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PSY 337: Exam 5 Review ( Optional Test)

by: Emily.nicole

PSY 337: Exam 5 Review ( Optional Test) PSY 337

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All material and content covered during the course. Includes lecture notes and key definitions and terms. This is a cumulative, optional final exam.
Adult Life & Aging
Professor William Hoyer
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 337 at Syracuse University taught by Professor William Hoyer in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Adult Life & Aging in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
5/2/14  Optional R5 for Optional T5 Optional T5 covers material from all 4 units, including intro material, biology, memory and cognition, adaptation, physical health, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, personality, and relationships. Course material on work and retirement, statistics on workforce, general demographics about the aging population, and mental health statistics will NOT be covered on T5. Your answers to Optional R5 potentially add ​ 20 points​to your percent score on T5. Printed answers to optional R5 will be received until 11:30 AM on May 5, 2014 – or earlier,but not later. Turn in your R5s at my office any time before the due date. My office is 458HH. Please just slide your R5 under the door if the door is closed and I am not there. To avoid your pages getting lost, be sure to put your last name and SUID on each page, and staple the pages together. Copy the questions from this file into a new file, preserving the numbering. Each answer should immediately follow each question. Answer using 1-3 sentences for each question. Hint – check to see if you have completely answered all parts to the question. Reminder: Definitely do your own work in preparing answers – turning in answers that are the same as another student’s answers will result in a 0% on T5. 1-6. Listed below are the 6 videos that will be covered on T5. A good way to study the material in these videos is to try to anticipate questions that Dr. Hoyer would likely ask about the information in these clips. What are the take away findings or messages for each video? So, your task is to make up 2 really good multiple choice questions that tap the important main points in each of these videos (and be sure to mark the correct answer). Format and level of detail and difficulty should be typical of test items on previous PSY 337 tests. Bonus - you might see your questions on T5. a. Dan Buettner on Blue Zones (“how to live to 100+) Dan Buettner’s talk on Blue Zones was centered around what he studied and  believed is the perfect environment and lifestyle to live a happier and long life. He  discuses the 4 things that make up the “Power nine Principles” Starting at the top,  the smallest portion, should be based on exercise and the ability to move  naturally. It’s crucial to stay healthy and active as you age. Next is “the right  look” which means your overall outlook of your life.. Do you know your  purpose? Another point he emphasizes is eating wisely, meaning 80% of your diet  should be fruits and vegetables. Reduce any sugars, fats, red meats, or high  caloric foods and stay natural. Lastly, it is essential to have a sense of belonging.  Creating good social relationships and keeping in touch with your family is  essential to longevity. The geographic areas associated with long life all include a  very social atmosphere and environment of healthy, active, happy people.   1. What are the 4 most important parts of the “Power Nine Principles?” 2. What does it mean to “eat wisely” and how does it impact your overall health? b. Living Old   5/2/14  1. When you live old, it is hard to be comfortable and live a happy life.   2. Geriatrics is a huge upcoming job field for the next 30 plus years.  3. Old people have to pay very expensive rates for healthcare and 24 hour care.   1. What are some downfalls to living old? How many factors are affected ( i.e. financial, physical, mental...etc.) 2. Why has the field of geriatrics increased so much within the last couple decades? c. Unnatural causes (Kim Anderson’s story) Life expectancy rates are largely affected by socioeconomical status and overall  healthcare and social­behavioral interactions. For many whites, blacks, and Hispanics, the  US portrays a large  scale of inequality and stress. Elevated leves of stress cause many  health problems like high blood pressure, increased risk to heart disease, vulnerability to  chronic illnesses and infectious diseases. Allostasis is a state of physiolotidal balance that  is self­monitored by a routinely process of adaptation and change. This constant weight  of instability and adjusting to new environments causes stress. In Kim Anderson’s case  she faced the pressures and stressors of inequality for being a black female. This stress  ultimatley put the toll on Kim’s pregnate body and brought her into preterm labor.  1.How does socioeconomic status affect life expectancy? 