PSY 337: Exam 4
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Mr. Vernie Wehner
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 337 at Syracuse University taught by Professor William Hoyer in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Adult Life & Aging in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/01/15
4/21/14 PSY 337 Optional R4 Printed answers will be collected (at the beginning of class) on April 22, 2014 only then. Copy/save the questions from this file into a new file, so as to show the question being addressed and to preserve the numbering and ordering of the questions. Your answers potentially add 10 percentage points to your percent score on T4. Reminder: Definitely do your own work in preparing answers – turning in answers that are the same as another student’s answers will result in a 0% on R4 and T4. Please put your last name and SUID in the header of each page, and staple the pages together. Questions 17. For each of the 7 videos/clips listed below, identify and summarize 4 findings that you think Dr. Hoyer will include on T4. That is, provide 4 bullet points for each of these clips. 1. Angela Duckworth: the key to success? grit http://www.ted.com/talks/angela_lee_duckworth_the_key_to_success_grit ● Grit refers to showing a high degree of passion and perseverance for a particular longterm goal. ● Grit involves pursuing life goals, keeping in check the big picture and disregarding small hindrances sticking with your future and making your future a reality ● Measures of grit predict success, much better than IQ, talent, income, good looks, etc. ● Grit is not just having resilience in the face of failure, but also having deep commitments that you remain loyal to over many years. 2. Alain de Botton: a kinder, gentler philosophy of success http://www.ted.com/talks/alain_de_botton_a_kinder_gentler_philosophy_of _success ● In western cultures like our own, we take responsibility for and get full credit for our successes, and we are responsible if/when we fail. This view is not entirely accurate because sometimes random events either facilitate or interfere with success and failure. ● To solve this inconsistency, we can make sure our ideas of self and success are truly our own, not someone else’s. Many people compare their success to others and falsely claim their own failure. ● The other thing about modern society and why it causes this anxiety is that we have nothing at its center that is nonhuman. We are the first society to be living in a world where we don’t worship anything other than ourselves. We think very highly of ourselves, and so we should. We’ve put people on the moon. We’ve done all sorts of extraordinary things. And so we tend to worship ourselves. ● Any vision of success has to admit what it’s losing out on, where the element of loss is. I think any wise life will accept, as I say, that there is going to be an element where we are not succeeding. 3. Esther Perel: the secret to desire in a longterm relationship http://www.ted.com/talks/esther_perel_the_secret_to_desire_in_a_long_te rm_relationship ● Love is: When you care, worry, feel responsible for someone. You want to minimize threats, reduce the distance, and nurture them. ● Desire is: an expression of freedom and autonomy. Many feel “freer” with people they are less emotionally involved in. ( ex. Why do women like the bad boys? You don’t have to worry about him – don’t’ feel safe with him, but it’s freeing in terms of desire) ● Sometimes the very care, worry, feeling of responsibility we feel for our beloved is what stifles the unselfconsciousness and freedom necessary for desire. ● What nurtures love is not necessarily what fuels desire and what turns us on sexually isn’t always what is emotionally safe. 4. Daphne Bavelier, Your brain on video games http://www.ted.com/talks/esther_perel_the_secret_to_desire_in_a_long_te rm_relationship ● Bavelier and her partners found that by forcing people to play action games, they actually had better vision. Interestingly, even those with normal visual acuity could improve their ability to detect contrast and make sense of visual clutter by playing action video games. ● This led us to look into using action video games to improve vision in low vision patients: The theory behind this approach is that action video game play actually retrains the deficient connectivity between cortical visual centers in these patients. Interestingly, such retraining seems to happen even in adults that are thought to be past the “critical period” for visual plasticity. ● Intensive retraining of the amblyopic eye in the context of high action video games actually can improve acuity regardless of age. ● If you stimulate the adult brain in the right way, then you can still reveal significant plasticity. The limits of this are still unknown, for example, we may not expect the same level of retraining in Alzheimer’s patients. 