Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSYCH 1000 - 01
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ines Segert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 230 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Text Material Covered Chapter 3: p 100-103 Split brain A condition that occurs when the corpus callosum is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each other Visual System Organization The right visual field is seen by both eyes and ends up in the left hemisphere The left visual field is seen by both eyes and ends up in the right hemisphere Testing Procedure Present a stimuli (a word or picture) in one visual field Information is transmitted to the opposite hemisphere only Selectively test processing abilities of each hemisphere Summary of Findings Conscious language is only in the left hemisphere o Right visual field Right visual field can’t speak what they saw but with their LEFT hand they can point out the object o They don’t know why they can point out that object Left Hemisphere is in control of: o Language center o Conscious processing o Sequential processing (reading) Right Hemisphere is in control of: o Spatial processing o Facial recognition o Emotional processing People born without a corpus callosum are not affected by these thing due to plasticity Faces made of books Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Left brain, right visual field will see books Right brain, left visual field will see a face The Interpreter Module in the left hemisphere that explains something Left hemisphere wants to make sense of what the left visual field sees but can’t explain o When you flash the word cat to a split brain patient’s left visual field and ask them why they point to the picture of a cat with their left hand, their interpreter in their left hemisphere will make up a story on why that is, because they actually don’t know The interpreter applies to normal brain patients, not just split brain patients The Interpreter Speculates The left hemisphere takes what information it has and delivers a coherent tale to conscious awareness o Can easily trick the left hemisphere into thinking something is true when it is no Right Hemisphere simply experiences the world Chapter 4: p. 131-154 Consciousness: the subjective experience of the world, resulting from brain activity Consciousness experience varies from person to person o Usually unified and coherent Selective attention: people have a limited capacity for sensory information, so we must choose what to attend to, but unattended information is processed at least to some extent Change blindness: a failure to notice large changes in one’s environment Subliminal Perception: the processing of information by sensory systems without conscious awareness o A part of unconscious processing Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Brain activity: different types of sensory information are processed by different brain areas: the particular type of neural activity determines the particular type of awareness Variations in Normal Conscious Experience Sleep/ Wake cycles Automatic tasks, done without awareness o Driving a familiar route in low traffic Controlled processing/conscious awareness o Driving in a new city at rush hour o Complex or novel situations Sleep the brain does not shut down, actually, many of the brain regions are more active during sleep than during wakefulness Circadian rhythms: biological patterns that occur at regular intervals as a function of time of day Stages of Sleep: Stage 1: o Easily aroused from stage 1 o Theta waves o Fantastical images or geometric shapes Stage 2: o Breathing becomes more regular o Theta waves, but also large waves called K-complexes o Bursts of activity called sleep spindle Stage 3/4: o Progression to deep sleep o Slow-wave sleep delta waves REM: o The stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, dreaming, and paralysis of motor systems Sleep as Adaptive Behavior Sleep can be dangerous and thus a threat to survival However, eventually we all must sleep Adaptive for 3 functions: o Restoration Allows the body, including the brain, to rest and repair itself o Flowing of circadian rhythms Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Sleep has evolved to keep animals quiet and inactive during times of the day where there is greatest danger, usually when it is dark Animals only need a limited amount of sleep to survive Ex. Large animals vulnerable to attack sleep little, while predatory animals sleep a lot o Facilitation of learning The neural connections made during the day, which serve as the basis of learning, are strengthened during sleep Chapter 6: p. 221-250, 254-259 Habituation: a decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus Sensitization: an increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus Observational learning: acquiring or changing a behavior after exposure to another individual performing that behavior Classical conditioning: a type of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response Phobia: an acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or of a situation (use exposure therapy to treat) Drug addiction: classical conditioning with drugs Operant conditioning: a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future Schedules of Reinforcement: how often should a reinforce be given Continuous vs. partial Interval vs. ratio Minetka Studies: Hypothesis: monkeys can develop phobias about snakes by observing other monkeys reacting fearfully to snakes Learned phobias Treatment: show the monkey another monkey interacting with a snake without fear Chapter 7: p.285-289 (only bold faced terms) Implicit memory: the system