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Chapter 13 What is personality? Personality is a characteristic of thinking, feeling, and acting. What are the four main approaches to the study of personality? The four main approaches to personality are the psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, humanistic, trait, and social-cognitive approach. Who was Sigmund Freud? What major contribution did he make to personality psychology? What were the main focuses of Freud’s theory? What was his theory called? Sigmund Freud was a psychologist who formulated the first major theory of personality, the psychoanalytic approach. It emphasized sexual and aggressive urges, childhood experiences, and the unconscious. What is the unconscious? How does it relate to psychological disorder in Freud’s theory? The unconscious consists of thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories, and desires below conscious awareness. In Freud’s theory, it is the source of problems in disguise. How did Freud attempt to access the unconscious mind? Freud attempted to access the unconscious mind through free association and dream analysis. Free association is when the patient says whatever comes to mind, whether or not it is irrelevant. Through this, their unconscious thoughts would come out in unguarded moments. Dream analysis involved analyzing dreams, which are believed to be highly symbolic of unconscious conflicts. Dreams are thought to be manifestations of the contents of the unconscious mind. What are the structures of personality according to the psychoanalytic view? The three structures of personality are the id, ego, and superego. What are their characteristics? How do these relate to the iceberg analogy? The id consists of basic instincts, is entirely unconscious, and we are born with it. It operates according to the pleasure principle, guiding one to whatever feels good without regard to the rules of society (immediate gratification). The ego develops within the first couple of years in order to satisfy the id in socially acceptable ways. It operates according to the reality principle within the confines of reality. It delays the gratification of the id, and it serves as the mediator between the id and superego, which are often in conflict. The superego develops around the age of 4 or 5. It serves as our conscience. It is an internalized value of one’s parents and society. It operates according to the morality principle, doing what is right, demanding perfection, and producing feelings of shame, guilt, and pride. Freud believed the mind was like an iceberg, stating that the vast majority of the mind was in the subconscious. What are defense mechanisms (in general)? What is repression? Defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological and behavioral tactics that protect a person from unpleasant emotions by distorting or hiding reality. We employ defense mechanisms in order to lessen anxiety by unconscious conflicts. Repression is a major defense mechanism that is the basis for other defense mechanisms. Repression is suppressing uncomfortable thoughts or impulses, pushing them out of consciousness or keeping them in the unconscious mind. What are Freud’s psychosexual stages of development and what happens during each? What are erogenous zones? What is fixation? What are the characteristics of oral and anal fixation? What are the Oedipus and Electra complexes? Freud’s psychosexual stages of development are the oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency period, and genital stage. The oral stage involves the mouth (pleasure from sucking) and weaning. This stage occurs from birth to 1 ½ years of age. Society demands weaning; however, if a child is weaned too early or too late, the child could become fixated. Smoking, chewing gum, overeating, and nail biting could show up later in life. The anal stage involves toilet training and independence. It occurs during the second year. Children obtain pleasure by retaining and eliminating feces, but society demands toilet training. If it is done too early, one can become compulsively neat, orderly, stingy, and meticulous. If it is done too late, one can become sloppy. The phallic stage involves the genitals. Children would enjoy pleasant stimulation of the genitals. Boys go through the Oedipus complex, which is the unconscious sexual desire for his mother. He sees the father as a rival, and experiences desire, jealousy, fear, repression, and identification (tries to be more like his father). Girls go through the Electra complex, having the unconscious desire for her father and seeing the mother as a rival. They notice that they do not have penises, and they develop penis envy. During the latency period, nothing happens. It occurs from age 6 to puberty. The genital stage is when sexual urges re-emerge. It occurs from puberty throughout life. If everything went well during the earlier stages, the person should seek out partners who are like their gender parent. Erogenous zones are pleasure-sensitive areas of the body. If conflicts are not resolved, it can lead to fixation, which is an enduring focus on a particular erogenous zone. There can be overindulgence or under indulgence, and effects will show in adulthood. What is the modern version of the psychoanalytic approach? The modern version of the psychoanalytic approach is the psychodynamic approach. It agrees that childhood and the unconscious play a role. This approach is more interested in how the conscious and unconscious minds interact with each other. What are projective personality tests? What are the problems with them? Projective personality tests involve an individual’s projection of their subconscious in their responses to ambiguous stimuli. There are two types of tests: the thematic apperception test (given an ambiguous picture of a person or event and told to tell a story) and the Rorschach inkblot. However, interpretations are very subjective, and there are problems with reliability and validity. What are the problems with Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory? Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is unscientific, is not supported by research, and has nothing to compare results to. What is the humanistic approach? What is the main premise of the humanistic approach? What does Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective entail? What factors promote and inhibit growth according to this perspective? The humanistic approach involves healthy people and positive aspects. The major premise is that we all have an innate drive to fulfill our potential. Roger’s Person-Centered Theory states that we will continue to grow and reach our full potential, depending on the quality of our relationships. Genuineness (open and honest about how you feel), empathy (sharing feelings, feeling what other people feel), and acceptance (feeling loved and accepted by people in our lives) promote growth. Unconditional positive regard (loved despite our faults) also promotes growth. Conditional positive regard (love with conditions) inhibits growth. What is the trait approach? Have a general idea of the purpose of factor analysis. The trait approach sees personality as a combination of traits. Traits are specific, stable, internal characteristics. Factor analysis involves statistically correlated clusters of items. Traits are grouped together on one dimension. Know Eysenck’s trait theory and how introverts and extroverts tend to differ. Eysenck’s trait theory involves introversion/extraversion and emotionality/stability. Introverted people tend to be more solitary and reserved. Extraverted people tend to be more social and outgoing. People with more emotionality tend to be more moody and anxious. People with more stability tend to be more calm and relaxed. There is a biological basis for this theory. There are inherited levels of brain and autonomic nervous system arousal and reactivity. Extraverts tend to have under arousal. They have low baselines levels of arousal and will seek out more stimulation; they are less inhibited by punishment and experience less pain. Introverts have over arousal, and they inherit high baselines levels of arousal and do not seek out stimulation; they prefer quiet and calm places and tend to have more reactive nervous systems. Know Gray’s concept of the behavioral approach system and behavioral inhibition system. Gray’s Biopsychological Trait Theory involves the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS). The BAS affects our sensitivity for reward; rewards are more attractive to some people. People with BAS experience more positive emotions, but they are more prone to impulse. The BIS affects our sensitivity to punishment and motivation to avoid punishment. For people with BIS, punishment is more punishing, and they are more motivated to avoid it. People differ in their sensitivities of their BAS and BIS. What is the Big Five Model of personality? The Big Five Model of personality states that there are five dimensions of personality: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion What is the NEO-PI-R? The MMPI? The NEO-PI-R is the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory Revised. It is a personality inventory (test that asses many traits at once) that predicts career success, status, and criminality. It has good predictive validity and measures all five dimensions. The MMPI is the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory, which diagnoses psychological disorders. In what circumstances is personality a good predictor of behavior? Personality is not a good indicator of a specific instance of situation, but it can predict behavior across many situations. What is the social-cognitive approach? What is Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism? The Social-cognitive approach emphasizes environmental factors. It involves the interaction between a person’s thoughts, behaviors, and the situation; all three influence each other. Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism states that personality effects environment, and environment effects personality. In reciprocal determinism, the person and environment influence each other through choice and reaction, and personalities create situation. We are the products and producers of environment. What is Rotter’s expectancy theory? What is meant by internal and external locus of control? What is learned helplessness and how does it relate to the concept of personal control? Rotter’s expectancy theory states that we have behave according to expectations of results. An internal locus of control means that expectations of one’s own behavior have an impact on what happens in their life. It is associated with achievement, health, independence, and well-being. People who have an external locus of control believe that external forces control what happens to them; they lack feelings of control. Learned helplessness is a passive resignation resulting from repeated experience of uncontrollable, traumatic events. Personal control is the feeling of control or being controlled by the environment. What is the relationship between self-esteem and aggressive behavior? What is defensive self-esteem? Self-esteem is how you view yourself; it is self-worth. People with unrealistically high self-esteem tend to be more violent and aggressive. Defensive self-esteem is the tendency to behave more aggressively than those who have secure self-esteem. What is the self-serving bias? What is the better-than-average or above-average effect? The self-serving bias is the tendency to think well of ourselves. It is more pronounced in people who have higher self-esteem. The better-than- average/above-average effect is the tendency to think that we above average; it is an illusion of superiority. How does depression relate to realism? People with depression/low self-esteem lack a self-serving bias. People with depression see things more realistically than others. This shows that some degree of self-delusion is healthy. Chapter 14 How is psychological disorder defined? What are the issues involved with defining psychological disorder/psychopathology/mental illness? A psychological disorder is ongoing patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that impair functioning, cause discomfort, and disrupt lives. Thoughts, behaviors, and feelings must be deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional/maladaptive; they cannot be used in isolation. However, standards for deviant behavior very by context and by culture. How does the biopsychosocial model explain psychological disorder? The biopsychosocial model explains psychological disorders as a combined interaction of biological factors (genetics), psychological factors (how you think about yourself and reason events), and sociocultural/environmental context (poverty, culture, social support). How are psychological disorders related to poverty? Psychological disorders are twice as common for people living in poverty. How does culture influence psychological disorders? What are culture-general and culture-specific psychological disorders? Symptoms and manifestations of psychological disorders are influenced by culture. Culture-general disorders are seen in all cultures (depression, schizophrenia). Culture-specific disorders are prevalent only in particular cultures, and uncommon in others (eating disorders, genital retraction disorder). How does the diathesis-stress model explain psychological disorder? The diathesis-stress model states that the amount of stress needed to trigger a psychological disorder depends on the person’s degree of disposition. What is the DSM-IV-TR? The DSM-IV-TR is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It classifies and defines psychological disorders. What are the issues associated with applying a diagnostic label to someone? There are problems with labeling and stigmatization. Labeling someone with a psychological disorder may cause people to be seen only in terms of their illness. Everyday behavior may be seen as part of their mental illness. What are anxiety disorders? What are the anxiety disorders we covered? Know symptoms/definitions of terms, how they differ from each other. Anxiety disorders are disorders involving worry, fear, nervousness, and dread. Physical symptoms include sympathetic arousal (trembling, sweating, racing heart, etc.). Disorders include PTSD, generalized, panic, phobias, and OCD. Posttraumatic stress disorder involves flashbacks, haunting memories, nightmares, insomnia, jumpiness, crankiness, and withdrawal. People who have the disorder suffer horrific, uncontrollable events (war veterans, sexual assault victims) Generalized anxiety disorder involves free-floating, continual, long-lasting anxiety for no apparent reason. Symptoms include dread, distractibility, worry, irritability, tension, insomnia, hyper-vigilance, exaggerated startle response, nausea, dizziness, and trouble concentrating. It goes along with major depression. Panic disorder involves recurrent panic attacks. It is an unpredictable, sudden, intense anxiety with no cause. Symptoms include dizziness, chest pain, sweating, trembling, and suffocation. Phobias are excessive, irrational fears that disrupt life. Specific phobias are fears of specific situations or things. Social phobias are fears of other people’s judgments. It is the fear of embarrassing oneself in social situations, and a person will tend to avoid social situations. Agoraphobia is fear of separation from a safe place or person. OCD is obsessive-compulsive disorder. Obsessions are intrusive, recurring thoughts that the person feels unable to control; it produces anxiety. Compulsions are uncontrollable urges to engage in ritualistic behaviors. The purpose of the behaviors is to reduce anxiety with obsession. They include counting, checking, arranging, washing, and cleaning. Compulsions are often related. It is very time-consuming. What are some biological and psychological factors involved in anxiety disorders? Biological