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Exam 2 Study Guide

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Exam 2 Study Guide PSYCH 1000 - 01

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Covers and outlines information from chapters 3, 4, 6, and 7. As well as lecture material. IMPORTANT: three extra credit questions and answers are on the last page of the study for Dr. Segert's class.
General Psychology
Ines Segert
Study Guide
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ines Segert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 230 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 11/02/15
Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Text Material Covered Chapter 3: p 100-103 Split brain  A condition that occurs when the corpus callosum is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each other Visual System Organization  The right visual field is seen by both eyes and ends up in the left hemisphere  The left visual field is seen by both eyes and ends up in the right hemisphere Testing Procedure  Present a stimuli (a word or picture) in one visual field  Information is transmitted to the opposite hemisphere only  Selectively test processing abilities of each hemisphere Summary of Findings  Conscious language is only in the left hemisphere o Right visual field  Right visual field can’t speak what they saw but with their LEFT hand they can point out the object o They don’t know why they can point out that object  Left Hemisphere is in control of: o Language center o Conscious processing o Sequential processing (reading)  Right Hemisphere is in control of: o Spatial processing o Facial recognition o Emotional processing People born without a corpus callosum are not affected by these thing due to plasticity Faces made of books   Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide  Left brain, right visual field will see books  Right brain, left visual field will see a face The Interpreter  Module in the left hemisphere that explains something  Left hemisphere wants to make sense of what the left visual field sees but can’t explain o When you flash the word cat to a split brain patient’s left visual field and ask them why they point to the picture of a cat with their left hand, their interpreter in their left hemisphere will make up a story on why that is, because they actually don’t know  The interpreter applies to normal brain patients, not just split brain patients The Interpreter Speculates  The left hemisphere takes what information it has and delivers a coherent tale to conscious awareness o Can easily trick the left hemisphere into thinking something is true when it is no  Right Hemisphere simply experiences the world Chapter 4: p. 131-154 Consciousness: the subjective experience of the world, resulting from brain activity  Consciousness experience varies from person to person o Usually unified and coherent  Selective attention: people have a limited capacity for sensory information, so we must choose what to attend to, but unattended information is processed at least to some extent  Change blindness: a failure to notice large changes in one’s environment  Subliminal Perception: the processing of information by sensory systems without conscious awareness o A part of unconscious processing Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide  Brain activity: different types of sensory information are processed by different brain areas: the particular type of neural activity determines the particular type of awareness Variations in Normal Conscious Experience  Sleep/ Wake cycles  Automatic tasks, done without awareness o Driving a familiar route in low traffic  Controlled processing/conscious awareness o Driving in a new city at rush hour o Complex or novel situations Sleep  the brain does not shut down, actually, many of the brain regions are more active during sleep than during wakefulness  Circadian rhythms: biological patterns that occur at regular intervals as a function of time of day Stages of Sleep:  Stage 1: o Easily aroused from stage 1 o Theta waves o Fantastical images or geometric shapes  Stage 2: o Breathing becomes more regular o Theta waves, but also large waves called K-complexes o Bursts of activity called sleep spindle  Stage 3/4: o Progression to deep sleep o Slow-wave sleep delta waves  REM: o The stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, dreaming, and paralysis of motor systems Sleep as Adaptive Behavior  Sleep can be dangerous and thus a threat to survival  However, eventually we all must sleep  Adaptive for 3 functions: o Restoration  Allows the body, including the brain, to rest and repair itself o Flowing of circadian rhythms Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide  Sleep has evolved to keep animals quiet and inactive during times of the day where there is greatest danger, usually when it is dark  