underlying unconscious memories Explicit memory: the system underlying conscious memories Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Declarative memory: the cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared Episodic memory: memory for one’s personal past experiences Semantic memory: memory for knowledge about the world Procedural memory: a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits Prospective memory: remembering to do something at some future time Lecture Material Covered I. Consciousness Consciousness: the subjective experience of the world, resulting from brain activity Consciousness experience varies from person to person Controlled tasks o Conscious awareness o Complex or novel situations o Ex. Driving in a new city at rush hour Automatic tasks o Done without awareness o Ex. Driving a familiar rout in low traffic Extreme States Locked- in Syndrome o Martin the “Ghost Boy” o Conscious, but can’t respond o Total awareness (virtual coma) o Damage to motor control areas in brain stem o Result: paralysis of all muscles except sometimes your eyelids Persistent Vegetative State o Full coma that lasts more than a month o No consciousness o Loss of almost all cognitive function o Lower level brain functions (breathing) reflexive movement o No recovery Minimally Conscious o Deliberate movement and communication are possible Ex. Blink once for “yes” and twice for “no” o Some awareness o May improve with rehab Brain Dead Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide o Zero brain activity How to Distinguish these States or Determine Consciousness Brain scans to show brain activity o Ex. Locked- in syndrome has an exactly the same brain activity as a fully conscious person Results of studies with coma patients Imaging studies in come patients: o Patients are told to visualize either playing tennis or walking through rooms in a house Playing tennis= motor regions Walking through a rooms = spatial regions o fMRI scans during the visualization o In a small subset of coma patients, they showed brain activity, however, this does not prove consciousness 2010 Monti Study to prove consciousness o 54 coma patients asked to visualize either playing tennis or walking through rooms in a house o Asked to answer a series of questions like “is your father’s name John Smith” If yes, the patient should visualize playing tennis If no, the patient should visualize walking through a house o A small subset of patients were shown to be aware and conscious o This DOES prove consciousness II. Sleep Sleep, how much do you need? Individual variations (long vs. short sleepers) Changes with age Minimum amount for a small period of time is 4 hours o One can function with this amount, but zone out and have a slow reaction time Microsleep Eyes are open and the individual is awake, but there is zero brain activity “Zone out” Loose a few seconds of what the teacher says Effects of Sleep Deprivation Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Cognitive: big impact on memory and your ability to learn Emotional: stress, emotions and anxiety increase Immune system and reaction time decreases Poor decision-making o Because frontal lobe activity decrease when you’re tired o More likely to give into impulses Correlation (not cause and affect) between GPA and sleep (increase sleep is associated with a higher GPA) Sleep Debt A cumulative deficit, can’t makeup sleep debt Cognitive and physical consequences of low sleep: o Obesity o Type 2 diabetes o Cancer o Increased inflammation o Suppressed immune system Lack of sleep is heavily correlated with Michael Jackson’s death REM Deprivation Flowerpot Technique o Method used to selectively limit REM stage; used in lab o It is a flower pot turned upside down in a larger container filled with water o If the rat goes into the REM stage, its muscles will go limp, he will fall into the water immediately and wakeup, therefore avoiding REM sleep Alcohol/ Sleeping Pills o Both limit REM sleep Consequences of REM Deprivation REM Pressure o Increased attempts by your brain to enter REM during deprivation REM Rebound o Increased numbed and intensity of REM episodes after deprivation Total Sleep Deprivation Peter Tripp o Radio host who went about 9 or 10 days without sleep o Did so by doing drugs (cocaine) and drinking coffee Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide o Became very paranoid, thought his people in his work place were out to get him, and thought bugs were crawling on him Randy Gardner o High school student who wanted to be in Guinness Book of World Records, so he got help from a sleep lab o 11 days with no sleep o Small changes like reaction time and ability to focus, but nothing crazy like Peter Tripp Short-term effects o Mood problems o Decreased attention o Short-term memory lapses o Compromised immune system o Microsleeps Long-term effects o Death Familial autosomal insomnia o Death sentence o Only live for about 2.5 years after diagnoses o Diagnosed around middle age Sleep Disorders Insomnia Difficulty getting, or staying asleep Poor quality sleep Hypersomnia Constant sleepiness, lethargy, despite 8+ hours of sleep Cause: o Over production of body’s own sedative o Patients show increased levels of natural sedative Obstructive Sleep Apnea Breathing may stop hundreds of times per night Disrupted, non-restful sleep, excesive daytime sleepiness More common in men, especially those overweight and who snore Non-REM stages Somnambulism (Sleepwalking) Happens when arousal is from early deep sleep usually about thirty minutes to two hours after sleep onset Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Brain waves: Delta (stages 3/4) Triggers: o Sleep deprivation o Caffeine o