Study Guide #3
Study Guide #3 PSYC 4220
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
PSYC4220 Exam #3 Study Guide: PowerPoint Notes, Lecture Notes and Book Notes PowerPoint and Lecture Notes: Chapter 9: Cognitive Development in Preschool Stages of Cognitive Development: Preoperational Stage (2-‐7 years old) • Symbolic function improves and language becomes more complex • Pretend (symbolic) play becomes more complex o Ex: using banana as a phone; pretend roles such as doctor or grocery clerk o Children with imaginary companions are more social and creative o Pretend play allows kids to practice: § Language skills: practice with new words, syntax, pragmatics § Adult roles: understanding social expectations § Dealing with emotions and conflicts § Social skills • More errors: o Piaget focused on errors in thinking such as: § Appearance/Reality Distinction: children concrete in thinking, assume if appearance changes, so do underlying qualities • Ex: if put on mask, person changed to the person with a mask § Lack of Conservation: do not understand that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement, physical appearance of objects § Why do kids have these problems? • Cannot decenter: o Decentration: ability to focus on two aspects of reality or dimensions of a problem simultaneously o Instead display centration: focus on single aspect of reality/problem o Have not mastered reversibility: process of mental undoing or reversing action o But even at 4 years old, children can be trained to conserve o Egocentrism: tendency to view world solely from one’s own perspective § 3 Mountains Task: • Children assume everyone sees what they see from their perspective § Also egocentric psychologically: think everyone has same thoughts, feelings, desires as they do • Are children really as egocentric as Piaget thought? o No! § Mountain task too complicated • On simpler tasks children appears less egocentric o Ex: dog/cat card experiment o What about psychological egocentrism? § Gradual reduction over toddler, preschool and early childhood • Gopnik researcher: broccoli vs. crackers o 12 month old gave the researcher food that the child prefers o By 18 months, child gives the researcher food that the researcher prefers Theory of Mind • Knowledge and beliefs about how the mind works and influences behaviors o When born, not fully developed but developed at 1 year of life o Gradual increase in understanding from infancy through the preschool years • At age 3, rudimentary ToM, but do not understand that actions are based on individual perceptions of reality that can differ o Often studied using false belief tasks: § Sticker and monkey example § 3 year old fail, 4-‐5 year old pass • By age 4, start understanding that beliefs may not match reality, but still can influence actions o Attempts at deception increase, become more complex Theory of Mind Continued… • 4 year old theory of mind still incomplete o Do not understand that people are thinking even when it is not obvious § 4 year olds think you are thinking the EXACT same thing as them • Factors that contribute to development of ToM: o Language development (has a big impact) § More the language to think abut thinking, ability to think about it more o Pretend Play § Complex pretend play kids are better at ToM o Social Experience § Secure attachment to mother predicts better ToM because mother spends more time talking to children and commenting on their mental state § Having siblings that are still kids child age siblings do better on false belief tasks § Talk with siblings and see that people think different things and have different days than themselves § Parents help kids learn vocab by refining words and saying word in many sentences Preschool Language Development • Vocab continues to grow rapidly o 10-‐15,000 words by 6 years old § 10 new words every single day o Fast Mapping: connecting a new word with its meaning after only brief encounter § So hear word, make hypothesis, use word and then see feedback to see if it’s right § Assume new word is the whole object and not just the part § Use shape of object to learn o Syntactical Bootstrapping: figure out meaning of words by observing how they’re used in structure of sentence – using syntax to figure out what word means – even 2-‐3 yr olds use it • Sentences slowly become more complex and less holographic o Children can say all words in sentence o Around 3, start using grammatical modifiers • Overregulation: applying rules of grammar to exceptions where rules do not apply o Ex: saying “Daddy goed” instead of “Daddy went”; gooses instead of geese o Relatively rare, more likely with words use less often § Error to word not used word that much • Begin mastering pragmatics of language o Louder voice if speaking to someone further away o Change voice when explaining things o Learn politeness o By 4, adjust talk to fit age, gender and social status of listener Effects of the Environment on the Language Development: Poverty • Children living in poverty: o Hear fewer words § By age 4, heard 14 million less words § Are spoken to and interacted with less often § Less likely to be read to o Are more likely to hear simple sentences and prohibitions such as “no” and “do not to that” o Have smaller vocabulary § Difference begin early: slower verbal processing at 18 months, learn fewer words between 18 to 24 months (lower SES at 18 months in language when regular SES is at 24 months) § Lower IQs by age 5, less ready for school o For children to not fall behind, talk a lot with them Chapter 10: Social and Personality Development in Preschool Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage • Autonomy vs. Shame and Self-‐doubt (18-‐36 