Animals only need a limited amount of sleep to survive  Ex. Large animals vulnerable to attack sleep little, while predatory animals sleep a lot o Facilitation of learning  The neural connections made during the day, which serve as the basis of learning, are strengthened during sleep Chapter 6: p. 221-250, 254-259 Habituation: a decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus Sensitization: an increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus Observational learning: acquiring or changing a behavior after exposure to another individual performing that behavior Classical conditioning: a type of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response Phobia: an acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or of a situation (use exposure therapy to treat) Drug addiction: classical conditioning with drugs Operant conditioning: a learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future Schedules of Reinforcement: how often should a reinforce be given  Continuous vs. partial  Interval vs. ratio Minetka Studies: Hypothesis: monkeys can develop phobias about snakes by observing other monkeys reacting fearfully to snakes  Learned phobias  Treatment: show the monkey another monkey interacting with a snake without fear Chapter 7: p.285-289 (only bold faced terms) Implicit memory: the system underlying unconscious memories Explicit memory: the system underlying conscious memories Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Declarative memory: the cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared Episodic memory: memory for one’s personal past experiences Semantic memory: memory for knowledge about the world Procedural memory: a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits Prospective memory: remembering to do something at some future time Lecture Material Covered I. Consciousness Consciousness: the subjective experience of the world, resulting from brain activity  Consciousness experience varies from person to person  Controlled tasks o Conscious awareness o Complex or novel situations o Ex. Driving in a new city at rush hour  Automatic tasks o Done without awareness o Ex. Driving a familiar rout in low traffic Extreme States  Locked- in Syndrome o Martin the “Ghost Boy” o Conscious, but can’t respond o Total awareness (virtual coma) o Damage to motor control areas in brain stem o Result: paralysis of all muscles except sometimes your eyelids  Persistent Vegetative State o Full coma that lasts more than a month o No consciousness o Loss of almost all cognitive function o Lower level brain functions (breathing) reflexive movement o No recovery  Minimally Conscious o Deliberate movement and communication are possible  Ex. Blink once for “yes” and twice for “no” o Some awareness o May improve with rehab  Brain Dead Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide o Zero brain activity How to Distinguish these States or Determine Consciousness  Brain scans to show brain activity o Ex. Locked- in syndrome has an exactly the same brain activity as a fully conscious person Results of studies with coma patients  Imaging studies in come patients: o Patients are told to visualize either playing tennis or walking through rooms in a house  Playing tennis= motor regions  Walking through a rooms = spatial regions o fMRI scans during the visualization o In a small subset of coma patients, they showed brain activity, however, this does not prove consciousness  2010 Monti Study to prove consciousness o 54 coma patients asked to visualize either playing tennis or walking through rooms in a house o Asked to answer a series of questions like “is your father’s name John Smith”  If yes, the patient should visualize playing tennis  If no, the patient should visualize walking through a house o A small subset of patients were shown to be aware and conscious o This DOES prove consciousness II. Sleep Sleep, how much do you need?  Individual variations (long vs. short sleepers)  Changes with age  Minimum amount for a small period of time is 4 hours o One can function with this amount, but zone out and have a slow reaction time Microsleep  Eyes are open and the individual is awake, but there is zero brain activity  “Zone out”  Loose a few seconds of what the teacher says Effects of Sleep Deprivation Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide  Cognitive: big impact on memory and your ability to learn  Emotional: stress, emotions and anxiety increase  Immune system and reaction time decreases  Poor decision-making o Because frontal lobe activity decrease when you’re tired o More likely to give into impulses  Correlation (not cause and affect) between GPA and sleep (increase sleep is associated with a higher GPA) Sleep Debt  A cumulative deficit, can’t makeup sleep debt  Cognitive and physical consequences of low sleep: o Obesity o Type 2 diabetes o Cancer o Increased inflammation o