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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Notetaker on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to psyc1000 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introductory psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
STUDY GUIDE CH 1 Definition of psychology Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. What is hindsight bias? Hindsight bias is the tendency for people to believe that events are more predictable than they really are. Finding that something has happened makes it inevitable What is armchair psychology and why is it unscientific? What is wrong with basing conclusions on casual observation? Armchair psychology is psychology based on speculation, casual observation, and anecdotal evidence. It is unscientific because there could be bias. The obvious answer is not always correct. Who was Wundt? James? Wilhelm Wundt founded the first psychology lab in Germany in 1879. William James founded the first psychology lab in America at Harvard. How has psychology shifted between the study of cognition and the study of behavior (i.e., behaviorism backlash, etc.)? There was a focus on cognitive processes until the 1920’s. Then there was a focus on behavior from the 1920’s until the 1960’s. However, there was a behaviorism backlash. Know areas of specialization (behavioral, cognitive, biological, etc.) and what they involve. Behavioral psychology – observable behavior Cognitive psychology – mental processes Humanistic psychology – potential for growth Biological psychology – influences of biology on the psychological processes Developmental psychology – influence of age Personality psychology – individual differences Social psychology – interpersonal influences Clinical psychology – diagnosis and treatment; clinical psychoanalyst vs. psychiatrist School psychology – behavior/learning problems Industrial/organizational psychology – work setting What is the biopsychosocial approach? Why is it valuable? The biopsychosocial approach is the interactions of biological, psychological, and social influences. It shows the complexity of psychological phenomena. What is the nature or nurture debate? What is wrong with this debate? What is meant by nature and nurture? What do genes do? How does environment influence genes? The nature or nurture debate is the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience. However, nature and nurture are inseparable. Nature is what we are born with. Nurture is how we are brought up. Genes determine who we are. Environment can give us predispositions. Nurture works on what nature endows. Why is critical thinking important? What are the aspects of critical thinking we covered? Critical thinking examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. Examine how terms are defined Look for potential biases, consider the source Inspect the evidence Watch for overgeneralizations and oversimplifications Consider alternative interpretations Be cautious of reports in the media A single study is not definitive Open-minded skepticism What are the elements of the scientific method? Identify a research question (hypothesis) Theory – indepth explanation that simplifies and summarizes Plan to test the hypothesis Gather data – experiment, observation Analyze data Draw conclusions Communicate results Know the different methods of testing hypotheses/gathering data, what kind of information they provide, and the problems associated with particular methods. For instance… Case studies – in depth investigation of an individual or a small group; it may not apply to others; provides information but it does not prove anything Naturalistic observation – observing events as they occur in their natural environment; possibility of experimenter bias Survey method – good way to get lots of data; problem of accuracy of selfreport, volunteer bias, and wording Correlational research – reveals if two variables are related, but does not imply causation What factors influence survey results (as discussed in class)? Accuracy of selfreport, sampling (representative samples and volunteer bias), and wording can all influence survey results. What is a representative sample and why is it important? A representative sample is a smaller sample that represents a larger population. There is the law of large numbers and random samples. What is a correlation? What kind of information does it provide? What is the difference between positive and negative correlations? – be able to identify these in examples. A correlation shows a relationship between two variables. It reveals if two variables are related, strength, and direction. A positive correlation is a direct relationship. A negative correlation is an inverse relationship. What is a correlation coefficient and what does it indicate? – be able to interpret. A correlation coefficient is a number between 1 and +1 that indicates the strength of the correlation What does “correlation does not imply causation” mean? Correlation does not mean that one variable affects another variable. What are intervening/third variables? Intervening/third variables can be other variables that aren’t taken account of that affect other variables. What method allows one to assess causeandeffect relationships between variables? The experimental method allows one to assess causeandeffect relationships between variables. What is the experimental method? While all other variables are held constant, one variable is manipulated, and the effect of this on another variable is measured. What are independent and dependent variables? – be able to identify these in examples. The independent variable is manipulated. The dependent variable is measured. What is a control group and why is it necessary? What is the experimental group? – be able to identify these in examples. A control group is a baseline to which the experimental group is measured against. The experimental group is the group that is manipulated and measured. What are operational definitions and why are they important? Results may differ depending on how variables are defined and measured. What are confounding variables? What is random assignment? Confounding variables are uncontrolled factors that can influence the dependent variable. Random assignment is assigning participants to groups by chance to minimize existing differences between the different groups. Why