 2_4 Which is harder?

○ Suggests a compressed (logarithmic) representation

Logarithmic Representation:

● It probably should be that we deal with more numbers from 1­10 as opposed to 10k­100k ● Highly based on experience­ context sensitive

○ the world we live in uses more of the smaller numbers and since we use them with so many uses, we think they are more different than usual.

■ grocery shopping with best price vs. adding a new feature to a car

→ ratio/ scale determines the idea of variability

● Similar to the idea that races are easy to identify faces similar to their race.

○ whites can differentiate whites as opposed whites to asians

Key Characteristics of Number Processing:

● fairly innate

Math & Numbers is a Language:

● Symbolic representation of something­ written vs spoken

○ ex. eight, 8

● Semantic content & relationships among items­ similarity in meaning

○ nurse & doctor, 1 & 2

● Syntax for calculations­ order matters

○ 8/2 is not = to 2/8

Numerical Processing & calculation:

● builds up on other cognitive processes (sound & sight) → language specific 1. Arithmetic Internal (abstract) representation for number

○ phonological → hear

i. morphological

○ graphemes → read

i. syntax

1 A. Arabic number representation

2. Calculation Mechanisms

● arithmetic facts

● calculation procedures

2A. Arabic Mechanism

3. Output

● speak

● write

Numerical Processing in the Brain

● Triple­code Model

○ many similarities with language processing

1. Semantic Magnitude:

● intraparietal sulcus representation of size ( magnitude)

2. Verbal System:

● Left angular gyrus

○ comprehend/produce spoken numbers system

○ store arithmetic facts (2 X = 4)

3. Visual Number Form:

● Fusiform Gyrus

○ recognizing arabic numerals

○ workspace for complex operations (123 + 548)

Numbers & Spatial Representation:

● What the number is and where it is located are often related­ linked in the brain ○ If seen a small number on the left side is is faster to process than the right

○ Show small number → get rid of # → show dot → more likely to identify the small number with the left dot

■ why? we read left to right, number lines always increase

■ “Where” pathway­ directing attention in space

● binding theory

Old stuff

be able to navigate the brain (dorsal (where, top)/ventral (what, bottom) etc): Know the main roles of brain areas:

1. Memory

● Memory​- our ability to encode, store, retain and subsequently recall information and past experiences in the human brain. It can be thought of in general terms as the use of past experience to affect or influence current behaviour.

→ How memories form

○ Encoding: taking information and converting it into a construct which can be stored in the brain.

○ Storage: the process of placing encoded information and storing it for later use ○ Retrieval: the recall of information that was previously stored in the brain Encoding→ consolidation→ recall

● Types of memory

1. Long Term Memory (LTM) “Recall”

● “Archive” of information about past events and knowledge learned 

● Storage stretches from a few moments ago to as far back as one can remember ● More recent memories are more detailed 

2 Types of LTM: 

1.)Implicit/non-declarative: unconscious memory 

1.Repetition priming 

● Presentation of one stimulus affects performance on that stimulus 

when it is presented again 

○ Propaganda effect: more likely to rate statements read or 

heard before as being true 

2.Procedural memory 

● Skill memory: memory for actions 

○ No memory of where or when learned 

○ Perform procedures unaware of how 

sensory/motor info → neurocortex ­­. basal ganglia → thalamus → premotorcortex 

3.Classical conditioning 

● Pairing a neutral stimulus with a reflexive response 

2) Explicit/declarative: conscious memory 

a.) Episodic: personal events/episodes through recollection 

● mental time travel­ no guarantee of accuracy 

○ damaged hippocampus ­ cant relive events from the past 

b.)Semantic: facts, knowledge 

● familiarity 

○ Personal semantic memory: semantic memories that have 

personal significance 

○ Can influence what we experience (episodic) by 

determining what we attend to 

3. Working Memory​-

limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning 

● WM is set up to process different types of information simultaneously ● WM has trouble when similar types of information are presented at the same time

● WM is concerned with the processing and manipulation of information that occurs during complex cognition 

Short Term Memory (STM)- “Encoding”

-​STM holds information for a brief period of time 

● STM is a single component 

● 10- 15 seconds 

● Digital span- 5 -9 items 

● Chunking: small units can be combined into larger meaningful units 

○ Ex) Chess players ­ masters better remembering game positions bc 


4. Sensory Memory

ability to look at something for a split second but still know what it is

o Registers all or most information that hits our visual or auditory receptors o the retention for brief periods of time of the effects of sensory stimulation 1) Visual Sensory Memory (iconic) ­ less than 1 second

2) Auditory Sensory Memory ( echoic memory) ­ 2­4 seconds

persistence of vision ­ continued perception of a visual stimulus even after it is no longer present

Neural systems

● Medial Temporal Lobe: 

