PSY 337: Exam 2 Review
PSY 337: Exam 2 Review PSY 337
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 337 at Syracuse University taught by Professor William Hoyer in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Adult Life & Aging in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
PSY 337: Review Test 2 1.) Dr. Hoyer recommended seeing George Bonanno’s video lecture twice is much better than seeing it just once. Tell me what you got from the second viewing that you missed the first time. Or, describe in detail some of the specific findings given in the clip. Dr. Hoyer’s recommendation of seeing George Bonanno’s video “ Measuring Human Resilience” twice. This suggests that the measurement matters are sophisticated and important, so seeing the clip at least twice will help to get the full picture (< 20 min). After viewing the clip twice, I can conclude that humans have many ways to cope with loss, trauma, big challenges, and major life events. Since the U.S. is so diverse, there are large interindividual differences among our population. Surprisingly a large proportion of the population demonstrates resilience as an adaptive response. 2.) Work hard to gain wealth and then lose it. Spend time in prison for something you didn’t do. Work hard and work smart to make someone rich, and not yourself. Sometimes people report that awful experiences such as those just mentioned have been enriching and beneficial in some ways, according to Professor Dan Gilbert. Briefly describe Dan Gilbert’s idea of synthetic happiness? Is synthetic happiness less “happy” and/or any less durable compared to real happiness? Describe briefly the method and results of one of Dr. Gilbert’s experiments examining people’s judgments about what makes them happy. According to Dr. Gilbert, beliefs of what makes one happy are often WRONG. Therefore, this creates a “synthetic happiness.” Gilbert believes that individuals are poor at affective forecasting because the frontal lobes are a relatively new addition to the human brain. Inaccurate forecasting of lifesatisfaction can lead to unwise decisions and unexpected consequences. If you fake your happiness, then it stimulates your psychological immune system, therefore actually releasing dopamine in your body leading to happiness, essentially no different than real happiness, in which the same hormones are released. Dan Gilbert performed an experiment by having participants rank items from most liked to least liked. By studying amnesia he tested synthetic happiness. The results showed that people can change reactions to achieve a certain stimuli. 3.) Here’s a multiple choice question based on class notes (see handout): Which of these factors is important in determining successful adaptation in response to a crisis: a. reserve capacity (cognitive and emotional resources) b. knowledge and experience relevant to the challenging event and how to handle it c. interpersonal and perhaps monetary support at the time of crisis d. Choices a, b, and c are 3 of the factors that contribute to successful adaptation Choice D is correct because all of the factors contribute to successful adaptation. 4.) Could very harmful environmental conditions (e.g., war, famine) experienced by your grandparents in early life affect your longevity? Define and briefly explain the term, epigenetic inheritance (clip shown in class). Briefly, what were the findings for the effects of famine experienced by one generation on the health and longevity of male and female offspring? Yes, very harmful environmental conditions such as war and famine experienced by my grandparents in early life can have an affect on my longevity. Epigenetic inheritance describes that what you do and experience now might not appear to have much of an effect on you currently, whether positive or negative, however health insults probably will have negative affects on your offspring and their offspring. Epigenomic alterations due to famine and stress have consequences for offspring and their offspring, which are described in the clip. Some effects of negative experiences on the epigenome of females can have negative consequences for lifespan length of their offspring for 2 subsequent generations. Effects of negative experiences on the epigenome of males can have positive consequences for lifespan length of their offspring for 2 subsequent generations. 5.) Dr. Hoyer pointed out that “primary appraisal” involves knowing precisely the feelings that we are experiencing. In a particular situation, for example, are we feeling stress, anger, fear, loss, anxiety, resentment, inadequacy, or loneliness? In general, according to Dan Gilbert, how good are humans at articulating their emotions when stressed? Define affective forecasting? According to Dan Gilbert (TED lecture), why are we (as humans) so bad at it? According to Dan Gilbert, humans are bad at articulating their emotions when they are stressed out. We are so bad at it because we overlook the ratings of our own emotions. Stressed people tend to exaggerate their emotions or falsely express how they feel( reaction formation). Active forecasting is predicting how you will feel in the future. 