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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Leah O'Brien

Exam 2 Study Guide WOMS216

Marketplace > University of Delaware > WOMS216 > Exam 2 Study Guide
Leah O'Brien
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Radical, lesbian, psychoanalytical, and standpoint feminisms.
Introduction to Feminist Theory
Dr. Naccarelli
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leah O'Brien on Sunday November 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to WOMS216 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Naccarelli in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.


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Date Created: 11/01/15
WOMS/PHIL 216 Exam #2 Review Sheet Thursday, November 5 , 2015 Lectures AND the following readings: From Course Packet: (Particularly helpful for MC)  Feminist Frontiers #42, Yancey Martin and Robert Hummer, “Fraternities and Rape on Campus,” 471­479.  Feminist Frontiers #33, Laura Hamilton, “Trading on Heterosexuality:  College Women’s Gender Strategies and Homophobia,” 359­373.  It will also be helpful to review second wave feminism from Feminist  Frontiers # 51, “The Women’s Movement: Persistence Through  Transformation,” Taylor, Whittier and Pelak, 556­572. Catherine MacKinnon, Sexuality From Gender Inequality:  Section II:  Gender Resistance Feminisms, 123­200.  It will also be helpful to review the relevant sections of the Lorber  introduction. Key Concepts and Terms Gender Resistance Feminism  Lorber 123  “Resistant feminist theories of inequality coalesce around the concept of  patriarchy” (Lorber 7) Radical Feminism Sources of Gender Inequality  Lorber 127  Patriarchy  Legitimation of women’s oppression  Men’s violence towards women and control of women  Objectification of women’s bodies  Pornography and prostitution as exploitative  Sexual harassment Radical Feminism Politics  Lorber 127  Valorizing women’s bodies (all types)  Rape crisis centers and battered women’s shelters  Women’s protection from international sex trafficking  Sexual harassment guidelines and penalties in schools and at work  Anti­porn campaigns  Campaigns against misogyny in the mass media  Ecofeminism Radical Feminism Critiques  Lorber 127  Ignores differences between men  Alienates childless women by valorizing motherhood  Minimizes intersectionality/differences between women Radical Feminism Contributions  Lorber 128  Theory of patriarchy  Recognition of violence against women as a control tactic using fear  Identifying sexual harassment as part of the continuum of violence against women  Tracing global paths of sex trafficking  Recognizing rape as a weapon of war  Accessible rape crisis centers and battered women’s shelters  Critique of women’s devaluation in medicine, law, religion, and science  Ecofeminism ­ linking environmental exploitation and women’s exploitation Lesbian Feminism Sources of Gender Inequality  Lorber 151  Oppressive heterosexuality  Heteronormativity  Heterosexual domination of culture Lesbian Feminism Politics  Lorber 151  Social acceptance of lesbianism  Empowering women­identified women  Fighting dual battles (women’s rights and homosexual rights)  Movement for marriage equality Lesbian Feminism Critiques  Lorber 151  Expansion to include straight women weakens the fight against oppressive  heterosexuality  Unrealistic idealization of lesbian relationships  Division of loyalties between the women’s movement and the homosexual  movement Lesbian Feminism Contributions  Lorber 151  Lesbian feminist theory, research, cultural productions  Making lesbians visible  Critically deconstructing heterosexual love and sex  Expanding lesbian perspectives to include community and culture Psychoanalytic and Cultural Feminism Sources of Gender Inequality  Lorber 168  Gendered personality structures (ego)  Men’s fear of castration  Cultural domination of the phallus Psychoanalytic and Cultural Feminism Politics  Lorber 168  Correcting the male bias in psychoanalytics  Deconstruction  Woman­centric cultural productions  Shared parenting (for children’s psyches) Psychoanalytic and Cultural Feminism Critiques  Lorber 168  Replicates Freud’s focus on the heterosexual nuclear family  Neglects intersectionality  Ignores non­Western, non­phallic cultures Psychoanalytic and Cultural Feminism Contributions  Lorber 168­169  Building on Freud’s theory of personality development  Stressing importance of fathers’ involvement  Recognizing the phallus as dominant  Critiques and techniques of deconstruction  Woman­centric cultural productions Standpoint Feminism Sources of Gender Inequality  Lorber 183  Neglect of women’s perspective in knowledge production  Women’s exclusion from the sciences  Male bias in science Standpoint Feminism Politics  