Alcohol and stress While sleepwalking there is low activity in the frontal lobe Complex behavior but facial recognition is not active Visual pathways involved in guiding movement and facial recognition are different Spatial navigation is active Narcolepsy (REM Disorder) Excessive daytime sleepiness Sudden sleep onset (sleep attacks) Cataplexy: sudden loss of muscle tone, often triggered by emotions Rapid REM onset: within 5 minutes Genetic Cannot drive with this disorder REM Behavior Disorder Act out their dreams Happens in old age (50+) men, veterans, football players are more likely to get it Most placid and good-natured when awake; show “restless legs” during non-REM and slow-wave sleep Causes: damage to area in during stem that normally inhibits muscles during REM Atonia: lack of tone or energy; muscular weakness, especially in a contractile organ (Sleepwalking cont.) Case Study for Somnambulism: Mr. A Mr. A was middle-aged with two kids and married Stabbed his wife 44 times in his sleep Several other cases of people killing in their sleep, in this case, Mr. A was found guilty (Sleepwalking cont.) Sleep Violence Statistics 1.7% report acting violently during sleep First legal case in 1791 o Woodcutter killed wife while sleeping Other complex actions you can do while sleeping o Diving Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide o Sex o Eating o Suicide Dreams Products of an altered state of consciousness in which images and fantasies are confused with reality Non-REM Dreams Dull, static, everyday events Black and white General deactivation of many brain regions Visual images rather than dreams REM Dreams Bizarre, emotional Visual and auditory imagery Acceptance of logical events PET scans show more activity in REM dreams Brain structures associated with motivation, emotion, reward, vision are active; pre-frontal cortex is not What do dreams mean? There are three views: o Freudian View o Evolved threat rehearsal view o Activation- Synthesis Theory Freudian View Royal road to the unconscious Dreams contain hidden content that represents unconscious conflicts Manifest content: o The plot of a dream; the way the dream is remembered Latent content: o What the dream symbolizes; the material that is disguised in a dream to protect the dreams from confronting direct reality No scientific evidence that dreams represent hidden conflicts or for the special symbolic meaning of dream images Evolved Threat Rehearsal View Hypothesis: o Dreams help us prepare to cope with threats in walking life Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Supporting Observations: o Dreams sometimes stimulate threatening events so that people can rehearse strategies for coping No real experimental evidence Activation Synthesis Theory First, there is a spontaneous firing of neurons in pons (the part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus), second, the cerebral cortex synthesizes signals and tries to interpret them Activation: o Random brain activity occurs during sleep o Emotion centers are active o Frontal cortex is not active: explains the uncritical acceptance of illogical events Synthesis: o Our sleeping brain synthesizes the activity with our stored memoris o Makes a narrative o We experience it as a dream Functions of Sleep Waste is removed by system of glymph channels in brain Scientists injected fluorescent molecules into brains of mice and watched circulation of glymph during wakefulness and sleep During sleep, mice had 60% increase in the volume of fluid in glymph channels Brian cells shrink to allow more space in channels when we are asleep Removal of beta amyloid which is found in brains of Alzheimer’s patients Facilitation of Learning NON-REM (Stages 1-4) Needed for spatial learning Simple memorization REM Sleep Needed for complex and conceptual learning Students spend more time in REM sleep during exam periods III. Learning Learning Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide A relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience Learning is inferred from behavior, however people don’t always show what they know Innate (unlearned) o Ex. Babies do not have to be taught to babble Learned (experience) o Ex. We have to be taught language (spelling, reading etc.) Non-Associative Types of Learning 1. Habituation a. Decreased response to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented b. Occurs when stimulus doesn’t provide information, or is non- threatening 2. Sensitization a. Increased response to a stimulus b. Occurs when stimulus is potentially threatening or informative People can either experience habituation or sensitization to the same stimulus o Ex. A car alarm Classical Conditioning Learning an association between two stimuli Can be unconscious Pavlov Pavlov’s Experiment Stage 1: baseline responses tone alone= no salivation and food presentation= salivation Stage 2: tone + food= salivation Stage 3: tone alone= salivation Pavlov Terminology Unconditioned response (UR): a response that does not have to be learned, like a reflex Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning Conditioned stimulus (CS): a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place Conditioned response (CR): a response to a CS; a response that has been learned Be able to identify all these terms in a given example Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Identifying Stimuli in Pavlov’s Experiment Tone before conditioning: neutral stimuli Food: US Salivation to food: UR Tone after conditioning: CS Salivation to tone alone: CR Terms to know for classical conditioning: Acquisition: o The gradual formation of an association between the CS and US o Best results: short delay between the CS and US