Suppressed immune system  Lack of sleep is heavily correlated with Michael Jackson’s death REM Deprivation  Flowerpot Technique o Method used to selectively limit REM stage; used in lab o It is a flower pot turned upside down in a larger container filled with water o If the rat goes into the REM stage, its muscles will go limp, he will fall into the water immediately and wakeup, therefore avoiding REM sleep  Alcohol/ Sleeping Pills o Both limit REM sleep Consequences of REM Deprivation  REM Pressure o Increased attempts by your brain to enter REM during deprivation  REM Rebound o Increased numbed and intensity of REM episodes after deprivation Total Sleep Deprivation  Peter Tripp o Radio host who went about 9 or 10 days without sleep o Did so by doing drugs (cocaine) and drinking coffee Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide o Became very paranoid, thought his people in his work place were out to get him, and thought bugs were crawling on him  Randy Gardner o High school student who wanted to be in Guinness Book of World Records, so he got help from a sleep lab o 11 days with no sleep o Small changes like reaction time and ability to focus, but nothing crazy like Peter Tripp  Short-term effects o Mood problems o Decreased attention o Short-term memory lapses o Compromised immune system o Microsleeps  Long-term effects o Death  Familial autosomal insomnia o Death sentence o Only live for about 2.5 years after diagnoses o Diagnosed around middle age Sleep Disorders Insomnia  Difficulty getting, or staying asleep  Poor quality sleep Hypersomnia  Constant sleepiness, lethargy, despite 8+ hours of sleep  Cause: o Over production of body’s own sedative o Patients show increased levels of natural sedative Obstructive Sleep Apnea  Breathing may stop hundreds of times per night  Disrupted, non-restful sleep, excesive daytime sleepiness  More common in men, especially those overweight and who snore  Non-REM stages Somnambulism (Sleepwalking)  Happens when arousal is from early deep sleep usually about thirty minutes to two hours after sleep onset Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide  Brain waves: Delta (stages 3/4)  Triggers: o Sleep deprivation o Caffeine o Alcohol and stress  While sleepwalking there is low activity in the frontal lobe  Complex behavior but facial recognition is not active  Visual pathways involved in guiding movement and facial recognition are different  Spatial navigation is active Narcolepsy (REM Disorder)  Excessive daytime sleepiness  Sudden sleep onset (sleep attacks)  Cataplexy: sudden loss of muscle tone, often triggered by emotions  Rapid REM onset: within 5 minutes  Genetic  Cannot drive with this disorder REM Behavior Disorder  Act out their dreams  Happens in old age (50+) men, veterans, football players are more likely to get it  Most placid and good-natured when awake; show “restless legs” during non-REM and slow-wave sleep  Causes: damage to area in during stem that normally inhibits muscles during REM  Atonia: lack of tone or energy; muscular weakness, especially in a contractile organ (Sleepwalking cont.) Case Study for Somnambulism: Mr. A  Mr. A was middle-aged with two kids and married  Stabbed his wife 44 times in his sleep  Several other cases of people killing in their sleep, in this case, Mr. A was found guilty (Sleepwalking cont.) Sleep Violence Statistics  1.7% report acting violently during sleep  First legal case in 1791 o Woodcutter killed wife while sleeping  Other complex actions you can do while sleeping o Diving Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide o Sex o Eating o Suicide Dreams  Products of an altered state of consciousness in which images and fantasies are confused with reality Non-REM Dreams  Dull, static, everyday events  Black and white  General deactivation of many brain regions  Visual images rather than dreams REM Dreams  Bizarre, emotional  Visual and auditory imagery  Acceptance of logical events  PET scans show more activity in REM dreams  Brain structures associated with motivation, emotion, reward, vision are active; pre-frontal cortex is not What do dreams mean?  There are three views: o Freudian View o Evolved threat rehearsal view o Activation- Synthesis Theory Freudian View  Royal road to the unconscious  Dreams contain hidden content that represents unconscious conflicts  Manifest content: o The plot of a dream; the way the dream is remembered  Latent content: o What the dream symbolizes; the material that is disguised in a dream to protect the dreams from confronting direct reality  No scientific evidence that dreams represent hidden conflicts or for the special symbolic meaning of dream images Evolved Threat Rehearsal View  Hypothesis: o Dreams help us prepare to cope with threats in walking life Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide  Supporting Observations: o Dreams sometimes stimulate