○ hippocampus-where memories are formed and where the binding process happens

1) parahippocampal- visuospatial memory (starts to be processed)→ parietal cortex 2) perirhinal- visual object memory/recognition (knowing what something looks like and how these things look different from other objects)→ visual cortex

3) entorhinal cortex- integrative memory (1st level of integration info)

→ combination of both parahippocampal & perirhinal (starts to put the pieces together) 4) rhinal- combination of entorhinal & perirhinal

temporal lobe and object identification:

1. Visual system 

Vision-way of recognizing the world around us 

● from the eye to the brain 

● Complex processing- in PRIMARY visual cortex & beyond early visual cortex Components of Vision: 

1. Sensation- actual effects of stimulus on sensory organs 

○ “real input” 

2. Perception- post processing affected by knowledge & expectations 

● “internal experience of the external world” 

○ brain’s way to conceptualize the world 

ex.) people make themselves sound better than they are by faking a story ■ similar to Plato & Aristotle’s idea of Dualism: the mind is used for 

cognition & emotions, while the brain is the substance 

■ “ There is every reason to doubt what you think is real” - Descartes → memory/ perception of reality 

The Human Eye: 

● Retina- surface of eye that has photoreceptors 

○ photoreceptors- receptors that represent light 

1. rods- low light (night vision) 

2. cones- light & color (day vision) 

○ sensitive to different wavelengths 

2 Routes of Perception:

1. Direct/Pure Route- fast 

● “ the what”- important in understanding low levels of information 

● ex.) object → receives photons of light → stimulates the retina receptors on the back of the eye→ travels through the optic nerve → brain recognizes object→ action/attention 2. Indirect/Cortical Route ( aka Geniculostriate Pathway) - slow 

● “where/ how”- involved in decision making (executive function) 

● contains the Primary Visual Cortex 

VI: The Primary Visual Cortex 

● 1st stage of visual “processing” 

○ low level of input of features 

■ contains local wavelengths of color 

○ provides building blocks for detecting edges in the: 

■ ventral “the what” - bottom 

■ dorsal “where” - top 

○ Retinotopic Organization- maintains spatial layout in relation to the input from retina 

■ close in space on the retina= close in V1 

ex.) scotoma & anopia- forms of cortical blindness due to damage in the 

area where your brain processes that specific information 

Areas of V1:​​pathway to V1 (primary visual cortex and striate cortex) 

1. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus- visual relays in the thalamus 

○ paracellular- small details & color 

○ magnocellular- motion & rough outlines 

■ Note* right eye process visual info on left side of brain and left on the 


2. Striate (stripped) Cortex- early visual cortex 

Complex Visual Perception: 

● combination of both visual processing 

1. Top-down 

○ frontal cortex, temporal lobe 

○ knowledge, expectations, cortex, stuff in your head like (oh I hate emily or rachel or seb) 

2. Bottom- up 

○ V1→ V5 : what & where 

○ colors, edges, motion (external world ex. light) 

V4​: color

V5​: motion

3.Motor Cortex: M1

● primary cortex 

○ Somato organization of M1- activates neurons similar in motor cortex due to location on body

○ size of brain area shows intensity of sensation

■ direct correlation with number of nerve endings

Top down- what you want to do → goal

Bottom-up- where am I and where is the cup → location

● spatial memory- dorsal & ventral

Execution= combination of both → knowledge of plan

Action= motion

Basal Ganglia:

● inhibits motor activation unless cortex sends a signal to “release the breaks” ● involved in the subcortex

→ Double Inhibition:

1. gets rid or hindrance→ globus pallidus

2. activates thalamus

Process: M1( primary motor cortex) → putamen → globus pallidus : ( outer → inner) → thalamus → CORTEX

Sternbergs Theory of Decision Making:

a. encoding, evaluation (comparison), decision, response

frontal lobe and executive function:

1. Movement and action

Neural systems

Goal Directed Movement- basic circuit for executing planned movement ● generally we are good at this

● ex.) coffee mug analogy

1. Goal- grab the coffee mug

2. identify info:

● Where am I? → dorsal

○ Somatosensation- sensory info about the body

■ Proprioception- knowledge about position of limbs in space

○ Where is this cup? → ventral

3. How: Parietal Lobe

4. Action - grab cup

Executive function- higher level of thinking

● goals, motivations, decision-making

● represented in prefrontal cortex

○ Motor→ premotor, supplementary areas

alot more brain space dedicated to small numbers 1 is very different to 2 in our brain we see 101 and 102 more similar

children both knowing numbers? 2 dots 2 dots 2 dots then you show them 3 dots and they get more excited.

evidence that numbers are processed automatically = show 2 numbers and decide which is physically larger between 4 and 9. 4 is the front size bigger but 9 is numerically bigger so hard to decide which is actually bigger


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