PSY 337: Exam 1 Review
PSY 337: Exam 1 Review PSY 337
Popular in Adult Life & Aging
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 337 at Syracuse University taught by Professor William Hoyer in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Adult Life & Aging in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
Reviews for PSY 337: Exam 1 Review
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/01/15
Review For Test 1 PSY 337 1. What is testenhanced learning and the retrieval practice effect? What does SQ3R stand for? Taking a memory test not only assesses what one knows, but also enhances later retention, a phenomenon known as the testing effect. SInce this “test effect” has been overlooked it has been divided into two main theories. One category of theories revolves around the idea that the act of retrieving information from memory strengthens memory for that information and thus leads to better longterm retention. By contrast, the other category of theories suggests that testing is beneficial merely because it involves additional exposure to the material (i.e. another chance to study), an idea called the ‘total time hypothesis’. SQRRR(SQ3R) is a reading comprehension method named for its five steps: survey, question, read, recite, and review. 2.Why does the U.S. have lower LE than other “rich” countries? The US has a lower LE than other rich countries due to many national factors. The quality of the healthcare system is less of an influence on their overall LE as opposed to the individual’s behaviors. Many rich people in the US have elevated levels of stress, exercise less, and have power diets causing an escalated level in overweight people. Some lifestyle behaviors many US citizens factor in their daily lives are high caloric diets, higher drug abuse rates, more high risk situations such as not wearing a seatbelt, and accessibility and use of firearms is very prominent in acts of violence. 3.Why is health spending in the U.S. so much higher than in other OECD countries? It’s higher in the US than other OECD countries because the US’s health spendings for surgeries and procedures are much more expensive comparatively. Also, the US has more machines and do nearly twice as much diagnostic testing which can get rather costly. 4.Our particular social networks strongly affect our behavior, health, attitudes and opinions, and mood throughout the lifespan. For example, the level of happiness of your current friends influences your happiness now. According to Nicholas Christakis (clip shown in class), how much of an influence? How much of an influence does the level of happiness of your friend’s friends have on your happiness? Social networks and human interactions and relationships strongly affect our overall health and behavior. An individual can be affected by a “4 fold” of another individual. Meaning, a person can be affected by a 3rd degree of separation...your friend’s, friend’s, friend can be a negative person with bad vibes and their negativity can affect yourself. 5.Who was Jeanne Calment? Jeanne Calment was a woman who had a very high longevity and lived to be 122 years old. She lived in France and had one daughter Yvonne, who unexpectedly died of pneumonia at the age of 35. However Yvonne had a son Frederick, who also expected to live long, had died in a car accident at the age 36. This proves that heredity and longevity go hand in hand to predict life expectancy. None of the genes were passed down, since Jeanne’s only offspring died from non agerelated diseases. 6. The data presented in class notes show the relation between maternal age and risk of birthing a child with Down syndrome. What is the inflection point of the curve? Are there also agerelated fertility risks for men as they grow older? The inflection point of the curve is to determine maternal age and risk of birthing a child with Downs Syndrome. This point is 45 years old. The Percent Risk begins to increase around the mid 30s and continues to increase until it hits its inflection point. In addition, there are agerelated fertility risks for men as they grow older. 7. Define presbycusis. Is agerelated hearing loss usually greater for women than men? Is agerelated hearing loss greater at lower frequencies? Presbycusis is also known as agerelated hearing loss. This process is a progressive bilateral symmetrical agerelated sensorineural hearing loss . Presbycusis is usually at higher risk for men. The hearing loss is most marked at higher frequencies. 8. Define chronological age, social age, psychological age, and biological age. Chronological age is The number of years a person has lived, with regards to certain measurable variables, such as behavior and intelligence. Social age is the culturalage expectations of how people should act as they grow older(maturity). Psychological age is an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals within the same chronological age. Biological age is a general age that most people would be with similar bodies and minds. This compares the life expectancies of populations of similar cohorts. 9. Give six reasons why LEs are higher for women than men in the US (see class notes) 1. menstruation women’s likelihood of a cardiovascular disease is pushed 10 years after men due to this natural female cycle 2. the X chromosome when aging affects the genetics of a human it affects the X chromosome, since women have two and men only have one their is a better change the men’s damaging aging effects will be more prominent 3. “Testosterone storm” period of time when there are elevated levels of hormones and testosterone in the male’s body around their early 20s. This high level causes more risky behaviors like excessive drinking, not wearing a seatbelt, and violence with weapons 4. Depression men are more likely to commit suicide and succeed doing so 5. Diseases men are more likely to have a “drop dead” disease, women are more likely to get chronic diseases 6. Resistance to infection women are more resistant to infectious and degenerative disease, in part because the health promoting effects of estrogen. 