6.)Briefly summarize the types of factors (internal/personal resources and the external/contextual resources) that contribute to adaptation outcomes, mental health outcomes, and physical health outcomes. Internal/Personal Resources: ● Adaptation Outcomes ○ neuroplasticity, cognitive & emotional reserve capacity, prior relevant experience, strategies, residential trauma ● Mental Health Outcomes ○ brain and psychological reserve capacity, brain circuit disorders, neuroplasticity, allostatic load/stress ● Physical Health Outcomes ○ brain & physiological reserve capacity, health & behaviors, neuroplasticity, allostatic load/stress External/Contextual Resources ● Adaptation Outcomes ○ tangible, social, events/stressors ● Mental Health Outcomes ○ formal & informal support, mental health services ● Physical Health Outcomes ○ tangible, assistive devices, personal health, social/famiiy, support 7.)Sometimes people bounce back from negative experiences and losses, and sometimes not. Based on the findings of ongoing the German panel study of more than 16,000 people, which life events result in the most substantial and relatively permanent changes in life satisfaction? Is it the type of life event or is it the person that determines the outcome of adaptation? Could an injury in a car accident NOT produce an enduring change in life satisfaction? Would winning the lottery produce an enduring and substantial increase in life satisfaction? Would buying or otherwise having particular products advertised on TV produce enduring and substantial increases in life satisfaction? The most substantial and relatively permanent changes in life satisfaction result from: loss of a spouse, loved one, or family member. Typically, it takes around a year for someone to cope with the grief of a lost loved one, but it varies among people. If it takes over a year, this grief can become alarming and may be considered major depressive disorder. In some situations an injury or car accident could cause an enduring change in life satisfaction. The aftermath from the injury could be debilitating, or the person can develop a phobia/ disorder from being in a car accident. In general, winning the lottery can produce a substantial, increase in life satisfaction at first, but could become negative in the future. Satisfaction will increase depending on what product you buy. For example, if someone buys a diet pill and they lose weight, they would become more satisfied with their body. 8.) Which gender/race/ethnicity group has the highest cancer death rate? What is the relation between per capita cigarette consumption and lung cancer death rate? African Americans showed the highest cancer death rate, while cancer death rate is higher in males than females. The chances of getting lung cancer are significantly higher in people who smoke cigs, the more cigs you smoke, the higher the risk of lung cancer. 9.)Define and describe the diathesisstress relationship. The diathesis stress relationship shows how stress over time (environmental or life events that disrupt homeostasis) affect the vulnerability of getting a disease. This diathesis stress relationship is direct, for when stress triggers increase, vulnerability to diseases increases also. Diathesis refers to a predisposition for disease that reflects loss of reserve capacity (insufficient biogenetic resources for adaptation). This takes into consideration cognitive sets, chronic feelings of helplessness, negative past experiences, or psychological "hardiness“ 10.) Which one of the 4 patterns of adaptation shown in Bonanno’s lecture is most prevalent? Define resilience. ● Chronicreflects an elevated disruption in functioning or an increase in emotional distress that does not dissipate, or decrease in severity, over time. Widows reflecting affective patterns of chronic grief should display high levels of desynchrony over time—this level of desynchrony does not improve (e.g., less desynchronous) over the course of time. ● Delayed Individuals show only a mild disturbance immediately following the loss, and may even appear resilient, but later display patterns of emotional dysregulation and lack of adjustment that resemble chronic grief. Here, we would expect that the covariation in effect would initially be positive—that is, on the low end of desynchrony to asynchrony—but that over time, these widows would become more desynchronous. ● Recoverya return to baseline levels of functioning, but the recovery pathway, in contrast to resilience, may include ongoing struggles with symptoms of grief or difficulty executing normal daily activities Here, we would expect to see covariation in effect that initially decreases—that is, becomes more desynchronous—but, over time begins to become less desynchronous, moving to a pattern of asynchrony. ● Resilience deploy efforts to cope, meaning that when dealing with a stressful situation, you have the ability to bounce back. ○ The most prevalent pattern of adaptation would be resilience! 11.)What are the phases of general adaptation syndrome? ● Stage 1: alarm the immediate reaction to a stressor. In the initial phase of stress, humans exhibit a "fight or flight" response, which prepares the body for physical activity. However, this initial response can also decrease the effectiveness of the immune system, making persons more susceptible to illness during this phase ● Stage 2: resistance during this phase, if the stress continues, the body adapts to the stressors it is exposed to. ● Stage 3: exhaustion there is still some stress in the body, the body is calming down from being excited during the stressful event (fight or flight response ). 12.) Define stress. Briefly explain the significance of the terms, allostasis and allostatic load for the understanding of stresshealth relations. Stress is a person's response to a particular stressor such as an environmental conditions or a stimulus. Stress is a body's method of reacting to challenges from the norm. Allostasis is the process of achieving stability, or homeostasis , through physiological or behavioral change. Allostatic load is "the wear and tear on the body" which grows over time when the individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress. [1 It represents the physiological consequences of chronic exposure to fluctuating or heightened neural or neuroendocrine response that results from repeated or chronic stress 13.) Reserve capacity is known to diminish with advancing age during adulthood. But the ability to function effectively in cognitive and emotional situations may actually improve with aging. Give an example of how SOC theory explains how individuals can function effectively even as reserve capacity and neural plasticity diminish. Reserve capacity is known to decrease with aging. Even though it decreases, people can still function effectively. For example, if ones supply of energy to important tasks continues to diminish, they focus on selected particular activities in order to maintain success. 