Lorber 183  Diversifying research  Women’s point­of­view questions in research  Adding a feminist perspective to analyzing research data  Listening to the “voices” of women Standpoint Feminism Critiques  Lorber 183  Women are too diverse for a single perspective  Ignores the effects of intersectionality on perspective  Non­dominant men also marginalized Standpoint Feminism Contributions  Lorber 183  Reframing research to include women  Challenging scientific “facts”  Feminist paradigm for knowledge production  Making women’s “voices” heard Misogyny  Lorber 133  “Depictions of women… as dangerous, destructive, and bitchy” (p. 332) Deconstruction  Lorber 13, 15, 168, 173­174  “Making visible the gender and sexual symbolism in cultural productions that  support beliefs about what is normal and natural” (p. 331) Redstockings  Lorber 129­131  Part of radical feminism  Named in 1969 – “red” for revolution and “stockings” from the “blue stocking”  label of feminist from previous centuries  Produced the “Redstockings Manifesto” – “one of the earliest statements of the  radical feminist credo” (Lorber 129) that had 12 belief statements  Spread knowledge of the women’s liberation theory, slogans, and actions  (personal is political, consciousness­raising groups, take­back­the­night marches,  etc.) Consciousness Raising   Lorber 107, 124, 125, 129, 131  Groups – “small­group meetings where the topics of intense discussion come out  of the commonalities of women’s lives” (p. 331)  Used heavily by radical feminism Second Wave Feminism  Lorber 3­4  Began with Simone de Beauvoir’s  The Second Sex  Not an organized movement until the ‘60s  Goals of feminism diversified  Heterogeneous Nature  Lorber 194­195  Nature offers women and men different resources because of their differing  biologies, therefore they experience nature differently and have different  perspectives to offer Gender presentation  Lorber 161­162  Discussed in lesbian feminism in the context of black lesbians  How one chooses to display their gender (how masculine, how feminine; tom­boy vs. girly­girl)  Includes physical representations of gender as “important markers of  identification” (Lorber 158) Phallus  Lorber 11­12, 124  Phallocentric – “culturally male­centered, dominated by male symbolism” (p.  333)  Emphasized in psychoanalytic feminism Compulsory Heterosexuality  “That people develop in a society with a heterosexual norm” (Lorber 170) with  heterosexual parents  People are expected to be heterosexual and face consequences when proven  otherwise The Erotic Marketplace  Erotic markets – “public sexualized scenes in which individuals present erotic  selves that are subject to the judgments and reactions of others” (“Trading on  Heterosexuality”, Course Packet, 58)  Greek life as an example Male gaze  Lorber 174­175  “Cultural creation of women as the objects of men’s sexual fantasies” (p. 332) Phenomenology  Lorber 184, 189  “The philosophy that says that what we know comes out of our social location and experience” (Lorber 184) French Psychoanalytic Feminism  Lorber 175  Stems off of Lacan and Derrida “who said that women cannot create culture  because they lack a sense of difference” (Lorber 175)  Based on resistance to phallic thinking using woman­centered culture  Utilized “jouissance” as the main goal Standpoint  Lorber 124­125, 183­200  “The view of the world from where you are located physically, mentally,  emotionally, and socially” (p. 333) Cultural Feminism  “Development of a woman’s world perspective in the creation of women’s  knowledge and culture” (p. 331) Power differentials in Radical Feminism  “Major sectors of society favor men as a group over women as a group” (Lorber  128)  Masculine qualities over­valued, feminine qualities under­valued  Men as a higher social class than women (the lesser social class) Transgressive gender presentations  Lorber 159­161  Women who “appropriate certain representations of masculinity owned by black  and Latino men” (Lorber 160)  “Associated with an image of men who are disrespectful to women” (Lorber 160)  Not particularly accepted in the black lesbian community or the wider community Heteronormativity  Lorber 124, 151­152  “The assumption that everyone is heterosexual and that only heterosexual  relationships are normal” (p. 332) Patriarchal Privilege   Lorber 6, 128  “Men’s advantages over the women in their social group” (p. 333) Jouissance  Lorber 175  “Women’s exultant joy in their sexual bodies” (p. 332) Epistemology  Branch of philosophy that looks at the origins of knowledge  Especially utilized by standpoint feminism Castration Complex  Lorber 124, 168  Used in psychoanalytic feminism English Psychoanalytic Feminism  Lorber 124  Psychoanalytic feminism based on Freud


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