2. What does allostasis mean and how does this influence levels of stress on the body? d. George Bonanno on measuring human resilience Dr. Hoyer’s recommendation of seeing George Bonanno’s video “ Measuring Human  Resilience” twice. This suggests that the measurement matters are sophisticated and  important, so seeing the clip at least twice  will help to get the full picture (< 20 min).  After viewing the clip twice, I can conclude that humans have many ways to cope with  loss, trauma, big challenges, and major life events. Since the U.S. is so diverse, there are  large inter­individual differences among our population. Surprisingly a large proportion  of the population demonstrates resilience as an adaptive response.   1. What are some inter-individual differences among our population? 2. What is one of the many ways people cope with loss, challenges and trauma? e. Thomas Insel on “toward a new understanding of mental illness”  Thomas Insel explains how people classify Mental Disorders as behavioral  disorders, but he thinks that mental disorders shouldn’t always be labeled as  mental or behavioral. Insel believes that they should simply be classified  generally as brain circuit disorders. These mental disorders are involved with  neurons, neurotransmitters,  and synapses. Most disorders are in the human  connectome such as depression, OCD is greater than PTSD, of which all of these  are simply variations in the way the brain is wired. Insel suggests that its easier to  say a mental disorder is a disease of the brain rather than mental or behavioral.  Mental disorders are similar to a chronic disease. Insel mentions how chronic/    5/2/14  deathly diseases were once very high in mortality rate such as Leukemia, heart  disease, and AIDS.   1. Why does Thomas Insel believe that mental illnesses should be classified generally as brain circuit disorders? 2. What is the relation between chronic diseases and mental disorders? f. James Flynn on why our IQ levels are higher than our grandparents First Time Watching  ●  In the 1900s people scored an average of 70 on IQ test,  now the average is 130  ○  70 is borderline mentally retarded, 130 borderline  gifted  ■ this is not true, it’s described by advances in  education  ● In the 1900s people didn't think abstractly  ● New age people think logically… we use universal moral  principles and don’t restrict our knowledge and exploration  ● In the 1900s people were fixed in concrete moral arguments  ○ ex.) “Imagine if you woke up Black?” → would  respond that this is not possible  Second Time Watching  ● 35% of the American population in the 2000s have  cognitively challenging demands   ● The tenor of education has changed over the century, half of  the population have gone to a tertiary level of education  3. Based on watching the TED lecture by Barry Schwartz, what are the  characteristics of wisdom?  ● Practical wisdom is knowledge used in situations that have a moral  dimension to them.​  Lately, people lack practical wisdom. Currently  we value rules over wisdom; however, in order to live morally we  sometimes need to bend or change the rules  4.In the clip shown in class on 3/20 on the power of memory, briefly describe  differences between having a sharp memory and a hazy memory.  ● Sharp memory is when you can retrieve/ remember incidents right  away to their full entirety, as opposed to hazy memory where you  can only remember small parts of the event and you are unclear if it  actually happened.    5/2/14  5.Remembering the Clive Wearing’s sister’s name is Adele, and that his wife’s  name is not Samantha, is an example of what type of memory? What are the  age­related effects on this kind of memory?  ● Speed of searching and accessing the contents of the memory  ● Remembering those details is an example of short term memory.  As you age, the speed of your synapses decreases, your cognitive  functions slow down, and your short term memory decreases  substantially... especially in Alzheimer's patients and dementia.  ●  Speed of retrieval of episodic memories from LTM (even after just  a few minutes)  ●  Working memory span and efficiency   ● Speed of encoding (learning)  ●  Age­related general decline in accuracy and amount of  retained  information  6. What is working memory (WM)? Describe two tests or measures of WM. Is  WM an  “ingredient” of intelligence?  ● Working memory is a type of short­term memory that is mentally  challenging and involves active processing. WM is the  simultaneous processing and storing of information. Working  memory isn’t necessarily a contribution of intelligence.  1.What is the significance of the increase of IQ scores over the past couple decades? 2. How has the reforms in education influenced IQ scores in present day individuals? 