is no single study perfect? No single study is perfect because there are always other variables affecting the experiment. What is the placebo effect? What is a doubleblind design? The placebo effect is when the subject expects it. A doubleblind design is when subjects and experimenters interacting with the subjects are unaware which subjects are in the experimental and control groups. What is meant by statistical significance? How is it different from practical significance? Statistical significance is the mathematical estimation of how likely experimental results are due to chance. Practical significance is meaningfulness and importance. To what does “amplification of differences” refer? Insignificant results are not reported. What is ethnocentrism? Ethnocentrism is the tendency to believe that one’s own culture/ethnicity as correct. Study Guide CH 2 What is biological psychology? Biological psychology is the study of how biology affects the psychological processes. What types of cells make up the nervous system? What are the general functions of these cells? Glia cells provide support, bringing nutrients and removing waste. Neurons receive, process, and transmit information. Know the structures of a neuron and their functions. What are the characteristics of action potentials? Know how information typically flows through the neuron and between neurons. Dendrites – receive information from other neurons and transmit information to the cell body Cell Body/Soma – contains all the cellular structures; the main control center Axon – sends information away from the cell body through an action potential (electrochemical impulse) Terminal Buttons – end of the neuron; little sacs contain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers that allow for communication between neurons, stored in sacs called vesicles) Synapse/Synaptic Cleft – space between neurons Receptors – lock and key An action potential is an electrochemical impulse that travels away from the cell body. What are postsynaptic potentials? How do they relate to action potentials? Postsynaptic potentials are neurotransmitters that affect the probability of the postsynaptic neuron sending an action potential (electrical changes). They can be excitatory or inhibitory. Know the neurotransmitters we covered and their major functions. There are three general classes: small molecules, peptides, and gases. Small molecules o Acetylcholine (Ach) – movement, memory, arousal, Alzheimer’s o Norepinephrine (NE) – alertness, mood, depression o Dopamine (DA) – Reward and pleasure, movement, Parkinson’s, schizophrenia o GABA – inhibitory, anxiety, epilepsy o Glutamine (Glu) – Excitatory, memory, cell death in strokes Other Neurotransmitters o Peptides – endorphins – pain perception and opiates o Gases – nitric oxide and carbon monoxide Know various divisions, subdivisions, and structures of the nervous system and their functions. For instance… What constitutes the central nervous system? Peripheral nervous system? What are the divisions and subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system? What are the functions of these divisions/subdivisions? Nervous System o Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord o Peripheral Nervous System – communication between the body and the CNS Somatic – conscious sensations, voluntary movements Autonomic – internal organs Sympathetic – activates body to spend energy, fight or flight Parasympathetic – functions that don’t require immediate reaction, rest and digest What is the spinal cord? The spinal cord is a column of neurons. Know the hindbrain structures we covered and their functions. Hindbrain – controls vitals functions, necessary for life and consciousness o Medulla – swelling at top of spinal cord that controls heart rate and breathing o Pons – sensory/motor relay; mediates facial sensation and movement o Reticular formation – attention, sleepwake cycle; keeps brain responsive to stimuli o Cerebellum – balance, movement, learning, memory What is the brainstem and what does it do? What structures does it include? The brainstem includes the hindbrain and midbrain. It aids in visual and auditory reflexes and attention. The brainstem is the brain’s oldest and innermost region. It is responsible for autonomic survival functions. It includes the medulla, reticular formation, and thalamus. What are some of the basic features of the forebrain? Cerebral hemispheres – right and left hemispheres Paired structures Corpus callosum – allows communication between two hemispheres What are the forebrain structures that we covered and what are their general functions? Thalamus – sensory relay Hypothalamus – below the thalamus; autonomic (internal organs and glands), pituitary, and endocrine control; motivated behaviors and maintenance functions Limbic System – loose collection of structures believed to be involved in memory and emotion; Hippocampus (longterm memory) and amygdala (emotional significance of stimuli) Basal ganglia – motor functions, reward; Parkinson’s Tourette’s, OCD Cerebral cortex What is the cerebral cortex and what are its characteristics? The cerebral cortex is the surface layer of the brain that contains neuron cell bodies and folds. Gyri – bumps Fissures/sulci – grooves Lobes – frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital Know lobes of the brain and the characteristics of the areas we covered within each (i.e., motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, prefrontal cortex, etc). Frontal lobes o Prefrontal cortex Planning, inhibition of inappropriate behavior, personality, regulating emotion Phineas Gage – personality change to due damage to the prefrontal cortex o Primary motor cortex – voluntary motor movements Contralateral control – left hemisphere controls right side; right hemisphere controls left Parietal lobes o Primary somatosensory cortex – receives sensory information from skin Contralateral input Temporal lobes o Primary auditory cortex – sounds o Amygdala, hippocampus Occipital lobes o Primary visual cortex What is meant by contralateral control/input? The left hemisphere controls the right side and the right hemisphere controls the left side. What is association cortex? It is responsible for integration and more complex processing. What is aphasia? Where are the language association areas that we covered? What is the difference between Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasias? (covered in Ch 9 of your text) Aphasia is an impairment of language ability. Broca’s area (left frontal) o Broca’s aphasia (expressive, nonfluent) – language production Trouble speaking and writing Wernicke’s area (left temporal) o Wernicke’s aphasia (receptive, fluent) – language comprehension Trouble understanding language What is meant by lateralization? Lateralization means that one hemisphere is more involved in a function than another hemisphere. What has happened to splitbrain patients? How does their condition relate to lateralization? What are the effects of the operation? What are they able to do and not do during the special testing procedures we covered in class? Their corpus callosum is cut, which is responsible for communication between the two hemispheres. The left and right hemispheres now act independently because they can’t communicate with each other. The left visual field goes to the right hemisphere, which goes to the left hand. The right visual hemisphere goes to the left hemisphere, which goes to the right hand. What is meant by plasticity? How does environment affect the brain? How does the brain compensate when injured? Plasticity is the ability of the brain to reorganize/modify neural pathways based on new experiences. The brain is molded by the environment and experience. When the brain is injured, neurons do not grow back. Existing neurons are reorganized. What happens when one hemisphere is removed in a child? The other hemisphere compensates. How may the brain be encouraged to reorganize itself? The brain may be encouraged to reorganize itself when it experiences brain damage. STUDY GUIDE CH 6 What is the difference between sensation and perception? Sensation is receiving messages from the senses. Perception is the interpretation of those messages. What are the general functions of our sensory systems? Detect environmental changes. Encode information about environmental stimuli. Relay information to the central nervous system. What are sensory receptors? What do they do? What is adaptation? Sensory receptors are specialized cells that detect environmental changes (stimulation). Adaptation is decreased response to unchanging stimuli. What is transduction? Where does it take place? Transduction is converting information about sensory stimulation into patterns of action potentials. It is the language of the brain. It takes place in photoreceptors What are wavelength, frequency, and amplitude? How do they affect our perception of light and sound (color, brightness, pitch, loudness)? Wavelength is the distance between peaks. Frequency is the waves per unit time (second). Amplitude is height. Vision o Light amplitude – brightness o Light wavelength – color Audition o Amplitude (dB) – loudness o Frequency (Hz) – pitch Are all forms of electromagnetic radiation visible to humans? No. Most electromagnetic radiation passes through space invisible to the human eye. What are photoreceptors and where are they located? Photoreceptors are cells that are sensitive to light where transduction takes place. They are located in the retina. What are rods and cones and what do they do? How are they distributed in the retina? Rods and cones are photoreceptors. Rods are light sensitive and are responsible for peripheral vision on the edges. Cones are responsible for color and visual acuity. They are most densely concentrated in the fovea. What is the fovea? What is the blindspot? The fovea is in the middle of the eye and is responsible for our sharpest vision. The blindspot is where the optic nerves leave the cell so there are no receptors. How does the “image” coming in through the eye differ from the image that falls on the retina? The image coming through the eye is flipped. Know trichromatic theory and opponentprocess theory. What are afterimages? Trichromatic theory – mixing pure versions of blue, green, and red light to produce any color Opponentprocess theory – three pairings of colorsensitive visual elements An afterimage is an image that is continues to appear even after exposure to the original image has ceased. What is sound? Sound is stimulus for hearing. Know structures of the ear and their functions (especially inner ear). What/where are the auditory receptors? Outer ear – funnels sound into ear o Pinna o Ear Canal Middle ear – amplifies sound wave o Tympanic membrane (eardrum) – vibrates from sound o Hammer, anvil, and stirrup – vibrations cause them to knock into each other, which amplifies sound wave o Oval window Inner ear o Cochlea basilar membrane and hair cells (sensory receptors for sound; connect with membranes that make up the auditory nerve Auditory nerve o Semicircular canals – balance (head’s position relative to gravity Where are the semicircular canals and what do they do? Semicircular canals are tubes in the ear that are responsible for balance. How do the two theories we covered explain how we perceive pitch? Place theory – sounds of different frequencies maximally vibrate the basilar membrane at different places (does not explain low pitch) Frequencymatching theory – auditory nerve fires action potentials with the same frequency as the sound wave that is coming into the ear (does not explain higher pitches) What are the two types of deafness and how do they differ? Conduction deafness o Bones of middle ear fusing together o Eardrum is punctured o Hearing aids will help by amplifying sounds Nerve/sensorineural deafness o Due to problems with auditory nerve or inner ear o Hearing aids do not help (problem with transmission of sound waves) What is meant by bottomup and topdown processing? Bottomup processing is analyzing information from the senses and is used when trying to identify an unfamiliar stimulus. Topdown processing relies on knowledge, expectations, experience, and context to recognize familiar stimuli. How do experience and knowledge influence perception? Experience and knowledge form a perceptual set. A perceptual set is a predisposition, a readiness to receive stimulus a certain way. Context can activate certain perceptual sets How do our perceptual mechanisms deal with vague information? Our brain prefers to see things that are simple or familiar. It organizes sensations into meaningful wholes. What does scientific research indicate about ESP and psychics? It cannot be proven.
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