10. About what percent of the US population is age 65 or older (2012 data)? About how many people living in the US are over 65 years old? About how many people living in the US are over 100 years old? What is the population of the US today roughly (world clock)? Nearly 13.7 % of the US population is age 65 or older. Approximately 45 million people are living in the US above the age 65. About 70,490 people are living in the US and are over 100 years old. The US population today is roughly 316,128,839 people. 11. What is LE for 65 year olds in the US? What country in the world currently has the st highest LE? What factors will probably shorten LE in the U.S. in the 21 century? It is believed that one out of every 4 Americans will live to be 90 once they have reached 65 years. Japan currently has the highest LE. Many factors shorten the LE in the 21st century in the US like obesity, high stress levels, high caloric diets, low exercise, etc. 12. Briefly summarize Dan Buettner’s talk on Blue Zones. What are the characteristics of the geographical areas associated with long life? Dan Buettner’s talk on Blue Zones was centered around what he studied and believed is the perfect environment and lifestyle to live a happier and long life. He discuses the 4 things that make up the “Power nine Principles” Starting at the top, the smallest portion, should be based on exercise and the ability to move naturally. It’s crucial to stay healthy and active as you age. Next is “the right look” which means your overall outlook of your life.. Do you know your purpose? Another point he emphasizes is eating wisely, meaning 80% of your diet should be fruits and vegetables. Reduce any sugars, fats, red meats, or high caloric foods and stay natural. Lastly, it is essential to have a sense of belonging. Creating good social relationships and keeping in touch with your family is essential to longevity. The geographic areas associated with long life all include a very social atmosphere and environment of healthy, active, happy people. 13. Briefly summarize the main findings from Cynthia Kenyon’s research with C. elegans on the genetic bases of longevity from the TED clip, Experiments that hint of longer lives. Why do daf 2 mutants live longer? Biochemist Cynthia Kenyon researched the C. elegans to come up with findings in increasing life span. Caenorhabditis elegans males live longer than hermaphrodites when cultured individually. Since hermaphrodites contain a pair of X chromosomes (XX) and males are XY (there is no Y chromosome in C. elegans),Cynthia questioned whether chromosomal differences could actually impact lifespan. The use of mutations in the sexdetermination genes tra1 and her1 allowed her to uncouple sexual phenotype from the normal X chromosomal composition and demonstrate that possession of two X chromosomes limits hermaphrodite life span. Cynthia also provided evidence that diploX animals live shorter than haploX animals because faulty dosage compensation results in inappropriately high expression of Xlinked genes in geriatric animals. First, three dosagecompensationdefective Dpy mutants were short lived, but four other Dpy mutants with wildtype dosage compensation had normal life spans. 14. Define developmental psychology. Give one example of agerelated intraindividual change and one example of agerelated interindividual differences. Developmental psychology is the scientific study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life. Strictly studying how child development affects one’s overall health and well being. Age related intraindividual change are the different pattern changes within the individual. An example of this is a stroke or death in the family, any sudden event can cause an intraindividual change. Inter individual differences are the different pattern changes between one individual and another. An example of this would be circadian rhythm patterns, where older people have extreme differences in patterns of waves and sleeping. 15. What is meant by the term, biocultural coconstruction? Define the term epigenetics (or epigenome), and give an example using 5HTT. Biocultural coconstruction means how life experiences and the environment influence one’s life. Epigenetics means the genetic blueprint that controls biobehavioral development from conception to the end of life. An example of epigenetics would be how people manage life stress. As stress levels increase, this can lead to the development of major depression. Depression resides on the 5HTT gene, where if there are more stressful events, the shorter the allele for 5HTT is and therefore resulting in depression. 16. The world record for men in the 100 meter sprint is 9.58 seconds? The record for this event for 3539 year olds is 10.17 seconds. The record for this event for 90+ year olds is 22.04 seconds. Usain Bolt (b. 8/21/86) set the record as the world’s fastest human at age 26. Exercise physiologists claim that Usain Bolt or any human over age 30, even someone who is extremely well trained, wellcoached, and has set sprint records when younger, will NOT reset the world record in the 100 meters because of strongly agecontrolled physical limitations in peak performance. Different types of physical performance peak at different ages for men and women (e.g. marathons, swimming events) – give 23 examples. Hockey players have a shortened time for performance. Even though they could perform well for a 20 year period, once a player reaches the age 40 they are not physically capable to have the agility, endurance, and resilence they once had in their youth. Another athlete that ages will affect performance is ariel skiing. These athletes need the flexibility and sustainability to recover a hard landing. 