5. Danah Boyd, context collapse http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false& id=282359480&m=282359481 ● Like adults, teenagers are figuring out how to present themselves in different contexts. They want to find their boundaries and how they fit into the social world regarding peers. ● We live in a connected era, and sociality is largely affected by emerging technological platforms. Boyd refers to the new interaction structure resulting from an increasingly mediated form of sociality as “networked publics,” with the key interaction media being social network sites. ● Social network sites are defined as ‘‘webbased services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semipublic profile within a bounded system, (2) articulates a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system” ● Largely, context collapse is difficult to avoid due to the architecture and normative structure of social media space. In such a space users are searchable, the cost of connection is very low, and norms dictate that requests for connection, “friend requests”, be honored if the individual knows the requestor, even the most distant relationship 6. Emotions outlast the memories that made them http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=125869707 ● Scientists in neuropsychology at the University of Iowa focused on people with damage to the hippocampus , the area of the brain that hangs on to new memories. They suspected that the feelings associated with meaningful events might be captured by a different part of the brain and, therefore, might linger ● It is the brain's hippocampus that imprints new information into memory. In dementia patients, this is why old friends are remembered, long ago memories are recalled, but the loved one won't remember someone who just visited, perhaps, even as recently as an hour ago. Longterm memories are still accessible, but new memories can't be processed. ● The test done on patients with damaged hippocampuses was a success. They played 30 min videos of “tearjerker” clips.Everyone who watched the film clips was visibly moved,some to tears. However, a halfhour later when quizzed about the movies, they didn't remember a thing — not even one woman who had sobbed during the films. ● Same study was done in reverse with happy/ funny movies and the results correlated. Patients were still happy after the movie. This is best explained by Deborah as: "Is it some sort of nonverbal image resonating in her mind, a sort of gloomy image of despair? “ 7. Many older Americans are sexually active http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false& id=13872116&m=13877236 ● Dr. Stacy Tess Rondell s tudied the effects of sex and intimacy and how it influences health. People still need that intimacy to survive and have a sense of belonging. ● Adults 5580 believed sexuality is very important in their lives, and the amount people have sex is still a couple times a month on average, similar to the age bracket 2055. ● Many people in the survey had a spouse, but many lose their partners before the other. These patients either live in shame and remain not sexually active, or others hide their other intimate relationships and fear it is wrong for “being too old.” ● Many older people are on medications that interfere with their sex lives. 8. The OCEAN factor, conscientiousness, shows a slight increase across the adult lifespan. Define conscientiousness. Identify and define the other 4 OCEAN factors and briefly summarize the age trends for each. ● Conscientiousness individuals who are purposeful (organized, thorough & planful) These people have a tendency to show selfdiscipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement ( slight increase across adult lifespan) ● Neuroticism individuals who are tense, moody, anxious tendency to easily experience unpleasant emotions (decreases over lifespan) ● Extroversion – individuals who are sociable (talkative, energetic, assertive) Individuals have a tendency to seek stimulation and the company of others ( slight decline over lifespan) ● Openness to Experience – individuals who have active imaginations and are attentive to inner feelings a tendency to enjoy art, new intellectual experiences, and ideas ( slight decline over lifespan) ● Agreeableness individuals who are fundamentally altruistic, (sympathetic, kind, affectionate) These individuals have a tendency to be compassionate rather than antagonistic towards others ( slight increase across lifespan) 9. Is it true that an averagetohigh level of neuroticism that is increasing predicts relatively fewer years of lifespan (survival)? What other factor of OCEAN is known to predict lifespan and healthspan? ● Yes, it is true that average to high levels of neuroticism that is increasing can predict relatively fewer years of life span. ● High conscientiousness is related to better health and longevity. 10. Briefly describe the 4 levels of analysis of personality and personality development. Give a seemingly realistic example of a personality assessment of a 20year old at each of the 4 levels. The “characteristic adaptation” level and the “life stories” level of analysis seem very useful for describing personality and personality development for individuals. Can descriptions at these levels generalize to the description of age trends for personality development across individuals? ● Level 1 –Dispositional level the individual can be described in terms of traits ○ A 20 Year old girl in college: honest, confident, happy, loyal, optimistic decides to go abroad for summer school ● Level 2 – Personal concerns levelthe individual’s values, coping strategies and styles, and defense mechanisms ○ She is very close with her family and boyfriend from home, and wants to spend time with them. If she goes abroad it will help her future, but can she miss being home for so long? Since she is a healthy and happy individual, although it’s a tough decision, she can handle the distance. The girl can cope with change and adjust to new environments by looking at them in a positive way as a challenge not a hinderance. ● Level 3 – The life story levelidentity is represented by an internalized and