PSY 337: Exam 3 Review
PSY 337: Exam 3 Review PSY 337
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 337 at Syracuse University taught by Professor William Hoyer in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Adult Life & Aging in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
Review 3 1. Take notes while rewatching the TED lecture by Elizabeth Loftus. When finished, review your notes and then select and write 4 summary points or main points (findings or observations) from your notes. At least one day later, again rewatch the same TED lecture, this time adding detail and additional info to your notes from before. When finished, review your revised notes, and write4 new or revised or more specific points based on the second rewatch. In other words, your answer to this question has 2 parts, each having 4 points based on separate viewings of the Loftus clip, and the 4 points comprising second part showing more detail than those in the first part.First Time Watching: ● False Memories : study when people remember things that didn’t happen ● memory can be changed/ influenced by other people ● Car accident example: Depending on the word “ hit” or “ smashed”, more people thought the car accident was worse when asked what happened when the car smashed into the other car. ● studies how a psychotherapy patient would remember a brutal memory that was repressed from childhood Second Time Watching” ● False memories are not made up, people can contaminate/ distort their memory. This happens especially during events of trauma. People believe the traumatic experiences more since they believe that what they see or what actions they carry out are real and most definitely occurred. ● False memories are an extreme legal issue: in the legal system, many court cases resulted in prisoners have been found not guilty after a victim falsely accused someone of committing a crime. 75% of the time when cases were wrongfully convicted they were due to false memories. ● It is mucher harder to remember what occurred when going through a stressful event while trying to do something else and normally they say it was much worse than it actually was similar to the car accident example. ● Sometimes false memories that are repressed aren’t essentially what you think they might be. For example, a woman thought she engaged in a satanic ritual where her stomach was cut open for a baby. In reality she has a repressed memory of being left alone at a grocery store. She forever more is scared of it happening again and this irrational fear distorted this memory. Same as #1 above, but based on two separate viewings of the James Flynn TED lecture. That is, take notes while watching the TED lecture by James Flynn. When finished, review your notes and write a 4point summary. Then, at least one day later, rewatch the same TED lecture by Flynn, this time adding more detail to your notes from before. When finished, write another 4point summary based on the second rewatch. So, your answer to this question has 2 4point summaries based on separate viewings of the Flynn clip, and showing your keener observation the second time. First Time Watching ● In the 1900s people scored an average of 70 on IQ test, now the average is 130 ○ 70 is borderline mentally retarded, 130 borderline gifted ■ this is not true, it’s described by advances in education ● In the 1900s people didn't think abstractly ● New age people think logically… we use universal moral principles and don’t restrict our knowledge and exploration ● In the 1900s people were fixed in concrete moral arguments ○ ex.) “Imagine if you woke up Black?” → would respond that this is not possible Second Time Watching ● 35% of the American population in the 2000s have cognitively challenging demands ● The tenor of education has changed over the century, half of the population have gone to a tertiary level of education 3. Based on watching the TED lecture by Barry Schwartz, what are the characteristics of wisdom? ● Practical wisdom is knowledge used in situations that have a moral dimension to them. Lately, people lack practical wisdom. Currently we value rules over wisdom; however, in order to live morally we sometimes need to bend or change the rules 4.In the clip shown in class on 3/20 on the power of memory, briefly describe differences between having a sharp memory and a hazy memory. ● Sharp memory is when you can retrieve/ remember incidents right away to their full entirety, as opposed to hazy memory where you can only remember small parts of the event and you are unclear if it actually happened. 5.Remembering the Clive Wearing’s sister’s name is Adele, and that his wife’s name is not Samantha, is an example of what type of memory? What are the agerelated effects on this kind of memory? ● Speed of searching and accessing the contents of the memory ● Remembering those details is an example of short term memory. As you age, the speed of your synapses decreases, your cognitive functions slow down, and your short term memory decreases substantially... especially in Alzheimer's patients and dementia. ● Speed of retrieval of episodic memories from LTM (even after just a few minutes) ● Working memory span and efficiency ● Speed of encoding (learning) ● Agerelated general decline in accuracy and amount of retained information 6. What is working memory (WM)? Describe two tests or measures of WM. Is WM an “ingredient” of intelligence? ● Working memory is a type of shortterm memory that is mentally challenging and involves active processing. WM is the simultaneous processing and storing of information. Working memory isn’t necessarily a contribution of intelligence. 7. Briefly describe what is unusual and remarkable about the memory function of Jill Price (A. J.)? Her unique memory strengths did NOT give her much or any advantage in the job market; what aspect of cognition that was missing in her repertoire puts her at a clear disadvantage in terms of effective cognitive function and mental health? ● Since the age of 12, Jill Price has remembered every detail of her life, even to the exact words her Mother said about her weight gain. Jill price is diagnosed with the condition hyperthymesia.Although it may seem nice to remember everything, it is only good for the positive memories, and for the bad, they will forever not be erased. Rather than helping her, her memory assisted in her constant struggles with depression as she remembers every detail of her husband’s death and seems to relive these traumatic experiences. 