Exam 1 Review
Popular in Personality Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 393 at Syracuse University taught by N/A in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Personality consistent behavior patterns of thoughts emotions and behaviors and intrapersonal processes originating within the individual may be hidden in unconscious o Intrapersonal emotional motivational and cognitive processes from within however external world in uences personality 0 least stable personality during childhood therefore consistency is crucial identity patterns across time and situations Why Personality used to predict other s behaviors introvert extrovert 0 Social same people are different in different situations gt you may be happy for the party but not at the party 0 looks for the POWER of the SITUATION 0 Personality different people are different in same situations gt guy at sports event not cheering at the game like the rest of the crowd 0 same situation different reactions Abnormal vs Clinical 0 normal functioning gt personality huge continuum range ABNORMAL O extreme amp unusual functioning gt ClINICAL 2 Main Issues 1 Individual Differences LABELING is a necessary evil for diagnosis purposes only appreciate uniqueness of individual 2 Several diff APPROACHES o Trait Approach differences are measured and conceptualized the Big 5 describes extroversion neurotic conscientious openness to experience amp agreeableness 0 relationships social dominance college families most stable emotions during your 20s and 30s CONSISTENCY time to time feelings o Traits relatively stable characteristic of personality gt Quantitative occurring at a degree of difference gtType distinct classes of people clear boundaries amp restrictions I ex answer to why some children rate higher on aggression gt The Big 5 Factor Model Extraversion Neuroticism Conscientiousness Agreeableness Openness to Experience L data life outcomes 0 Extraversionquantity and intensity of interpersonal interaction need for stimulation experience of positive emotions O sociable vs retiring funloving vs sober affectionate vs reserved 0 Introverts shy and reserved 0 Neuroticism level of personal adjustment vs emotional stability 0 calm vs anxious insecure and secure selfpitying and self satisfied 0 Conscientiousness organization persistence motivation O organized vs disorganized careful or careless disciplined vs impulsive 0 Agreeableness degree of compassion vs antagonism O softhearted vs ruthless trusting vs suspicious helpful vs suspicious 0 Openness to Experience seeking out appreciation of tolerance for new experiences 0 imaginative and practical preference for variety vs routine independent vs conforming Big 5 Universal Schema 0 Cross cultural research translating our questions 0 Orthological scores on one test are not related to other ones essential traits which is more important BFI is an example of this gt 13 needs af liation aggression achievement exhibition warmth emotional stability sensitivity vigilance perfectionism gt part of Personal Hierarchy Henry Murray gt raymond cattell factor analyses gtgt Limitations too broad 6th trait humility vs honesty limited by language Lexical hypothesiswhich personality traits have the largest number of relevant words 0 Data reduction techniques 0 Factor Analytic Approach I statistical procedure based on correlation nding order and chaos I put lots in gt get few out I Steps 1 create a list of items administer to large number of people enter into computer program computers correlations 9599 group items together amp compare factors 0 Biological understand the mind in terms of the body brain neurotransmitters genetics evolution I ex genetic predispositions heritable tendencies or I evolutionary theory men are more likely to defend rivals 0 Psychoanalytic Freud unconscious and internal con ict angel vs devil I ex unconscious desire to self destruct gt id and superego Drives life drive impulses death drive thanatos internal destruction pushed outwards 0 Neoanalyticnew version of psychoanalytic NO controversial info I ex obstacles from reaching goals 0 Phenomenologicalconscious experiences of the world I denies that people are born with aggression people come with tendencies and a choice I what is their true path 0 Humanistic Psych free will happiness O CrossCultural Psych translating our questions 0 Learningchange based on reward amp punishment 0 Behaviorism rewardpunishment I operant conditioning aggressive behaviors rewarded bullies go to front of line 0 Social Learning modelinglearning internal motivation 0 Cognitivelooks at perception memory amp thought I ex aggressive people process info accidental bumpf1ght Theories an organized set of principles that describe predict and explain phenomenas GOOD theories summarize are parsimonious get the most information and the simpler the better make clear predictions useful to generate hypothesis are falsifiable theory is good if people try to disapprove it allows change amp discussion Important Components gain new info test old change and update theory Methods Types of data Validity Reliability etc Data observations we make about a phenomenaneeds lots because on their own