evolving personal myth or story. This level is revealed only through/in close interrelationships. ○ She has been dating her high school boyfriend of 4 years and he would give up his internship to see her. She explains it’s best for the both of them to focus on their future and that they will be fine since they always have been. ● Level 4 –Geneenvironment interplay in changing environments and neurobiohormonalbased changes in individuals ○ Her mother and father both are understanding people. Since she was raised this way so is the 20 year old. Knowing that going abroad for the summer will get her ahead in school, this achievement is valued over the girl staying home this summer. The 20 year old has some traits such as being understanding and optimistic, all of which came from her parents. Yes, these characteristics can generalize to age trends for personality development across individuals. 11. Define the term, personality. Define the term, trait? ● Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving ○ “Psychological organization of the individual as a whole and especially those features that distinguish the individual from others” (Costa & McCrae) ● A trait can be thought of as a relatively stable characteristic that causes individuals to behave in certain ways Trait is used to refer to a person’s most distinctive attributes (e.g., kind, happy, shy, confident, conscientious or lazy, cranky, loyal or untrustworthy, honest or sneaky, selfcentered). 12. What does the term “ego” mean in Loevinger’s theory of adult personality development? Describe the last 6 stages in development or emergence of a person’s real self, according to Loevinger? ● Loevinger’s Ego development theory describes ego as self and how people interpret their place in the world. The ego develops slowly toward maturity. However, as we age, people are developing an increasingly more differentiated perception of self. 1. The conformist stage ● The most common stage later in elementary school and in junior high school. However, a number of people remain at this stage throughout their lives. ● Conformist individuals are very invested in belonging to and obtaining the approval of important reference groups, such as peer groups. ● Tend to view and evaluate themselves and others in terms of externals—how one looks, the music that you listen to, the words or slang that you use, the roles people assume to show what group they are in and their status within the group. ● They view themselves and others in terms of stereotypes—broad generalizations about what members of certain groups are or are not like 2. The Self Aware Stage ● This stage is the most common stage among adults in the United States. The selfaware ego shows an increased but still limited awareness deeper issues and the inner lives of themselves and others. ● The begin to wonder what do I think as opposed to what my parents and peers think about such issues as God and religion, morality, mortality, love and relationships. ● Tend to not be at the point where they reach much resolution on these issues, but they are thinking about them. ● More aware that they and others have unique feelings and motives, different from those that might be prescribed by the feeling rules they have learned from movies and books and other people 3. The Conscientious Stage ● The conscientious ego values responsibility, achievement and the pursuit of high ideals and longterm goals. Morality is based on personallyevaluated principles, and behavior is guided by selfevaluated standards. Consequently, violating one’s standards induces guilt. ● Greater selfreflection leads to greater conceptual complexity; experiencing the self and the world in more complex ways; and this includes experiencing one’s own feelings and motives in more accurate and differentiated ways and expressing them in more unique and personal terms. ● Finally, with increasing awareness of the depth and uniqueness of others’ feelings and motives as well comes increasing concern with mutuality and empathy in relationships. 4. The Individualistic Stage ● The individualistic ego shows a broadminded tolerance of and respect for the autonomy of both the self and others. But a wish gives others the autonomy to be who they really are can conflict with needs for connection and intimacy. ● The heightened sense of individuality and selfunderstanding can lead to vivid and unique ways of expressing the self as well as to an awareness of inner conflicts and personal paradoxes. 5. The Autonomous Stage ● The autonomous ego cherishes individuality and uniqueness and selfactualization; individuals’ unique and unexpected paths are a source of joy. And these independent paths are no longer seen in opposition to depending on each other; rather relationships are appreciated as an interdependent system of mutual support ● Greater tolerance of ambiguity. In particular, both inner conflicts and conflicts between people are appreciated as inevitable expressions of the fluid and multifaceted nature of people and of life in general; and accepted as such, they are more easier faced and coped with. ● Finally, the heightened and acute awareness of one’s own inner space is manifest in vivid ways of articulating feelings. 