8. Jill Price performed very poorly on a neuropsychological measure called the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST). What does the WCST measure? ● The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of "setshiftin" ○ ex. the ability to adjust the flexibility of the face of changing schedules in reinforcement ● Initially, a number of stimulus cards are presented to the participant. The participant is told to match the cards only, without stating how to match them. In addition, he or she is told whether a particular match is right or wrong.The test is widely used in patients withacquired brain injur,neurodegenerative disease , ormental illness such as schizophrenia 9. What is Clive Wearing’s memory problem? What does Clive’s problem tell us about different forms of memory? ● Clive suffers from a severe form of short term memory loss. Clive can only remember things for around 10 seconds. For example his wife asks him a question and during his response he had already forgotten the question. This tells us that some memory deficits are worse than others. People with short term memory loss forget simple things, however in but Clive’s case he forgets absolutely everything. The only person he can remember is his wife. 10. Define priming and implicit memory. Give examples of how these forms of memory are measured. Do these forms of memory show large or small declines during the adult years for healthy individuals? ● Priming and implicit memory are smallage related deficits of memory. Implicit tests of retention measure transfer from past experience on tasks that didn’t use conscious recollection of recent experiences during performance. Implicit tests are measured by using words rather than pictures for memory. Priming is a nonconscious form of human memory. This is concerned with perceptual identification of objects and words. However only recently priming has been recognized as separate from other forms of memory or memory systems. Proving they show small declines during the adult years for healthy individuals. 11. The next U. S. Memory Championship will be held in NYC on March 29, 2014 (http://www.usamemorychampionship.com/ . What are the types of events that comprise this competition? Do the competitors or “athletes” have extraordinary memory and brain functions or is their performance all about practice, tricks, training, and strategies? Dr. Hoyer casually mentioned that he thought a 65year old probably could not win the championship – do you agree or disagree? Why? ● The qualifying events (not in order) are: ○ poetry, speed numbers, speed cards, and names & faces ● Champion events are: 1. Spoken Words 2. Three Strikes You're Out 3.Double Deck O’ Cards ● Most of the athletes do have an extraordinary memory to begin with but they do you strategies and practice training their brain and keeping it up to par for their competition. I would agree with Dr. Hoyer that a 65 year old would not win the championship because for one they are competing with much younger more active brains in which have not degenerated or aged at all, even if you keep up with your brain mentally there is no way to keep your mental capabilities at the same level for your entire life. 12. What is g? What test measures it? How does g change during the adult years? Does gpredict individual differences in performance in work and school? ○ G is a measure of intelligence. There are multiple IQ tests given to measure intelligence. ○ Most important intelligence functions derive from one general mental ability called g. Thurstone’s 7 factors measures the primary mental abilities. An individuals mental ability consists of reasoning,number, perceptual speed, memory,verbal fluency, verbal comprehension and spatial visualization. During one’s adult years g decreases at approximately ages 5360. 13. How can the memory performance of older adults be improved? That is, by what “mnemonic” procedures and strategies can the memory performance of older adults be improved? ○ To improve memory and performance, older adults can do words scrambles and crosswords, or any activity to get their brains thinking again. A good diet, healthy lifestyle, staying active and constantly working the brain can also help improve memory. Mnemonic procedures such as memory training for older adults has increased in recent years. 14.What does the Stroop ColorWord Test measure? ○ The Stroop ColorWord Test measures ones reaction times. The Stroop effect is also used to measure a person’s selective attention capacity and skills, and brain's processing speed ability. 15. Wow, a measure of your intelligence at age 10 or 11 will predict your intelligence at age 80. What factors contribute to this strong correlation? ○ There is a strong relationship between your IQ at age 1011 and age 80. During a longitudinal cohort test, children's’ mental ability was positively related to survival in their late 70s/ 80s. 16. How and why do crystallized and fluid intelligence change across the adult life span? Describe or give an example of a test or measure of crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence. ● Crystallized intelligence refers to measures that reflect the extent to which the individual has acquired the valued knowledge of his/her culture. Fluid Intelligence refers to the individual’s “pure” ability to understand and think about a wide variety of basic information.Both types of intelligence increase throughout childhood and adolescence.Fluid intelligence peaks in adolescence and begins to decline progressively beginning around age 30 or 40.Crystallized intelligence continues to grow throughout adulthood. An example of a fluid intelligence test would be visual patterns or more commonly “street smart”, while an example of crystallized intelligence would be knowledge of facts and possessing a foundation of knowledge on specific topic 17. Why do crosssectional studies of intelligence and longitudinal studies of intelligence usually reveal different age trends? ● In crosssectional studies, age related differences are confounded by cohort differences. Adult intellectual performance changes as a function of both cohort and age. 18. Does agerelated slowing of processing speed have a small or a large effect on agerelated decline in general intellectual ability? ● Agerelated slowing of processing speed has a large effect on agerelated decline in general intellectual ability. 19.What is the MOCA? What are its component measures? ● MOCA stands for Montreal Cognitive Assessment. This is a one page test worth 30points that takes approximately 10 minutes to complete. This test measures different types of cognitive abilities including: orientation, executive function, shortterm memory,language abilities, and visuospatial ability. 20. Define attention and “selective attention,” and describe how performance on attention measures change from young adulthood to old age. ● Attention is a term studied in cognitive psychology that refers to how we actively process specific information present in our environment. Selective attention is being able to focus one's auditory attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli.
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