threatening events so that people can rehearse strategies for coping No real experimental evidence Activation Synthesis Theory  First, there is a spontaneous firing of neurons in pons (the part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus), second, the cerebral cortex synthesizes signals and tries to interpret them  Activation: o Random brain activity occurs during sleep o Emotion centers are active o Frontal cortex is not active: explains the uncritical acceptance of illogical events  Synthesis: o Our sleeping brain synthesizes the activity with our stored memoris o Makes a narrative o We experience it as a dream Functions of Sleep  Waste is removed by system of glymph channels in brain  Scientists injected fluorescent molecules into brains of mice and watched circulation of glymph during wakefulness and sleep  During sleep, mice had 60% increase in the volume of fluid in glymph channels  Brian cells shrink to allow more space in channels when we are asleep  Removal of beta amyloid which is found in brains of Alzheimer’s patients Facilitation of Learning  NON-REM (Stages 1-4)  Needed for spatial learning  Simple memorization  REM Sleep  Needed for complex and conceptual learning  Students spend more time in REM sleep during exam periods III. Learning Learning Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide  A relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience  Learning is inferred from behavior, however people don’t always show what they know  Innate (unlearned) o Ex. Babies do not have to be taught to babble  Learned (experience) o Ex. We have to be taught language (spelling, reading etc.) Non-Associative Types of Learning 1. Habituation a. Decreased response to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented b. Occurs when stimulus doesn’t provide information, or is non- threatening 2. Sensitization a. Increased response to a stimulus b. Occurs when stimulus is potentially threatening or informative  People can either experience habituation or sensitization to the same stimulus o Ex. A car alarm Classical Conditioning  Learning an association between two stimuli  Can be unconscious  Pavlov Pavlov’s Experiment Stage 1: baseline responses tone alone= no salivation and food presentation= salivation Stage 2: tone + food= salivation Stage 3: tone alone= salivation Pavlov Terminology  Unconditioned response (UR): a response that does not have to be learned, like a reflex  Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning  Conditioned stimulus (CS): a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place  Conditioned response (CR): a response to a CS; a response that has been learned  Be able to identify all these terms in a given example Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Identifying Stimuli in Pavlov’s Experiment  Tone before conditioning: neutral stimuli  Food: US  Salivation to food: UR  Tone after conditioning: CS  Salivation to tone alone: CR Terms to know for classical conditioning:  Acquisition: o The gradual formation of an association between the CS and US o Best results: short delay between the CS and US  Generalization: o Stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS also produce the CR  Discrimination: o Different response to a stimulus that is sufficiently different form the CS  Extinction: o The CS is repeated without the US and eventually the CR decreases o Learning that the prior association no longer holds o The CR is not permanently gone, it is still in our brain  Spontaneous Recovery: o Following extinction, re-introduction of the CS produces a smaller response o Shows that association is just suppressed, not forgotten Phobia  An acquired fear out of proportion to the real threat of an objector situation o We learn to fear neutral objects through classical conditioning John Watson  Father of Behaviorism o Focus on observable behavior  Believed that we are born all “Blank Slates” and everything is learned  “Little Albert” Experiment o Classically conditioned a baby to have a phobia of white rats o CS (sight of rat) followed by US (loud noise) = UR (fear) o Pre-conditioning: white rat alone = no response o Conditioning trials: rate + loud noise o Post-conditioning: rate alone = afraid/ cry (learned phobia) Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide o Generalization: Little Albert was then afraid of other white animals, small animals or soft animals, all that were similar to a white rat Fear conditioning:  Animals can be classically conditioned to fear neutral objects  Ex. A rat is classically conditioned to produce a fear response to an auditory tone that is originally presented with an electric shock Treating Phobias  Exposure Therapy o Basically extinction: presenting CS without US  Counterconditioning o Reversing a learned response o Take CS and pair it with a new US that produces opposite response of the learned response  