14.) Refer to the Table distributed in class. What is the lifetime prevalence for having any anxiety disorder? What is the prevalence for major depression in the 60+ age group? What is the lifetime risk of having any mental disorder? What is the lifetime risk of having two or more mental disorders? ● Lifetime prevalence for having any anxiety disorder is 28.8% ● Major depression in the 60+ age group is 10.6% ● Lifetime risk of having any mental disorder is 2844% ● Lifetime risk of having 2 or more mental disorders is 27.7% 15.) Refer to the T able distributed in class: What is the average age of first onset for major depression? What is the average age of first onset for any substance disorder? What are the interquartile ranges for onset of major depression and substance abuse? ● Average age of first onset for major depression is 32. ● Average age of first onset for substance abuse is 20. ● The interquartile ranges for onset of major depression and substance abuse is ages 3044. 16.) Are the 1month prevalence rates for serious mental illness greater men than for women of the same age? Which race/ethnic group has the highest 1month prevalence rate? The prevalence of mental illness are greater in women than men at all ages. Women are more likely to seek help for their illness over men as well, especially regarding emotional problems such as anxiety and depression. (suicide rates are much higher in men than women) Prevalence rates are greater for people ages 4564 compared to people ages 18 to 44 and 65 and older. Prevalence rates are higher for nonhispanic blacks. 17.) Define and briefly explain and give an example of what is meant by the hedonic treadmill hypothesis. The “hedonic treadmill hypothesis” applies to the lifelong pursuit of happiness. The person is on a treadmill and has to keep working just to stay in the same place. This means nothing can keep people happy or unhappy for long expectations quickly rise to new levels, but lowering expectations is slower in response to circumstances. Everyday circumstances are characterized by continuous change. We come to expect gradual gains and gradual selfimprovement. Ever increasing amounts of “good things” are required to maintain the same level of satisfaction. Conversely, deteriorating circumstances make people unhappy for a while. Gradually expectations return to baseline 18.) What is BDNF, and why is it important to know about it? Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BNF) acts as certain neurons in the brain, helping to support the survival of existing neurons, and facilitating the growth & differentiation of new neurons & differentiation of new neurons & synapses. This is activated during exercise( >30 min aerobic) BDNF is in the hippocampus and the cortex is involved in learning memory. BDNF is said to be “the crucial biological link between thoughts, emotions, and physical health. 19.) See class notes for Chapter 6. What is insulin resistance syndrome? How prevalent is this syndrome? Insulin resistance Syndrome (IRS) describes a combination of health problems that have a common link. This syndrome increases the risk of obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, high blood pressure, bad cholesterol levels, and heart disease. In IRS cells, they have a diminished ability to respond to insulin, when in normal cells food is absorbed as sugars which signal the pancreas to regulate the hormone insulin. 80 million people have this syndrome. 20.) Again, how does smoking cause cancer? Smoking can cause cancer in 2 different ways. Smoke damages the lungs and exposure to smoke causes deleterious changes in selected genes. These genes change normally by agerelated biological processes( although the genes are turned on by epigenesis and off by environmental factors). Epigenetic mutations are caused by chemical changes, where smoke will alter the lungs. 21.) Exhibit 6 (see class notes on physical health) shows the trend for 4 types of medical procedures. Which one shows the steepest rate of increase? Which procedure has declined in recent years? The steepest rate of increase would be in heart surgeries. The most declining procedures are vaccinations. 22.) Roughly, what percentage of older adults selfreport having good to excellent health? Do the percentages seem to be roughly the same for different age groups and race/ethnic groups? Roughly 75% of older adults selfreport having good to excellent health. These percentages seem to be roughly the same across race/ethnic groups, ranking from 74.987.4 %. Puerto Ricans rank with the lowest self report and Anglo Saxons are the highest. As age increased, adults were more likely to say they had fair or poor health. Less than one in 10 adults ages 18–44 reported fair or poor health, compared to roughly one in four adults ages 75 and older. About the same percentages of men and women within each age group reported fair or poor health. 23.) Define and describe the term, sarcopenia . Sarcopenia is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with aging ● Sarcopenia is a component of the frailty syndrom e. It is an agerelated decrease in lean body mass. Some consequences are: decrease in resting energy, decrease insulin sensitivity, diminished muscle strength, increased risk of disability, and increased risk of mortality. 24.)What are the 2 most frequently reported chronic health conditions of older adults in the United States? The 2 most frequently reported chronic health conditions of older adults in the US are arthritis and hypertension. 