they mean different things 0 Needs to be interpreted what do they mean 0 Data amp cues no data is permanentBIASED 0 Data Sources 0 S data Self Judgements I am your own personality asking individuals directly who you are 0 Closed I am outgoing gt TF On a scale from 110 how shy are you 0 Open I am or What are your goals gtgt Advantages Who knows you better than you the good bad and the ugly o feelings cognitionsinternalour descriptions are very acurate of ourself 0 Causal force How we think of ourselves creates who we are I think therefore I am 0 simple easy direct don t know another way to act gtgt Disadvantages may under or oversell the self ashamed or too proud 0 Imperfect memory remember things you want to know 0 Fish amp Water don t know what it s like to live without water 0 I data Informant data judgements from someone who knows individual well I real world letter of recommendation gossip gtgt Advantages large amount of info informant is smart enough to base info on multiple settings amp situations 0 real world basis common sense cultural forces gt behavioral confirmation selffulfilling purpose 0 perceiver39s expectations Step 1 gt perceiver39s behavior toward the target Step 2 gt target s behavior toward perceiver 0 attractive or unattractive women study pretty higher opinion gtgtDisadvantages limited info error limited memory usually extreme events only Biased opinions friend or rival 0 L data Life Outcomes assuming people behave in similar patterns 0 data from life that gives info of personality marital status police record gt premise amp outcome gtgt Advantages Intrinsic Importance gain info on personality traits by examining behaviors and surroundings amp psychological relevance gtgtDisadvantages multi determination too many other factors to know exactly why 0 Red sofa festive lively freemany reasons why red sofa is purchased 0 B data Behavioral directly observing the situation of the now I most visible indication of personality I Types Natural setting get natural response when unaware EAR sound clips periodically records 30 sec clips of life takes 70 samplesgeneral behaviors OR beeper studyrecord mood at beep Contrived setting experimentsunderstand response to environments controlled measured 0 Personality Tests scale of 110 or just basic answer Proj ective tests image presented person says what they see 0 B based the WHATconsistency reasons behind answer I Rorschach inkblot test 10 images I TAT Thematic Apperception Test find the theme of a response TAT storyline what is happening in the pic Objective tests yesno or True False 0 very longaggregation less open to interpretation 0 S based the WHY how motives will be expressed Types 0 Omnibus many traits measured I MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory most common do responses fall in normal range identify disordered personalities 0 used by clinicians military employment agencies 0 long test567 questions scales a score on average scores I CPICalifornia Psychological Inventory 0 normal populations folk concepts of personality I NEO Personality normal populations 5 broad traits on continuum I California QSort predicts drug use and depression gt I data 0 based on someone who knows the testee 0 Single Trait measures shyness scale self monitoring scale Type A vs Type B 0 Essential Trait Models 3 factor model a Positive emotionality seek out arousal highly responsive to awards b Negative emotionality emotional irritability easily upset c Constraint not social impulsive unorthodox creative lack of empathy Psychological measures bio behavior blood pressure heart rate brain waves measured in response to certain situations gtgtAdvantages range of contextsif experiments are done we can create a situation amp measure responses to stimuli 0 Objective and Quantifiable uncertain measures need to be quantifiablefear amp excitement gtgtDisadvantages uncertain interpretations Needs STABILITY arousals need interpretation cooldisgusting movie Mixed Data vs Multiple Data 0 have strengths and weaknesses of both methods multiple sources good results Good Data 0 veri cation of assessments reliability validity and relationship between themconsistency O Constructpsychological entity that can t be observed ie what is love o Triangulation multiple methods multiple designs scales of de nitions more con dence in ndings 0 Personality consistent emotional and behavioral responses 0 Validitydegree to which a measurement actually measures what it is trying to measure I Types 0 Construct validityoverarching concept for measurement validation process multiple sources 1 Face does it look like its measuring something 2 Convergent measure of construct relates to other measures of construct 3 Discriminant construct NOT related to other measures that they are not theoretically related 0 Reliability stability and repeatability of the measurement consistency of results I error extraneous in uence on measurements I State v Trait state current not reliable from Tl gt T2 trait overall general levels individual scores are unreliable must nd average Correlation Coef cient numeric indeX of relationship between two variables 0 higher the correlation higher the reliability 0 