17.According to the clip, “unnatural causes,” why are there health disparities and large differences in LEs and mortality rates for whites, blacks, and Hispanics in the US? From the clip, describe how Kim Anderson’s case demonstrates the effect of inequalityrelated stress and allostatic load on low birth weight? Briefly define allostasis and allostatic load. Life expectancy rates are largely affected by socioeconomical status and overall healthcare and socialbehavioral interactions. For many whites, blacks, and Hispanics, the US portrays a large scale of inequality and stress. Elevated leves of stress cause many health problems like high blood pressure, increased risk to heart disease, vulnerability to chronic illnesses and infectious diseases. Allostasis is a state of physiolotidal balance that is selfmonitored by a routinely process of adaptation and change. This constant weight of instability and adjusting to new environments causes stress. In Kim Anderson’s case she faced the pressures and stressors of inequality for being a black female. This stress ultimatley put the toll on Kim’s pregnate body and brought her into preterm labor. 18. There are at least 8 Americas when it comes to regional differences in average LE at birth. Which regions (geographic areas or population characteristics) in the US have the highest and lowest average LEs within the US? What factors contribute to or cause these regional differences in life expectancy? The regions in the US with the highest average LE are Northern Virginia, Washington D.C. and counties in Colorado, Minnesota, Utah, California, Washington state and Florida.Regions with the lowest average life expectancy are West Virginia, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Louisiana. Many factors contribute to the longevity in parts of in the United States. The rising rate of obesity and plateauing of the smoking cessation rate among women are two huge factors affecting LE. Poorly controlled blood pressure and a shortage of primarycare physicians are two others. 19. An individual’s longevity and the average longevity of the human species are the result of polygenic and pleiotropic influences interacting with behavioral (diet, exercise, lifestyle) and environmental factors. Briefly define these terms: pleiotropy, polygenesis, phenotype, and genotype. Pleiotropy means that particular genes have multiple effects on the phenotype. Polygenesis is a process where several genes contribute to behavior. Phenotype is the observable/physical characteristics of an individual because interactions between traits and the environment. Genotype is the genetic makeup, of the DNA of the individual. 20. List 3 main points from the video, Living Old (shown in class). 1. When you live old, it is hard to be comfortable and live a happy life. 2. Geriatrics is a huge upcoming job field for the next 30 plus years. 3. Old people have to pay very expensive rates for healthcare and 24 hour care. 21. About how much would it cost (out of pocket) to have home health care for an older person provided by a doctor or public health nurse on a daily basis (2010 data)? About how much does a nursing home care cost (2010 data) – just room and meal plan? It would cost 150,00 out of pocket to have home healthcare for an older person. 22. What is the only intervention that is known to increase length of life span? The only intervention that is known to increase length of life span is caloric restriction. This reduces blood pressure, cholesterol, gives sufficient minerals, vitamins, and nutrients which are all great factors in living longer. 23.To what extent can your expected longevity be predicted from your parents’ longevity? In both the male and female samples, the higher the maximum age of parents, the lower the mortality risk for their offspring. This holds for both mothers’ and fathers’ ages. All parental maximum age coefﬁcients are statistically signiﬁcant. Hence, greater parental longevity is associated with reductions in mortality, with maternal effects larger than paternal effects. 24.Define the term, birth cohort. Give 12 good examples of how development thru the lifespan has been (or will be) different for different birth cohorts. Birth cohorts are groups who have shared a particular experience during a particular time span. This means people of the same age being affected by similar environments and life events. An example of how being in different cohorts affects people in various ways would be the Great Depression. Many people who lived through this time suffered a great deal of fatigue and diseased which greatly affected their overall health and risk of disease and infection. As opposed to teenagers now who haven’t gone through any major economic crisis, and therefore are much less of risk of diseases, especially with our medical technologies. 25.What is biological aging the aging of? That is, what is happening, biologically and physically, as we grow older? Reduce the 10 processes listed in class notes to the 5 that are (or seem to you) most distinctive and significant. Biological Aging is the aging of the body and mind. 1. Epigenesis due to aging and longevity, genes are switched on and off and determine functionality and activity 2. Biological clocks the regulation of certain hormones can help prevent or increase aging 3. Immunological changes decrease in immune system efficiency can lead to vulnerability to infectious diseases and accelerated aging. 4. Metabolic Effects metabolism controls the rate at which biological processes carry out. If metabolism is high it showers a lower lifespan due to overwork. 5. Crosslinking Effects one gene, DNA or protein may affect another protein when bonded together and damage it therefore changing its functionality. 26. Define presbyopia. In crosssectional research, what age group shows the largest percentage of people with low vision? What do older drivers do to selfadapt to agerelated vision loss? Presbyopia is a vision condition in which the crystalline lens of your eye loses its flexibility, making it challenging to focus on close up objects. Presbyopia may seem to occur suddenly, but the actual loss of flexibility takes place over a number of years. Presbyopia usually becomes noticeable in one's early to mid40s. People who are 75 years or older represent the percentage of people with the lowest vision. Since, Presbyopia is a natural part of the aging process, it is not a disease, and therefore it cannot be prevented. Older drivers self adapt to this visual impairment by reducing their speed, driving during the daylight, taking extra caution at intersections, wearing eyeglasses and sunglasses, annual visual inspections, taking a driving course for seniors.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'