25.)What are the 3 phases of Taylor’s theory of adaptation? In Taylor’s theory of adaptation to lifethreatening diseases, when (at what point) is denial an effective and appropriate strategy? Taylor’s 3 phases of the theory of adaptation are meaning, mastery, and self enhancement. ● Meaning “ Why did this happen to me” ● Mastery “Better to think that we have control” ● Self enhancement “build ourselves up” make yourself feel better This cognitive model shows when people are trying to adapt to lifethreatening diseases, denial can be an effective and appropriate strategy. Denial is effective towards many circumstances, especially when dealing with a loss. This could be a positive coping mechanism, where mastery is used when people are in denial that they are dying. Mastery will help them stay positive and become more easy knowing that they have to expect death at some point in time. 26.) According to Harley and Epel (video), what do telomeres tell you about longevity? So, what are telomeres and telomerase, and how are they affected by psychological stress? How will health span and longevity be different for mindwandering Sally and inthepresent Sally? Harley and Epel are doing the latest research of the benefits to controlling stress can help improve your lifespan. Telomeres are DNA on the very tips of chromosomes and they have a huge impact of aging. Psychological stress causes our cells to age prematurely by speeding up the shortening of telomeres. Critically short telomeres are the main cause of unstable, error prone cell processes such as cell division. If you monitor telomere rate, telomerase production increases, therefore directly increasing your health benefits. Telomerase is the enzyme that produces telomeres. Psychological stress can be affected because your fight or flight responses are accelerated in the CNS when you are more stressed out. This increases the effects of aging. Mind wandering Sally will have much more stress in her life than InthePresent Sally. Stress will shorten her telomeres when constantly worrying about things, and therefore decrease her health span and longevity. If she stays focused in the present she can reduce stress and promote longevity. 27.) Is it really true that earlyonset AD is known to have specific genetic markers that cause the disease? Is it true that there are “susceptibility genes” that are risk factors for lateonset AD? Explain the similarities and differences between earlyonset and lateonset AD. Yes, earlyonset AD is known to have specific genetic markers since it is heritable (535) genes. The gene APOE is said to have a risk factor for late onset AD but is not a genetic marker. Earlyonset AD is a term used when Alzheimer’s disease is diagnosed before the age of 65, also the symptoms are very similar to those of late onset AD, early onset usually is in people ages 3060. Familial Alzheimer's disease is caused by any one of a number of different singlegene mutations on chromosomes 21, 14, and 1. The causes of lateonset Alzheimer's are not yet completely understood, but they likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that influence a person's risk for developing the disease. This increased risk is related to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene found on chromosome 19. APOE contains the instructions for making a protein that helps carry cholesterol and other types of fat in the bloodstream. 28.) Name 3 FDAapproved drugs for treating AD. Are they effective? From class notes, what conclusions can be drawn about pharmacological treatment of AD? Three FDAapproved drugs for treating AD are Namenda (memantine), Razadyne(galantamine), Aricept ( donepezil), and Exelon (rivastigmine). Yes, there is a significant benefit for patients receiving active treatment, although 40% receiving treatment experienced no change or better on cognitive performance, and only 20% received somewhat improvement in cognitive performance. I can conclude that there is no cure for AD, although certain medications may help, there hasn’t been much progress in pharmacological treatments. 29.) Thomas Insel proposed a new way of understanding mental illness. That is, instead of using terms like mental illness and mental disorder and behavior disorder, a better term is brain circuit disorder. Explain. Thomas Insel explains how people classify Mental Disorders as behavioral disorders, but he thinks that mental disorders shouldn’t always be labeled as mental or behavioral. Insel believes that they should simply be classified generally as brain circuit disorders. These mental disorders are involved with neurons, neurotransmitters, and synapses. Most disorders are in the human connectome such as depression, OCD is greater than PTSD, of which all of these are simply variations in the way the brain is wired. Insel suggests that its easier to say a mental disorder is a disease of the brain rather than mental or behavioral. Mental disorders are similar to a chronic disease. Insel mentions how chronic/ deathly diseases were once very high in mortality rate such as Leukemia, heart disease, and AIDS. 30.) What is so important about Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB)? Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) is a very crucial finding in treatment to Alzheimer’s disease. Disease modifying strategies will give rise to a next generation of treatments; these are focused upon the amyloid cascade and are aimed at inhibiting the production of amyloid protein. If shown to be eﬀ ective in the early stages of the disease, the availability of a tool such as C11 PIB could revolutionize the treatment of AD if susceptible patients can be identiﬁ ed and treated when their symptoms are minor and potentially reversible. ● Current areas of research using the C11 PIB tracer are now focused upon longitudinal studies. By scanning the same subjects over three to ﬁve years, researchers may begin to understand when an amyloid is ﬁ rst detected and how this correlates with the onset of AD.
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