6. The Integrated Stage ● The ego shows wisdom, broad empathy towards oneself and others, and a capacity to not just be aware inner conflicts like the individualistic ego or tolerate inner conflicts like the autonomous ego, but reconcile a number or inner conflicts and make peace with those issues that will remain unsolvable and those experiences that will remain unattainable ● The integrated ego finally has a full sense of identity, of what it is, and at this stage it is seeking to understand and actualize my own potentials and to achieve integration of all those multifaceted aspects of myself that have become increasing vivid as I’ve moved through the preceding three stages. In Loevinger’s research this highest stage is reached by less than 1% of adults in the United States. 13. People who are married selfreport higher levels of happiness than people who aren’t married. Consider possible “explanations” for the correlation between being married and being happy. Does this correlation mean that marriage makes people happy? Which unmarried age group reports the hig hest level of happiness? Do you care to speculate about why? ● This correlation between married and happy is statistically proven, and therefore does show relevance. Not necessarily marriage itself, but having an intimate relationship with someone to provide love, safety, and security is proven to make people happier. ● The oldest unmarried age group 65 and older has the highest level of happiness. I would hypothesize that this is because once you reach a certain age you come to an understanding and accept yourself as single or unmarried. 14. According to Carl Jung’s theory, do individuals become more introverted or more extraverted as they grow older? What is meant by the term, individuation? ● Carl Jung’s stage model of personality assumes changes throughout life, meaning that as you grow older you become more of an introvert. With an emphasis of the stages in the development of consciousness and the ego Jung found that the focus early in life (youth and middle age) is on extraversion (focus on external world). Then as we grow older the focus in later life is on introversion (focus on one’s inner world). ● Individuation means to expresses the process in which the individual self develops out of an undifferentiated unconscious . It is a developmental psychic process during which innate elements of personality, the components of the immature psyche, and the experiences of the person's life become integrated over time into a wellfunctioning whole. 15. Concisely summarize Erikson’s last 4 stages of the human life cycle. Erikson’s and Loevinger’s concepts of integrity are different in several ways – how so? 1. Identity versus Role Confusion – social relationships: “I am the roles I play” ● Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. 2. Intimacy versus Isolation – personal relationships: “ I am in large part who I love (I am my feelings).” ● Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. ` 3. Generativity versus Stagnation –work and parenthood: “I am what I do, what I create, and I am who/what I care about (x, y, z).” ● Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. 4. Integrity versus Despair – reflections on life: “I am who I am, who I have been, and who I have become.” ● Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair. Erik’s Theory is much different than Loevinger’s concept of integrity for multiple reasons: ● Erik used his theory of ego integrity represent one of the few personality theorist to examine aging as a stage of development. According to Erikson's theory, personality development goes through a series of eight, hierarchically ordered stages. Associated with each stage is a psychosocial crisis that the individual either successfully resolves or fails to resolve. Failure results in incomplete development of the personality, and inhibits further development of the personality. ● Loevinger’s theory of which 'the ego was theorized to mature and evolve through stages across the lifespan as a result of a dynamic interaction between the inner self and the outer environment', Her theory is significant in contributing to the delineation of ego development, which looks at personalities as meaningful wholes 16. Cognitive decline is associated with having fewer social ties. Does this mean having fewer social ties cause lower cognition or decline? E xplain. ● Yes, it is statistically proven that people with more social ties have less cognitive decline. However, this does not mean that social ties makes for better cognition in later life. Having social ties creates bonds and relationships where information is being processed and shared, hence increasing cognition. 17. What is the size of the genetic heritability component for loneliness? To what degree does loneliness and/or inactivity predict lifespan (survival)? ● Heritiability for loneliness is about 48% ● Loneliness and/ or inactivity can predict lifespan. ○ The combination of both is the lowest survival rate, then loneliness itself, then inactivity, and lastly both active and not lonely ○ Women tend to have a more severe impact on lonliness and inactivity 18. Briefly summarize the trends for size and characteristics of families and households in the U. S. in the past 25 years or so. ● 1 person: 1726% → large increases ● 2 person: 2933% → moderate increase ● 3 person: 1716 % → slight decline ● 4 person: 1615 % → slight decline ● 5 or more: 2110 % → large decline 19.. What percentage of men aged 3544 were married in 1960 and in 2008 in the U. S.? What percentage of 1832 year olds were married in 1960 and in 2013? For 3544 men married: ● 1960 88% ● 2008 65.3% 1832 year old: ● 1960 65 % ● 2013 26% 20. Describe the trends for birth rates in the U.S., 19902010. Describe the trend for births to unmarried women in the U. S. ● Birth rates in the US from 19902010 have decreased. It went from 7264 % ● Trends for births to unmarried women in the US have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. Births are more common in blacks than whites, but on average it increased almost 10 % in total. 