factors include genetic influences, the autonomic nervous system, and the brain. Psychological/cognitive factors involve an attentional bias to fears and things related to those fears (watch out for things that could be threats) and low self-efficacy (underestimating their ability to cope). What characterizes dissociative disorders? Know the symptoms/characteristics of the dissociative disorders we covered and how they differ from each other. Dissociative disorders are intense disruptions in memory, identity, or consciousness. It is associated with extreme stress. Dissociative amnesia involves memory loss in response to severe emotional trauma. A person may forget parts or forget everything. It affects personal memory (episodic) and can reverse itself abruptly. Dissociative fugue is sudden travel with memory loss of personal history. An affected person wanders off, and it is associated with some past trauma. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a multiple personality disorder. Different personalities take control of the person; the different personalities may speak, act, and write differently from each other. It is associated with severe abuse in childhood and ultimately takes control of a person’s behavior. What are mood disorders? Know the ones we covered, symptoms, terms, characteristics, how they differ. Mood (affective) disorders involve extremes of mood that are inconsistent with a person’s life. It includes major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Major depression symptoms include sadness, guilt, low self-esteem, inadequacy, pessimism, crying, anhedonia (absence of pleasure), anxiety, lack of concentration, isolation, loss of interest, and lack of motivation. It involves feelings of sadness that lasts two weeks or longer. Physical symptoms include changes in eating and sleeping, low energy, pain, and a weakened immune system. It is found in all cultures, showing up in early childhood. It has recurrent episodes and the risk of suicide among affected people is five times more likely than average. Bipolar disorder consists of two extremes. Manic depression is an agitated emotional state. Mania includes euphoria and irritability. People exhibit poor judgment, optimism, and wild impulsive ideas. They are hyperactive, talkative, reckless, and experience insomnia. There is an alternation between depression and mania. Who is most likely to commit suicide? How do males and females differ regarding suicide? What factors may predict suicide? People who are American Indians, European Americans, old, of higher economic status, unmarried, non-religious, and male are more likely to commit suicide. Males have a higher success rate of suicide because their methods are more direct (guns). Predictors of suicide can be planning, impulsiveness, previous attempts, alcoholic dependence, and the rebound effect (people coming out of depression are morel likely to do it) What are some biological and psychological factors involved in mood disorders? Biological factors include genetic influences and neurotransmitters. There is less activity overall in serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. There is also an exaggerated reaction to stress response (release more hormones). Psychological/cognitive factors include hopelessness, learned helplessness and an external locus of control, a reaction to negative (more impact) and positive (less impact) events, perfectionism (fall short of expectations), a negative explanatory style (lack self-serving bias), and a tendency to jump to overly pessimistic conclusions. Social factors include stress, poverty, and social support. What is schizophrenia? Why is it so disabling? What are the symptoms? Know definitions and characteristics of the symptoms we covered. For instance, what are hallucinations and delusions? What are the most common types of hallucinations in schizophrenia? What are the different types of delusions we covered? etc. Characteristics of schizophrenia include disordered thoughts, distorted perceptions, irrational ideas, inappropriate emotions and behaviors, and losing contact with reality (psychosis). It is one of the most disabling disorders because people don’t realize they are ill. Major symptoms include hallucinations (perception without sensation; auditory), delusions (false but firmly held beliefs; persecution, grandeur, reference), attentional problems (lack of selective attention, disorganized thinking and speech), emotional disturbances (inappropriate or absence; flat effect), and social problems (withdraw from other people). Motor disturbances include catatonic stupor/catatonia (rigid immobility, waxy flexibility), and repetitive, compulsive disorder (rocking back and forth, rubbing eyes). What are positive and negative symptoms and why is this distinction important? Positive symptoms are seen in schizophrenics, but not seen in normal people. It includes the presence of inappropriate behaviors, hallucinations, and delusions. Negative symptoms are a subtraction from normality; behavioral deficits. It includes the absence of appropriate behaviors, catatonia, and the flat effect. People with negative symptoms have a worse prognosis and are less likely to recover. Around what age does schizophrenia usually appear? It usually shows up in the late teens or early 20s. What are some biological factors associated with schizophrenia? There is a genetic influence. If one twin has it, the other twin is 50% more likely to have it. There is an over activity of dopamine (positive symptoms), and a glutamine deficit (negative symptoms). The brain also has widespread abnormalities and enlarged ventricles. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities include low birth weight, oxygen deprivation, and prenatal infection. Psychological and sociocultural factors include stress in environment and industrialized cultures. What is antisocial personality disorder? What characterizes this disorder (psychologically, behaviorally, biologically)? Antisocial personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violations of the rights of others. Symptoms include being callous, manipulative, arrogant, deceitful, impulsive, and irresponsible. People have problems with jobs, relationships, and being parents. The have less empathy, remorse, guilt, and fear, and are less sensitive to punishment. They seem to lack a conscience, but may be charming and intelligent. Biological factors include a genetic influence. If parents have it, then the child is more likely to have it. Someone adopted by parents with APD is more likely to get it. People have minimal physiological arousal under stress (stress hormones), and the brain does not produce as much of a response to stress. Psychosocial factors include poverty, instability, and abuse. Chapter 15 What are the two main types of treatment for psychological disorders? The two main types of treatment for psychological disorders are psychotherapy (therapist uses psychological techniques) and biomedical therapy (medication or medical procedure). What was the first psychotherapy and who developed it? The first psychotherapy was classical psychoanalysis, which was developed by Freud. What is the aim of psychoanalysis? The aim was to make the person aware of repressed, unconscious conflicts and impulses. The modern variation is the psychodynamic theory, which focuses on social relationships. What are the goals of Humanistic psychotherapy? What are the characteristics and methods of Rogers’s Client-Centered Therapy? The goals of humanistic psychotherapy are to remove the barriers preventing a person from reaching his or her potential by enhancing self-awareness and self-acceptance. Roger’s Client-Centered Therapy involves the therapist providing support and companionship. The therapist is nonjudgmental and the clients possess the ability to solve their own problems. There are three important elements that the therapist must provide; unconditional positive regard (acceptance), genuineness/congruence, and empathy (reflection – therapist paraphrasing what the client just said). How do behavioral psychologists tend to view psychological disorders? What is the general goal of behavior therapy? What is exposure with response prevention (flooding)? What is systematic desensitization? Behavioral psychologists tend to view psychological disorders as learned behaviors. The goal is to replace problem behaviors with better behaviors. Two techniques are exposure and systematic desensitization. Exposure with response to prevention (flooding) is having the client face his or her fears. It is used to treat OCD and phobias. They learn that what they fear is harmless. Systematic desensitization is replacing fear with relaxation. There is exposure to increasingly anxiety-provoking versions of the feared stimulus while relaxing. It forms a hierarchy. What is the main assumption and goal of cognitive therapy? The main assumption and goal of cognitive therapy is to restructure maladaptive thinking patterns by restructuring someone’s way of thinking. What is the aim of Beck’s Cognitive Therapy? What is self-statement modification? The aim Beck’s Cognitive Therapy is to identify cognitive distortions and correct irrational thinking. The self-statement modification is replacing negative with positive. What are the biomedical treatments? Biomedical treatments include electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT), psychosurgery, and psychoactive drugs. It physically changes the brain’s functioning by altering its chemistry with drugs, or affecting its circuitry with electroconvulsive shock, magnetic impulses, or psychosurgery. What is electroconvulsive shock therapy? For what is it used today? Is it effective? In ECT, an electric current is applied to the scalp to cause convulsions. It is very effective. It can treat depression that hasn’t responded to other treatment, but there is memory loss and other side effects. What is psychosurgery? What is prefrontal lobotomy? What were its effects? Psychosurgery is the removal or destruction of brain tissue. Prefrontal lobotomy is a surgical process in which the connection between the frontal lobes and the limbic areas are cut. There were variable results. Results can be lethargy, immaturity, impulsivity, and loss of personality and creativity. What are neuroleptics/antipsychotics? What do they treat? How do they affect dopamine? What is tardive dyskinesia? Do all antipsychotics cause tardive dyskinesia? Neuroleptics/antipsychotics are drugs that act as dopamine antagonists (block it). They treat psychological disorders. Tardive dyskinesia is a syndrome of uncontrollable, repetitive movements. It is irreversible (no cure). Not all antipsychotics cause tardive dyskinesia. Early drugs were thorazine and Haldol. Newer drugs are clozapine, Risperdal, and zyprexa. What are the general classes of antidepressants? Which are most often prescribed today? The two general classes of antidepressants are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I’s) and Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA’s). MAO-I’s are serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine agonists with serious side effects. TCA’s are 5-HT, NE, and DA agonists, and there is a deadly interaction with alcohol. What are SSRI’s? What neurotransmitter do they affect? How long does it take for antidepressants to become effective? Do antidepressants prevent sadness? Do they create happiness? SSRI’s are Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, which are serotonin agonists. Antidepressants take weeks to become effective. Antidepressants keep a person from getting into deep depression and staying depressed, but they are not happy pills. What are mood stabilizers and what do they treat? Mood stabilizers treat mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder. What are anxiolytics? What are benzodiazepines? How do they work? Anxiolytics are tranquilizers and anti-anxiety drugs. Benzodiazepines include Valium, Xanax, and Librium. They are GABA agonists and are addictive. Chapter 16 What is social psychology? Social psychology is how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. What are attributions? Dispositional/internal attributions? Situational/external attributions? Attributions are inferences about the causes of behavior. Dispositional/internal attributions are inferring that a person’s behavior is caused by personality; it is an internal stable characteristic. Situational/external attributions are inferring that a person’s behavior is caused by the situation that they are in. What is the fundamental attribution error? What is the actor- observer bias? The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to overestimate dispositional factors and underestimate situational factors when judging the behavior of others. The actor-observer bias is the tendency to make dispositional attributions for others’ behaviors and situational attributions for our own behaviors. What are attitudes? How do attitudes relate to actions? Attitudes are beliefs and feelings that predispose our reactions. Attitudes affect actions, and actions affect attitudes. People seek consistency between both. What is cognitive dissonance? What is cognitive dissonance theory? What happened in the Festinger & Carlsmith study? Cognitive dissonance is the tension caused when attitudes and actions don’t match. The cognitive dissonance theory states that we change our attitudes to match behavior. In the Festinger & Carlsmith study, subjects completed a boring task, and were asked to lie about it to the next subjects and given either $1 or $20. The subjects changed their attitudes to match their actions and lie. The $1 group reported the activity to be more fun. What happened in the Zimbardo prison study (aka Stanford prison experiment)? In the Zimbardo prison study, half of the subjects were assigned to be guards, and half were assigned to be prisoners. “Pretend” became real and subjects began to believe the role that they played. What is the main lesson of this study? The main lesson is that social pressures can keep people in bad situations. Situations can exert powerful influence. What is conformity? Compliance? Obedience? Conformity is changing belief or behavior to match a group due to unspoken group pressure. Compliance is agreeing to a request from someone who is not in authority. Obedience involves demands from authority. What happened in the Asch conformity experiments? In the Asch conformity experiments, the subject succumbed to conformity. In the line experiment, everyone else gave the wrong answer, but the subject went along with the group. In the elevator experiment, the subject faced the same direction as everyone else. What is the foot-in-the-door technique? The door-in-the-face technique? The foot-in-the-door technique is starting with a small request then moving on to a larger request. The door-in-the-face technique is starting with a large request and moving to a smaller request. What happened in Milgram’s obedience studies? In Milgram’s obedience studies, one subject was the teacher and an actor was the learner. The teacher was instructed to deliver increasingly intense shocks for wrong answers. What were the results of Milgram’s study? 