7-25. Define and briefly describe the significance of each of these terms or concepts for understanding adult development and aging. a. Reserve capacity ● Reserve capacity is an individual’s potential to grow and change. This is  known to decrease with aging. Even though it decreases, people can still  function effectively. For example, if ones supply of energy to important  tasks continues to diminish, they focus on selected particular activities in  order to maintain success.   b. Brain plasticity ● Brain plasticity is when the nervous system changes, there is often a correlated  change in behavior or psychological function. This behavioral change is known  by names such as learning, memory, addiction, maturation, and recovery. c. Presbycusis   5/2/14  ● Presbycusis is also known as  age­related ​hearing loss. This process is a  progressive bilateral symmetrical age­relatedsensorineural hearing loss.  Presbycusis is usually at higher risk for men. The hearing loss is most  marked at higher frequencies. d. Social age, biological age, and chronological age ● Chronological age is ​ The number of years a person has lived, with  regards to certain measurable variables, such as behavior and  intelligence. Social age is the cultural­age expectations of how  people should act as they grow older(maturity). Psychological age  is an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other  individuals within the same chronological age.  Biological age is a  general age that most people would be with similar bodies and  minds. This compares the life expectancies of populations of similar  cohorts.  e. 5-HTT ● The 5­HTT gene encodes the serotonin transporter protein and is thus  active in the serotonin nerve pathways. Scientists have long known that  these pathways are involved in controlling mood, emotions, aggression,  sleep, and anxiety. Depression resides on the 5­HTT gene, where if there  are more stressful events, the shorter the allele for 5­HTT is and therefore  resulting in depression. f. Presbyopia ● Presbyopia is a vision condition in which the crystalline lens of your eye  loses its flexibility, making it challenging to focus on close up objects.  Presbyopia may seem to occur suddenly, but the actual loss of flexibility  takes place over a number of years. Presbyopia usually becomes  noticeable in one's early to mid­40s. People who are 75 years or older  represent the percentage of people with the lowest vision. Since,  Presbyopia is a natural part of the aging process, it  is not a disease, and  therefore it cannot be prevented. g. Primary versus secondary appraisal ● The difference between primary and secondary appraisal is that primary  appraisal is directed at establishing meaning of an event while secondary  appraisal is directed at the assessment of the ability to establish this  meaning. Primary appraisal establishes the importance of the event while  secondary assesses the coping mechanisms. h. General Adaptation Syndrome General adaptation syndrome is the name given to the universal response of animals to stressors such as unpleasant or harmful stimuli. ● Stage 1: alarm­ the immediate reaction to a stressor. In the initial phase of stress,  humans exhibit a "fight or flight" response, which prepares the body for physical  activity. However, this initial response can also decrease the effectiveness of the  immune system, making persons more susceptible to illness during this phase    5/2/14  ● Stage 2: resistance ­ during this phase, if the stress continues, the body adapts to  the stressors it is exposed to.  ● Stage 3: exhaustion ­ there is still some stress in the body, the body is calming  down from being excited during the stressful event (fight or flight response).    i. Allostasis, allostatic load, and stress ● Stress is a person's response to a particularstresso such as an  environmental conditions or a stimulus. Stress is a body's method of  reacting tochallenges from the norm. Allostasis is the process of  achieving stability, ohomeostasis​, through physiological or behavioral  change. Allostatic load is "the wear and tear on the body" which grows  over time when the individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress.​ It  represents thephysiological consequences of chronic exposure to  fluctuating or heightenedneural​ orneuroendocrine​ response​ that results  from repeated or chronic ​tress  j. BDNF ● Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BNF) acts as certain neurons in the brain, helping to  support the survival of existing neurons, and facilitating the growth & differentiation of  new neurons and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. This is activated during  exercise( >30 min aerobic) BDNF is in the hippocampus and the cortex is involved in  learning memory. BDNF is said to be “the crucial biological link between thoughts,  emotions, and physical health.   k. Insulin resistance syndrome ● Insulin resistance Syndrome (IRS) describes a combination of health problems that have  a common link. This syndrome increases the risk of obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, high blood  pressure, bad cholesterol levels, and heart disease. In IRS cells, they have a diminished  ability to respond to insulin, when in normal cells food is absorbed as sugars which signal  the pancreas to regulate the hormone insulin.   