Strength 70 70 identical in strength and highly related 0 Direction same direction positive both increase decrease opposite direction negative one increases other decreases gtgt Test reliability testretest consistency internal consistency YOU CAN NOT HAVE A VALID TEST IF IT IS NOT RELIABLE O Generalizability refers to how the measure is related to other measures Nomothetic and Idiographic 0 Nomothetic single dimensionbased on what researcher is interested in knowing 0 central important traits to self 0 secondary traits you have but not necessarily important 0 Idiographic unique combination of traits gt predicts BEHAVIOR 0 usually reveals central traits I am The Situationist Argument Walter Mischell o inability of traits to predict behavior consistently 0 situation is more important 0 people s intuitions about the self and others are wrong Counterarguments o unfair literature review too selective real life situations predict important life outcomes career success interpersonal success health 0 eX Type A shredded Type B laidback gt type A is prone to heart disease Debate Resolution Situational speci c behaviors in speci c situations 0 Personality behavioral patterns that persist o interact with each other high in aggressiveness that is put in a frustrating situation Intro Material and Approaches to Personality Which of the following is NOT part of the psychological triad Behavior Thought Feelings Personality psychologists adhering to the approach focus on psychic energy the workings of the unconscious mind and the nature and resolution of internal mental con ict Trait Cognitive Phenomenological In order to examine the relationship between early life experiences and adult criminality Dr Robbins asks his research participants to ll out questionnaires describing their early life He then obtains copies of their arrest records from the county courthouse The questionnaires used in Dr Robbins39s study would be data whereas the arrest records would be data L B SI BL What is the best way for a researcher to judge the face validity of items on a measure Conduct a factor analysis of the items Conduct an internal consistency analyses on the items Compare the items to similar measure of the same concept The tendency for us to become what other people believe us to be is called The regency effect Fish and water effect Selfserving bias If a psychologist asks a question because she or WHAT If a psychologist asks a questions because she or he wants to see how the he wants to know the answer the question elicits individual will respond to that stimulus the test elicits L data I data S data I data B data S data On Friday Terence completes the SelfMonitoring Scale and receives a score of 49 On the following Tuesday he lls out the scale again and receives a score of 28 Terence s scores on the SelfMonitoring Scale do not appear to be valid signi cant free of bias Trait Approach general information strength weaknesses stability rank mean order etc The trait approach focuses exclusively on Physical behaviors Aspects of personality that are the same in all people The measurement of absolute level of traits Which age group is likely to have the greatest amount of stability in their personality traits School age children adolescents young adults between ages of 20 to 30 Person Situation Debate Which of the following psychologist is often credited for starting the personsituation debate Gordon Allport Henry Murray Sigmund Freud Complete the following statements Situational variables predict while personality traits predict Behavioral trends speci c behaviors Speci c Behaviors nothing Nothing speci c behaviors Personality Assessment The MMPI was designed To assess individuals with normal personalities To identify Big Five personality factors To measure job success According to some researchers projective tests measure whereas objective questionnaire based measures predict What people want actually performance What people need what people want How motives are expressed actually performance Trait Approach Types of Approaches BIG FIVE and others Imagine a researcher works to discover the most important or basic personality traits that eXist across people What approach is she taking A single trait approach A manytrait approach A typological approach Kelly is very excitable and talkative She is also very disorganized and impulsive Which of the following best describe Kelly s personality High on extroversion and high on conscientiousness Low on extroversion and high on neuroticism High on agreeableness and low on conscientiousness According to Robert s et al 2006 literature review of 92 different meanlevel stability studies what trait seems to decrease steadily over time Agreeableness Social vitality Conscientiousness Coraline has a strong tendency to be aggressive across situations and has been labeled with an aggressive personality Her psychologist believes that her aggressive personality is a result of her information processing Coraline interprets nonaggressive actions as aggressive Her psychologist most likely follows which theory of personality Biological Phenomenological Neo analytic
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