21. From class notes (and Esther Perel’s lecture), list the microlevel interpersonal factors that predict divorce or breakup of a relationship. ● Negative affect ● withdrawal ● more negative than positive behavior ● criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling 22. Six (macrolevel) sociodemographic factors are known to predict divorce. Give percentage of risk for each of these factors. ● Annual income under $25,000 ( 30 %) ● Having a baby < eight months after marriage (24%) ● Marrying under 18 (24%) ● Divorced parents (14%) ● No Religious affiliation (vs. one) (14 %) ● Did not graduate from highschool (13%) 23. Describe the precarious couple effect an interpersonal dynamic that is known to predict a precarious relationship. ● Precarious couples are the specific combination of a quiet, verbally inhibited man with a verbally disinhibited but highly critical woman. These couples have been shown to have extremely poor relationship quality, in part because the man may feel like he can never get a word in, and the woman feels like he has no spine. 24. Describe the trend over the past 40 years or so for the percentages of men and women who reported that their marriage were “very happy.” ● Over the past 40 years, the percentage of people reporting to be very happily married is slowly declining. Roughly 5 % decrease. 25. Describe the trend from the 1960s to the present for the percentages of high school seniors who said that having a good marriage and family life is important. How do Millenials and Gen Xers assess the importance marriage and parenting in their life? ● In general, both girls and boys the trend is pretty steady with a few fluctuations ● There were minor increases in both genders 26. Describe the trend for the percentages of high school seniors who report that it is very likely that they will stay married to the same person for life. ● The trend for seniors is likely to decrease, however there were a few fluctuations it is more likely to slightly decrease. For boys, the percentage has only dropped .2 from 19762006 27. What percent of older men and older women are sexually active? How active, compared to other age groups? What are the barriers to being sexually active in later life? ● In general, older adults are sexually active. Healthier people are more sexually active. ● About half of sexually active older adults report at least one bothersome sexual problem (e.g., ED. ,Dryness). ● Some barriers are medications, health problems, and lack of partner 28. Does personality predict career choice? Describe Holland’s RIASEC theory. Realistic – Investigative – Artistic – Social – Enterprising – Conventional ● These 6 personality characteristics are used to help employers find a perfect match for the position they are hiring. Generally speaking, employers are looking for specific skills. Each skill can be linked with a specific personality characteristics which ultimatley makes the potential employee a better match for the job 29. Describe the trend for the percentage of Americans who meet their partners online. ● Americans who meet their partners online the trend for the percentage for Americans who have met their partners is a huge incline. Since technology has improved and is becoming more accessible, the trend will continue. As of 2009 nearly 22.5% of Americans met their partners online, compared to 20 years ago when <5% met their partners online. 30. What is the advantage of a college education for earning power and for staying employed over the long haul? ● College education gives you many advantges: more job security, smaller the unemployment rate, and bigger paychecks. Also, it is more likely that the higher the education the greater the experience and knowledge, the higher up in the company, the more power you have. Earning power is a process and it can be gained through education and job experiences. Having the college education makes you more competitive. 31. Is it expected that that older adults today and in the future are more likely to keep working past age 65. Report the percentage difference of 55 and older adults in the labor force between 2004 and 2014. ● 2004: about 15% of adults 55+ are in the labor force ● 2014: about 22.5% of adults 55+ are in the labor force 32. Which occupations are allowed to have mandatory retirement? These would be the 4 exceptions (BFOQs) to the Age Discrimination Employment Act ● .Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications (BFOQ)1986 is legislation that mandates a retirement age in certain occupations due to agerelated decline. ● Exceptions: police, firefighters, pilots, and foreign service 33. Is the size of the labor force in the U.S. expected to grow rapidly in the future? Is the diversity of the labor force in the US expected to increase much in the future (2015)? ● Yes, the size of the labor force in the U.S. is expected to grow rapidly in the future ● People are going to retire later in life since the cost of living has increased, and people are living longer. ● For people ages 5564 there is a 8,308 increase for 2015. By the year 2015, it is expected for the following increases in the labor force: asians; 51%, hispanic; 33%, black;19%, white;9%, and the total;12% increase in the diversity of the labor force.
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