80 million people have this syndrome.  l. Sarcopenia Sarcopenia is the degenerative loss ofskeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength  associated with aging  ●  Sarcopenia is a component of the ​ frailty syndrome. It is an age­related decrease  in lean body mass. Some consequences are: decrease in resting energy, decrease  insulin sensitivity, diminished muscle strength, increased risk of disability, and  increased risk of mortality.  m. Telomeres ● Harley and Epel are doing the latest research of the benefits to controlling stress  can help improve your lifespan. Telomeres are DNA on the very tips of    5/2/14  chromosomes and they have a huge impact of aging. Psychological stress causes  our cells to age prematurely by speeding up the shortening of telomeres. Critically  short telomeres are the main cause of unstable, error prone cell processes such as  cell division. If you monitor telomere rate, telomerase production increases,  therefore directly increasing your health benefits. Telomerase is the enzyme that  produces telomeres. Psychological stress can be affected because your fight or  flight responses are accelerated in the CNS when you are more stressed out. This  increases the effects of aging. n. Pittsburgh Compound B Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB) is a very crucial finding in treatment to Alzheimer’s  disease. Disease modifying strategies will give rise to a next generation of treatments;  these are focused upon the amyloid cascade and are aimed at inhibiting the production of  amyloid protein. If shown to be eff ective in the early stages of the disease, the  availability of a tool such as C­11 PIB could revolutionize the treatment of AD if  susceptible patients can be identified and treated when their symptoms are minor and  potentially reversible.    ● Current areas of research using the C­11 PIB tracer are now focused upon  longitudinal studies. By scanning the same subjects over three to five years,  researchers may begin to understand when an amyloid is fi rst detected and how  this correlates with the onset of AD.  o. MOCA ● MOCA stands for Montreal Cognitive Assessment. This is a one page test  worth 30­points that takes approximately 10 minutes to complete. This test  measures different types of cognitive abilities including: orientation,  executive function, short­term memory,language abilities, and visuospatial  ability. p. OCEAN ● Conscientiousness ­ individuals who are purposeful (organized, thorough  & planful) These people have a tendency to show self­discipline, act  dutifully, and aim for achievement ( slight increase across adult lifespan)  ● Neuroticism­ individuals who are tense, moody, anxious  tendency to  easily experience unpleasant emotions (decreases over lifespan)   ● Extroversion – individuals who are sociable (talkative, energetic, assertive)  Individuals have a tendency to seek stimulation and the company of  others ( slight decline over lifespan)  ● Openness to Experience – individuals who have active imaginations and  are attentive to inner feelings  a tendency to enjoy art, new intellectual  experiences, and ideas ( slight decline over lifespan)    5/2/14  ● Agreeableness ­ individuals who are fundamentally altruistic,  (sympathetic, kind, affectionate)  These individuals have a tendency to be  compassionate rather than antagonistic towards others  ( slight increase  across lifespan)  q. Synthetic happiness ● According to Dr. Gilbert, beliefs of what makes one happy are often WRONG.  Therefore, this creates a “synthetic happiness.” Gilbert believes that individuals  are poor at  affective forecasting because the frontal lobes are a relatively new  addition to the human brain. Inaccurate forecasting of life­satisfaction can lead to  unwise decisions and unexpected consequencesIf you fake your happiness,  then it stimulates your psychological immune system, therefore actually  releasing dopamine in your body leading to happiness, essentially no  different than real happiness, in which the same hormones are released.  Dan Gilbert performed an experiment by having participants rank items  from most liked to least liked. By studying amnesia he tested synthetic  happiness. The results showed that people can change reactions to achieve  a certain stimuli.  r. RIASEC ● ­­Realistic  – Investigative  – Artistic  – Social  – Enterprising  – Conventional  ● These 6 personality characteristics are used to help employers find  a perfect match for the position they are hiring. Generally speaking,  employers are looking for specific skills. Each skill can be linked  with a specific personality characteristics which ultimately makes  the potential employee a better match for the job  s. Epigenetic inheritance ●  Epigenetic inheritance describes that what you do and experience now might not  appear to have much of an effect on you currently, whether positive or negative,  however health insults probably will have negative affects on your offspring and  their offspring. Epi­genomic alterations due to famine and stress have  consequences for offspring and their offspring, which are described in the clip.  