Systematic Desensitization o Gradual subtype of counterconditioning o Structured process:  Replace anxiety with relaxation  Starts with exposure to the least scary version of the feared thing  Instruct the person to relax while exposed to stimulus  Gradually move to progressively stronger versions until full or normal exposure is reached Drug Addiction and Classical Conditioning Conditioned Cravings  Environmental drug cues: CS o EX. A room, friends, drug apparatus  Cravings: CR  Sight of drug cues o Activation of reward center of brain, in expectation that the drug high will flow Treatment  Exposure Therapy o Extinction of CR (drug cravings) to environmental cues  Ex. Hang out with friends without doing drugs  Helps extinguish responses to the cues  Prevents them from triggering cravings Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Conditioned Tolerance  Environmental stimuli associated with drug produce compensatory CR o Opposite to normal UR produced by drug o Ex. Heroin (US) decreases your heartrate (UR), so when you go into the same room you always do heroin in (CS), your heartrate automatically increases (CR) o Implications for drug OD: This (above) is why there is a high overdoes risk in new settings. If addicts take their usual large dose in a new place than normal, they are more likely to OD because their bodies will not respond sufficiently to compensate Operant conditioning, what is it?  An association between a behavior and an outcome  Behavior Consequence likelihood of behavior increases or decreases  Skinner and Thorndike  Shaping: a process of operant conditioning that involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior  Behavior modification: the use of operant conditioning to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones B.F. Skinner  Operant chamber (skinner box) o Described effects of reinforcement and punishment on behavior  One lever gave food supply and another gave water, a rat or pigeon would learn to push the levers Edward Thorndike  Puzzle box for cats  Proved “Law of Effect”: Thorndike’s general theory of learning: any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is likely to occur again, and any behavior that leads to an “annoying state of affairs” is less likely to occur again Reinforcement vs. Punishment  Reinforcement  increase behavior  Punishment  decrease behavior  Both can be positive or negative Positive Reinforcement  Presenting a stimulus after a behavior to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide  Ex. Big Bang Theory o Penny gets a chocolate after every time she lowers her voice Negative Reinforcement  Removing a stimulus after a behavior to increase the likelihood of the behavior occurring again  Ex. Buckle up your seat belt to turn the alarm off o Buckling behavior is increased o Removal of stimulus (alarm) Positive Punishment  Presenting a stimulus after a behavior to decrease the probability of the behavior reoccurring  Meant to decrease behavior  Apply aversive stimulus (vs. in negative reinforcement you remove the aversive stimulus)  Ex. Giving your child a time-out when they back talk Negative Punishment  Removing a positive stimulus after a behavior to decrease the probability that the behavior will occur  Ex. Parent takes away child’s phone when they back talk Confused? Just look at this: Add Stimulus Remove Stimulus Increase Behavior Positive Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement Decrease behavior Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Schedules of Reinforcement  How often should reinforces be given?  Continuous reinforcement: o A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs o Quick learning o Once reinforcement stops, behavior stops  Partial reinforcement: o A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently o Slower learning Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide o Slower extinguish time Ration Schedules  Fixed ratio: reinforcement is provided after a specific number of occurrences o Ex. A punch card  Variable ratio: reinforcement is provided after a variable number of occurences o Ex. Gamblers will win a jackpot every n^th pull Interval Schedule  Fixed ratio: reinforcement is provided after a specific amount of time o Ex. Employees get paid once a week  Variable ratio: Reinforcement is provided after a variable amount of time o Ex. Getting facebook updates Observational Learning  For our purposes, modeling and observational learning are the same thing  Observational learning is the acquisition of modification of a behavior after exposure to at least one performance of that behavior  Mirror neurons: neurons in the brain that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs a similar action Bandura’s Observational Studies  Two groups of pre-schoolers shown a video of adults interacting with a BoBo doll  There was a video of an adult playing aggressively or quietly with the BoBo doll  Kids where then brought into a room with a BoBo doll Results  Video: 91%  Other studies related: o Real-life aggressive model: 83% of the kids were aggressive o Cartoon: 98% o No model (control group): 51% o Non- aggressive model: 40% Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Vicarious Learning  Learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action Vicarious Reinforcement  Likelihood of observer’s behavior is increased if model’s behavior is reinforced Vicarious Punishment  Likelihood of observer’s behavior is decreased if the model’s behavior is punished Does exposure to media violence make children aggressive?  