Generalization: o Stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS also produce the CR Discrimination: o Different response to a stimulus that is sufficiently different form the CS Extinction: o The CS is repeated without the US and eventually the CR decreases o Learning that the prior association no longer holds o The CR is not permanently gone, it is still in our brain Spontaneous Recovery: o Following extinction, re-introduction of the CS produces a smaller response o Shows that association is just suppressed, not forgotten Phobia An acquired fear out of proportion to the real threat of an objector situation o We learn to fear neutral objects through classical conditioning John Watson Father of Behaviorism o Focus on observable behavior Believed that we are born all “Blank Slates” and everything is learned “Little Albert” Experiment o Classically conditioned a baby to have a phobia of white rats o CS (sight of rat) followed by US (loud noise) = UR (fear) o Pre-conditioning: white rat alone = no response o Conditioning trials: rate + loud noise o Post-conditioning: rate alone = afraid/ cry (learned phobia) Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide o Generalization: Little Albert was then afraid of other white animals, small animals or soft animals, all that were similar to a white rat Fear conditioning: Animals can be classically conditioned to fear neutral objects Ex. A rat is classically conditioned to produce a fear response to an auditory tone that is originally presented with an electric shock Treating Phobias Exposure Therapy o Basically extinction: presenting CS without US Counterconditioning o Reversing a learned response o Take CS and pair it with a new US that produces opposite response of the learned response Systematic Desensitization o Gradual subtype of counterconditioning o Structured process: Replace anxiety with relaxation Starts with exposure to the least scary version of the feared thing Instruct the person to relax while exposed to stimulus Gradually move to progressively stronger versions until full or normal exposure is reached Drug Addiction and Classical Conditioning Conditioned Cravings Environmental drug cues: CS o EX. A room, friends, drug apparatus Cravings: CR Sight of drug cues o Activation of reward center of brain, in expectation that the drug high will flow Treatment Exposure Therapy o Extinction of CR (drug cravings) to environmental cues Ex. Hang out with friends without doing drugs Helps extinguish responses to the cues Prevents them from triggering cravings Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Conditioned Tolerance Environmental stimuli associated with drug produce compensatory CR o Opposite to normal UR produced by drug o Ex. Heroin (US) decreases your heartrate (UR), so when you go into the same room you always do heroin in (CS), your heartrate automatically increases (CR) o Implications for drug OD: This (above) is why there is a high overdoes risk in new settings. If addicts take their usual large dose in a new place than normal, they are more likely to OD because their bodies will not respond sufficiently to compensate Operant conditioning, what is it? An association between a behavior and an outcome Behavior Consequence likelihood of behavior increases or decreases Skinner and Thorndike Shaping: a process of operant conditioning that involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior Behavior modification: the use of operant conditioning to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones B.F. Skinner Operant chamber (skinner box) o Described effects of reinforcement and punishment on behavior One lever gave food supply and another gave water, a rat or pigeon would learn to push the levers Edward Thorndike Puzzle box for cats Proved “Law of Effect”: Thorndike’s general theory of learning: any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is likely to occur again, and any behavior that leads to an “annoying state of affairs” is less likely to occur again Reinforcement vs. Punishment Reinforcement increase behavior Punishment decrease behavior Both can be positive or negative Positive Reinforcement Presenting a stimulus after a behavior to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Ex. Big Bang Theory o Penny gets a chocolate after every time she lowers her voice Negative Reinforcement Removing a stimulus after a behavior to increase the likelihood of the behavior occurring again Ex. Buckle up your seat belt to turn the alarm off o Buckling behavior is increased o Removal of stimulus (alarm) Positive Punishment Presenting a stimulus after a behavior to decrease the probability of the behavior reoccurring Meant to decrease behavior Apply aversive stimulus (vs. in negative reinforcement you remove the aversive stimulus) Ex. Giving your child a time-out when they back talk Negative Punishment Removing a positive stimulus after a behavior to decrease the probability that the behavior will occur Ex. Parent takes away child’s phone when they back talk Confused? Just look at this: Add Stimulus Remove Stimulus Increase Behavior Positive Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement Decrease behavior Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Schedules of Reinforcement How often should reinforces be given? Continuous reinforcement: o A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs o Quick learning o Once reinforcement stops, behavior stops Partial reinforcement: o A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently o Slower learning Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide o Slower extinguish time Ration Schedules Fixed ratio: reinforcement is provided after a specific number of