Some effects of negative experiences on the epigenome of females can have  negative consequences for life span length of their offspring for 2 subsequent  generations. Effects of negative experiences on the epigenome of males can have    5/2/14  positive consequences for life span length of their offspring for 2 subsequent  generations.   26. Explain the difference between ACTUAL and LEADING causes of mortality and morbidity. What are the top 3 ACTUAL CAUSES of death in the U. S.? What are the top 4 LEADING CAUSES of death in the U. S.? Leading causes of death are what forms of symptoms emerge from the actual causes which are the environmental/lifestyle triggers. Leading Causes: ● Heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes Actual Causes : ● Lifestyle (health behavior) and bio-genetic markers, and biological processes (like IR) interact to determine health and health span, and cognitive and emotional functioning: ○ Exercise ○ Not smoking ○ Stress management ○ diet ■ Epigenetic regulation ■ BDNF, 5-HTT, other epi/genetic markers ■ Insulin regulation/resistance 27. Explain the difference between pleiotropic and polygenic effects ● Pleiotropy means that particular genes have multiple effects on the phenotype.  Polygenesis is a process where several genes contribute to behavior. 28. Describe the risk factors and the genetic markers for early and late Alzheimer’s disease. Briefly, what are some of the other types of dementia, and how are they different from AD? ● Early­onset AD is known to have specific genetic markers since it is heritable  (5­35) genes. The gene APOE is said to have a risk factor for late onset AD but is  not a genetic marker. Early­onset AD is a term used when Alzheimer’s disease is  diagnosed before the age of 65, also the symptoms are very similar to those of  late­ onset AD, early onset usually is in people ages 30­60. Familial Alzheimer's  disease is caused by any one of a number of different single­gene mutations on  chromosomes 21, 14, and 1. The causes of late­onset Alzheimer's are not yet  completely understood, but they likely include a combination of genetic,  environmental, and lifestyle factors that influence a person's risk for developing  the disease. This increased risk is related to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene  found on chromosome 19. APOE contains the instructions for making a protein  that helps carry cholesterol and other types of fat in the bloodstream.    5/2/14  29. Why do we age biologically? List 5 (of 10) of the processes or mechanisms of biological aging. ● Biological Aging is the aging of the body and mind.   ● 1. Epigenesis­ due to aging and longevity, genes are switched on and off and  determine functionality and activity   ● 2. Biological clocks­ the regulation of certain hormones can help prevent or  increase aging  ● 3. Immunological changes­ decrease in immune system efficiency can lead to  vulnerability to infectious diseases and accelerated aging.   ● 4. Metabolic Effects­ metabolism controls the rate at which biological processes  carry out. If metabolism is high it showers a lower lifespan due to overwork.  ● 5. Crosslinking Effects­ one gene, DNA or protein  may affect another protein  when bonded together and damage it therefore changing its functionality.  30. Describe progeria and Werner’s syndrome. Do these diseases tell us anything about the genetic bases of biological aging? ● Progeria is an extremely rare, progressive genetic disorder that causes  children to age rapidly, beginning in their first two years of life.  ○ Children with progeria generally appear normal at birth. During the  first year, signs and symptoms, such as slow growth and hair loss,  begin to appear.  ○ Heart problems or strokes are the eventual cause of death in most  children with progeria. The average life expectancy for a child with  progeria is about 13 years, but some with the disease die younger  and some live 20 years or longer.  ○ Werner syndrome is characterized by the dramatic, rapid  appearance of features associated with normal aging. Individuals  with this disorder typically grow and develop normally until they  reach puberty. Affected teenagers usually do not have a growth  spurt, resulting in short stature. The characteristic aged appearance  of individuals with Werner syndrome typically begins to develop  when they are in their twenties and includes graying and loss of  hair; a hoarse voice; and thin, hardened skin. They may also have  a facial appearance described as "bird­like." Many people with  Werner syndrome have thin arms and legs and a thick trunk due to  abnormal fat deposition.    5/2/14  ● Yes these tell us that aging is a progressive process and can be sped up  or slowed down based on one’s genes.  