Correlation is strong: increase hours of video games = increase in aggression  Causation, NO. (third variable)  Some studies demonstrate desensitization to violence after exposure to violent video games, but there still is no evidence IV. Memory Case studies: Henry Molaison (H.M.)  H.M. was tested by psychologists his whole life after he was hit by a car at the age of 9 and experienced extreme seizures due to damage in his hippocampus  Unable to form new memories  He could recount childhood memories like: o Road trips with his parents  Could still complete familiar tasks  Able to learn new motor skills o Ex. Drawing a star while looking in a mirror Clive Wearing  Had a very successful music career, but had a brain disease/illness that deteriorated his brain  Wearing’s life is like waking up every 2 minutes, he lives life very confused  Keeps a journal and writes everything down but then has no memory of doing it and doesn’t believe it happened Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide  Only has memory for one thing, the love for his wife  Wearing had damage to the frontal lobe, hippocampus and temporal lobe  Not affected: o His ability to play piano o Ability to sight read music Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (in-class video)  These unique individuals don’t forget any memory that happens to them  Remember all dates, events, and emotions associated with those days  Studies have been shown to prove their exceptionally accurate memory for autobiographical memory  No difference on standard laboratory memory tasks  Brain differences in these people: o Larger temporal lobe o Larger caudate (section also larder in individuals with OCD) Retrograde amnesia: o Lost memory for past events o Clive Wearing Anterograde amnesia: o The inability to form new memories o H.M. Two Long-Term Memory Systems Explicit  Conscious memory  Declarative memory o Information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared Implicit  Unconscious memory  Enhancement of memory, most often through behavior, without deliberate effort and without any awareness of remembering anything Two Types of Explicit and Implicit Memory Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide Types of Explicit 1. Episodic Memory  Memory for one’s personal past experiences oEx. H.M. was able to remember road trips with his family oEx. The memory of entering a specific classroom for the first time 2. Semantic Memory  Knowledge of facts about the world, independent of perosnal experience oEx. Remembering capital cities of a geographic region  If children have a brain injury in infancy, they have no episodic or semantic memory Types of Implicit 1. Procedural (motor) memory  Involves motor skills, habits, and other behaviors employed to achieve goals  Ex. Coordinating muscle movements to ride a bike  Ex. H.M. and Clive Wearing’s procedural memory was untouched 2. Priming  Enhanced identification of objects or words as a result of recent exposure to the stimulus  In other words, someone presents a stimulus so fast to you that you don’t even know you have seen it, for example, they present to you a picture of a shower, then if they asked you to finish the word stem SO_P, you would fill in soap instead of soup because soap is associated with a shower 3. Conditioning  Automatic response to a neutral cue paired with a strong stimulus Prospective Memory  Involves remembering to do something at a future time  Can be triggered by a cue and takes up cognitive space Anatomy of Memory Systems  Hippocampus o Necessary for creation of new episodic/declarative memories o Also involved in spatial memory o Consolidation: transfer of memory from short term memory into long term memory Psychology 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide  Frontal Lobe o Necessary for “working memory” o “Working memory” holds information on line so it can be used to solve problems, understand conversations, and follow plans o Activated by “effortful retrieval” o Missing in Clive Wearing  Amygdala o Necessary for implicit, emotional memory o Fear conditioning  Cerebellum o Necessary for procedural memory, classical conditioning and implicit memory


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