occurrences o Ex. A punch card Variable ratio: reinforcement is provided after a variable number of occurences o Ex. Gamblers will win a jackpot every n^th pull Interval Schedule Fixed ratio: reinforcement is provided after a specific amount of time o Ex. Employees get paid once a week Variable ratio: Reinforcement is provided after a variable amount of time o Ex. Getting facebook updates Observational Learning For our purposes, modeling and observational learning are the same thing Observational learning is the acquisition of modification of a behavior after exposure to at least one performance of that behavior Mirror neurons: neurons in the brain that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs a similar action Bandura’s Observational Studies Two groups of pre-schoolers shown a video of adults interacting with a BoBo doll There was a video of an adult playing aggressively or quietly with the BoBo doll Kids where then brought into a room with a BoBo doll Results Video: 91% Other studies related: o Real-life aggressive model: 83% of the kids were aggressive o Cartoon: 98% o No model (control group): 51% o Non- aggressive model: 40% Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Vicarious Learning Learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action Vicarious Reinforcement Likelihood of observer’s behavior is increased if model’s behavior is reinforced Vicarious Punishment Likelihood of observer’s behavior is decreased if the model’s behavior is punished Does exposure to media violence make children aggressive? Correlation is strong: increase hours of video games = increase in aggression Causation, NO. (third variable) Some studies demonstrate desensitization to violence after exposure to violent video games, but there still is no evidence IV. Memory Case studies: Henry Molaison (H.M.) H.M. was tested by psychologists his whole life after he was hit by a car at the age of 9 and experienced extreme seizures due to damage in his hippocampus Unable to form new memories He could recount childhood memories like: o Road trips with his parents Could still complete familiar tasks Able to learn new motor skills o Ex. Drawing a star while looking in a mirror Clive Wearing Had a very successful music career, but had a brain disease/illness that deteriorated his brain Wearing’s life is like waking up every 2 minutes, he lives life very confused Keeps a journal and writes everything down but then has no memory of doing it and doesn’t believe it happened Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Only has memory for one thing, the love for his wife Wearing had damage to the frontal lobe, hippocampus and temporal lobe Not affected: o His ability to play piano o Ability to sight read music Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (in-class video) These unique individuals don’t forget any memory that happens to them Remember all dates, events, and emotions associated with those days Studies have been shown to prove their exceptionally accurate memory for autobiographical memory No difference on standard laboratory memory tasks Brain differences in these people: o Larger temporal lobe o Larger caudate (section also larder in individuals with OCD) Retrograde amnesia: o Lost memory for past events o Clive Wearing Anterograde amnesia: o The inability to form new memories o H.M. Two Long-Term Memory Systems Explicit Conscious memory Declarative memory o Information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared Implicit Unconscious memory Enhancement of memory, most often through behavior, without deliberate effort and without any awareness of remembering anything Two Types of Explicit and Implicit Memory Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Types of Explicit 1. Episodic Memory Memory for one’s personal past experiences oEx. H.M. was able to remember road trips with his family oEx. The memory of entering a specific classroom for the first time 2. Semantic Memory Knowledge of facts about the world, independent of perosnal experience oEx. Remembering capital cities of a geographic region If children have a brain injury in infancy, they have no episodic or semantic memory Types of Implicit 1. Procedural (motor) memory Involves motor skills, habits, and other behaviors employed to achieve goals Ex. Coordinating muscle movements to ride a bike Ex. H.M. and Clive Wearing’s procedural memory was untouched 2. Priming Enhanced identification of objects or words as a result of recent exposure to the stimulus In other words, someone presents a stimulus so fast to you that you don’t even know you have seen it, for example, they present to you a picture of a shower, then if they asked you to finish the word stem SO_P, you would fill in soap instead of soup because soap is associated with a shower 3. Conditioning Automatic response to a neutral cue paired with a strong stimulus Prospective Memory Involves remembering to do something at a future time Can be triggered by a cue and takes up cognitive space Anatomy of Memory Systems Hippocampus o Necessary for creation of new episodic/declarative memories o Also involved in spatial memory o Consolidation: transfer of memory from short term memory into long term memory Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Frontal Lobe o Necessary for “working memory” o “Working memory” holds information on line so it can be used to solve problems, understand conversations, and follow plans o Activated by “effortful retrieval” o Missing in Clive Wearing Amygdala o Necessary for implicit, emotional memory o Fear conditioning Cerebellum o Necessary for procedural memory, classical conditioning and implicit memory
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