31. Growing older bring some family health risks. What is the relation between a mother’s age and the probability of delivering a child with an abnormality? The risk of birthing a child with an abnormality begins to accelerate at about age 35, but at what age does the rate of rissubstantiallincrease (accelerate)? ● Advanced maternal age, in a broad sense, is the instance of a woman being of  an older age at a stage of reproduction, although there are various definitions of  specific age and stage of reproduction.The variability in definitions regarding age  is in part explained by the effects of increasing age occurrincontinuum  rather than as a threshold effect  ● A woman's risk of having a baby with​hromosomal abnormalities​ increases with  her age. Down syndrome​  is the most common chromosomal birth defect. After  the age 35 the risk substantially increases, nearly doubling by the age 40  32. Which two of the OCEAN personality factors predict mortality? Briefly explain these findings. ● The average to high levels of neuroticism that is increasing can predict  relatively fewer years of life span.   ● High conscientiousness is related to better health and longevity. 33. Which types, and tests and measures of memory show relatively large decline with aging? Which tests and measures of memory decline only a little with aging? Large decline:  ● Age­related slowing of processing speed has a large effect on age­related  decline in general intellectual ability.  ●  Speed of retrieval of episodic memories from LTM (even after just a few  minutes)  ● Working memory span and efficiency  ●  Speed of searching and retrieving the contents of memory  ● Speed of encoding (learning)  ● Age­related general decline in accuracy and amount retained  Small decline  ● Implicit memory  ● Priming  ● Procedural memory  ●  Semantic knowledge  ● Vocabulary  ●  Flashbulb memories    34. What types and tests and measures of intelligence show relatively large declines with aging? Which types and measures of intelligence decline only a little with aging? ● Most important intelligence functions derive from one general mental  ability called g. Thurstone’s 7 factors  measures the primary mental    5/2/14  abilities. An individuals mental ability consists of  reasoning,number,  perceptual speed,  memory,verbal fluency, verbal comprehension and  spatial visualization. During one’s adult years g decreases at  approximately ages 53­60.  ● There is a strong relationship between your IQ at age 10­11 and age 80.  During a longitudinal cohort test, children's’ mental ability was positively  related to survival in their late 70s/ 80s.  ● In cross­sectional studies, age related differences are confounded by  cohort differences.  Adult intellectual performance changes as a function  of both cohort and age.  ● Crystallized intelligence refers to measures that reflect the extent to which  the individual has acquired the valued knowledge of his/her culture.  ●  Fluid Intelligence refers to the individual’s “pure” ability to understand and  think about a wide variety of basic information.  ● Measures of fluid intelligence show decline with age, whereas measures  of crystallized intelligence show little or less decline with advancing age  during adulthood for healthy individuals.   35. Briefly describe and compare/contrast Erikson’s and Loevinger’s theories as they pertain to personality development during adulthood. Eriksons:  1. Identity versus Role Confusion – social relationships: “I am the roles I  play”  ● Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity.  Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure  leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.  2.  Intimacy versus Isolation – personal relationships: “ I am in large part  who I love (I am my feelings).”  ● Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other  people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results  in loneliness and isolation.  ` 3.  Generativity versus Stagnation –work and parenthood: “I am what I do,  what I create, and I am who/what I care about (x, y, z).”  ● Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often  by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other  people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and  accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the  world.    5/2/14  4. Integrity versus Despair – reflections on life: “I am who I am, who I have  been, and who I have become.”  ● Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment.  Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure  results in regret, bitterness, and despair.  Loevinger’s:  ● Loevinger’s Ego development theory describes ego as self and how  people interpret their place in the world. The ego develops slowly toward  maturity. However, as we age, people are developing an increasingly  more differentiated perception of  self.       1.  The conformist stage  ● The most common stage later in elementary school and in junior  high school. However, a number of people remain at this stage  throughout their lives.  ●  Conformist individuals are very invested in belonging to and  obtaining the approval of important reference groups, such as peer  groups.       2. The Self Aware Stage  ● This stage is the most common stage among adults in the United  States. The self­aware ego shows an increased but still limited  awareness deeper issues and the inner lives of themselves and  others.   ● The begin to wonder what do I think as opposed to what my  parents and peers think about such issues as God and religion,  morality, mortality, love and relationships.      3. The Conscientious Stage  ● The conscientious ego values responsibility, achievement and the  pursuit of high ideals and long­term goals. Morality is based on  personally­evaluated principles, and behavior is guided by  self­evaluated standards. Consequently, violating one’s standards  induces guilt.  ● Greater self­reflection leads to greater conceptual complexity;  experiencing the self and the world in more complex ways; and this  includes experiencing one’s own feelings and motives in more  accurate and differentiated ways and expressing them in more  unique and personal terms.     4. The Individualistic Stage    5/2/14  ● The individualistic ego shows a broad­minded tolerance of and respect for  the autonomy of both the self and others. But a wish gives others the  autonomy to be who they really are can conflict with needs for connection  and intimacy.     5. The Autonomous Stage  ● The autonomous ego cherishes individuality and uniqueness and  self­actualization; individuals’ unique and unexpected paths are a source  of joy. And these independent paths are no longer seen in opposition to  depending on each other; rather relationships are appreciated as an  interdependent system of mutual support    6. The Integrated Stage  ● The ego shows wisdom, broad empathy towards oneself and others, and  a capacity to not just be aware inner conflicts like the individualistic ego or  tolerate inner conflicts like the autonomous ego, but reconcile a number or  inner conflicts and make peace with those issues that will remain  unsolvable and those experiences that will remain unattainable    Erik’s Theory is much different than Loevinger’s concept of integrity for multiple  reasons:  ●  Erik used his theory of ego integrity represent​  one of the few  personality theorist to examine aging as a stage of development.  According to Erikson's theory, personality development goes  through a series of eight, hierarchically ordered stages. Associated  with each stage is a psychosocial crisis that the individual either  successfully resolves or fails to resolve. Failure results in  incomplete development of the personality, and inhibits further  development of the personality.  ● Loevinger’s theory of  which 'the ego was theorized to mature and  evolve through stages across the lifespan as a result of a dynamic  interaction between the inner self and the outer environment', Her  theory is significant in contributing to the delineation of ego  development, which looks at personalities as meaningful wholes    5/2/14  36. List and explain the 4 micro-level (interpersonal) factors and the 5 macro-level (socio-demographic) factors that predict whether a marriage or an engagement is likely to last or not? ● The 4 micro-level factors: ○ Negative affect  ○  withdrawal  ○  more negative than positive behavior  ○ criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stonewalling  ● The 5 macro­level factors  ○ Annual income under $25,000 ( 30 %)  ○  Having a baby < eight months after marriage (24%)  ○  Marrying under 18 (24%)  ○ Divorced parents  (14%)  ○ No Religious affiliation (vs. one) (14 %)   ○ Did not graduate from high­school (13%)  37. What is the size of the genetic heritability component for loneliness? What is the size of the genetic heritability component for longevity in humans today? ● Heritability for loneliness is about 48%  ● Loneliness and/ or inactivity can predict life­span.  ○ The combination of both is the lowest survival rate, than loneliness  itself, then inactivity, and lastly both active and not lonely  ○ Women tend to have a more severe impact on loneliness and  inactivity 38. Refer to the larger versions of the figures posted showing data for marriage and divorce stats in the US by years that were posted. How has the percentage of divorces changed from 1980 to 2008? How has the percentage of households with children changed from 1960 to 2008? How has the percentage of life births to unmarried women (regardless of race/ethnicity) changed from 1960 to 2007? How have the percentages of men and women who marry changed from 1960 to 2013? ● Percentages of divorces from 1980-2008: slight decrease (7.9-5.2%) ● Percentages of households with children from 1960-2008: sight decrease ( 48.8-30.6 %) ● Percentage of live births to unmarried women 1960-2007: slight decrease (72-64%) ● Percentages of men and women married from 1960-2013: large decrease ( 65-26 %)  


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