65% of people went all the way to 450V. What was the main conclusion of Milgram’s studies? The main conclusion of Milgram’s studies states that we obey authority because of the power of the situation. What is deindividuation? (see text and powerpoint) Deindividuation is when we lose a sense of individuality in a group, and we feel less accountable for our actions. What is group polarization? Groupthink? Under what conditions is groupthink most likely? (see text and powerpoint) Group polarization is when views become more extreme in a like-minded group. Groupthink when a group is unable to realistically consider options and consequences; they focus on consensus. Conditions that promote groupthink are cohesiveness, illusion of invulnerability and superiority, illusion of unanimity and suppression of dissenting views, and leader favoring a particular position. What are stereotypes? What is prejudice? What is discrimination? Stereotypes are beliefs about a group of people; it is the false assumption that all members of a group share the same characteristics. Prejudice is a negative attitude/evaluation of a person based solely on group membership. It justifies and maintains inequalities that exist by implying that some people are less worthy than others. Discrimination is differential treatment of people based solely on group membership. How do prejudice and stereotypes maintain inequality? They maintain inequality by implying that some people are less worthy than others. What are implicit attitudes? What do measures of implicit attitudes reveal? Implicit attitudes are attitudes that affect us unconsciously. Two attitudes don’t always match up. Measures of implicit attitudes reveal how closely connected particular concepts are in our minds and unconscious, automatic influence. What are the social, emotional, and cognitive roots of prejudice? (social inequalities, learning, ingroup favoritism, scapegoating, confirmation bias, illusory correlations, just-world phenomenon, blaming the victim, hindsight bias) What did Jane Elliott do? Social roots of prejudice include the existence of social inequalities (justification) and learning (we pick it up early in life). Emotional roots of prejudice include ingroup favoritism (whatever group we belong to is the better group), scapegoating (frustrated people blame others when things go wrong; enhances self-esteem), confirmation bias (we tend to notice and remember examples that confirm our beliefs), and illusory correlations (behavior of one person associated with a whole group). Cognitive roots of prejudice include the just-world phenomenon (belief that people get what they deserve), hindsight bias (outcomes seem obvious after the fact), and the privileged fail to notice their privilege (fundamental attribution error). Jane Elliot performed an experiment with her third grade class. She separated them into two groups based on eye color: brown eyes and blue eyes. She told the class that people with blue eyes were superior, and those with blue eyes had an enhanced self-esteem. Do those who enjoy privilege in a society tend to be aware of their privilege? Those who enjoy privilege in society tend not to notice their privilege. What is the bystander effect? How does the case of Kitty Genovese relate to the bystander effect? What is diffusion of responsibility? The bystander effect is when the presence of other people inhibits helping. Kitty Genovese was the victim of murder, but no one helped her even though there were 38 witnesses. Diffusion of responsibility is assuming that someone else will help. What are some factors involved in helping? Some factors involved in helping are if the need for help is clear, if people know each other, if the person is judged to be deserving, if the person seems similar to us, if we are not in a hurry, if we are in a good mood, less population density, and costs and benefits. What do laboratory experiments indicate regarding the effects of exposure to pornographic films (see powerpoint and text, p. 702, last 2 paragraphs)? Exposure to pornographic films can make one’s own partner seem less attractive, make a woman’s friendliness seem more sexual, and make sexual aggression seem less serious. In an experiment where one group was shown explicit material, that group recommended sentences to a rapist that was half as long as the control group. What are social scripts and how might they influence sexual and/or aggressive behavior? (see text) Social scripts are mental tapes for how to act, provided by our culture. When we find ourselves in new situations, uncertain how to act, we rely on social scripts. They can increase sexual and aggressive behavior. What factors influence attraction? What is the matching hypothesis? Situational and personal factors influence attraction. The environment also affects attraction. We are attracted to people within physical proximity, and the mere-exposure effect states that familiarity breeds liking. The matching hypothesis states that we date and marry people who are similar to us in physical attractiveness. What is passionate and companionate love? How do these tend to change over the course of a relationship? Passionate love is intense, sexual, emotional, and temporary. Compassionate love is deep, intimate, and steady. Passionate love changes to compassionate love over time. What are mirror-image perceptions in terms of enemy perceptions? (see text and powerpoint) The mirror-mage perception is when those in conflict have the tendency to form diabolical images of one another, which can feed a vicious cycle of hostility. As we see “them” – as untrustworthy and evil intentioned – so “they” see us. Each demonizes the other. What does the GRIT strategy entail? (see text and powerpoint) The GRIT strategy is Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension- Reduction. In applying GRIT, one side first announces its recognition of mutual interests and its intent to reduce tensions. It then initiates one or more small, conciliatory acts. This opens the door for reciprocity by the other party.
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