months) o Need to exercise will, develop ability to do things independently or doubt abilities o Child’s favorite word is “no” o Self-‐doubt formed if do not let child do things on their own; become super dependent on parents o Children give opportunities to have say in small decisions § Ex: asking if the child would like to eat broccoli or green beans • Initiative vs. Guilt (3-‐6 years old) o Need to initiate, carry out tasks successfully or will feel guilty because of their dependence o Guilt comes from making mistakes and being dependent on parents o Key to success: careful balance between giving independence and controlling behavior § Make sure kids do not completely fail so they do not give up Self-‐Concept • Children begin to develop understanding of who they are as people • Self-‐concept: a person’s identity or set of beliefs about what one is like as an individual o Categorical Self: classifying oneself into social categories (when asked to describe who they are) § Starts very simple: boy or girl, age, good/bad boy § Caregivers help it develop by talking about past • Help them remember that their past is important § Becomes more complex by 3-‐5 years old but stays concrete • Children describe themselves in mostly concrete ways • Ex: physical attributes, possessions, physical activities • May include basic attitudes/emotions § Rarely use psychological terms to describe selves (or others) • May be due to lack of verbal skills o When asked forced choices questions, capable of categorizing selves on psychological dimensions • Self-‐Esteem: our evaluation of ourselves o By age 4, typically have several self-‐judgments § Usually overestimate ability, underestimate task difficulty (have very high self-‐esteem, think they are the best at everything) • Partly because they are not yet good at social comparison § Good to have ability to bounce back from failure o High self esteem = initiative to try new thins Gender Development • Sex: biological aspect of being male or female • Gender: behavioral, psychological, and social characteristics of males or females • We begin labeling, treating children differently according to gender at birth o Infant talked about, treated differently o Girls spoken to more often overall, also more often about emotion o Boys hear more direct speech § Ex: got get the ball vs saying could you please go get the ball to a girl o Father interacts more with infant son and mother with infant daughter § Boys get rough and tumble play and girls get soft games with rules Gender Identity • One’s awareness of one’s gender and implications of gender (expectations) o Even as infants, start learning about gender: § Learn there are categories and which category they belong to • By age 1, can reliably distinguish between males and females (usually able to tell because of length of hair) • By 2 years, can label self to the categories (showing able to pick up what said and repeat back) • Kohlberg’s Cognitive Development Theory: o Gender role development depends on cognitive development o Children actively socialize themselves o “I am a boy, I need to find out what it means to be a boy” o Three Stages: § 1. Basic Gender Identity (Labeling): children label their own gender • Ages 2 to 3 • At this point, still think their gender can change o Ex: girls can grow up to be a daddy § 2. Gender Stability: understanding that gender is stable over time • By age 4 • Know that if boy now, will be man when grown up (if nothing else happens) • Think something could change that o Ex: if they woke up tomorrow and put on a dress and lipstick, then they would be a girl § 3. Gender Constancy: understanding that gender is stable across situations (e.g. stays same despite changes to outward appearance, activities, etc.) • By age 5-‐7 Gender Typing • Acquisition of information concerning sex-‐based characteristics that culture sets for males and females o Gender Stereotypes: § Overgeneralizations or beliefs about differences between males and females • Men = instrumental: acting upon the world • Women = expressive: having characteristics associated with emotions or relationships • By 2 ½ to 3 years: say boy or girl dolls prefer gender-‐typed activities • Continue collecting stereotyping over preschool o By 4, stereotype about activities, occupations, toys o By 5, also stereotype about personality traits • Become more rigid about gender o By 5, believe it morally wrong to break gender norms Gender-‐Typed Behavior • Preferring activities, toys, clothes and interests associated with your gender o 14-‐22 mo: boys prefer cars and trucks, girls prefer dolls and soft toys o 18-‐24 mo: refuse opposite – gender toys • Gender Segregation: tendency to play with one’s own sex and think of the opposite sex as “out-‐group” o By age 2, girls prefer girls o By age 3, boys prefer boys o 6 y.o. = 10 times as much time playing with children of same sex • Why? Maybe because of differences in play style: o Girls use enabling style: supportive and cooperative (more equality) o Boys use constricting/restrictive style: competitive and aggressive o By age 3, boys more likely to use demands, imperative sentences o Girl use requests, questions § Boys do not listen to the girls request so cannot play in a fun way o Kids who follow gender segregation most rigidly = most popular, considered more socially skilled o Kids who don’t = less popular, less well adjusted § Hard for these kids to find a group to play with • Boys often pushed harder conform to gender-‐typed behavior o Being a tomboy is okay for a girl but if a boy is called sissy o Boys quicker to have gender-‐typed toy preferences, more rigid o Girls more likely to play with boy toys, say they were “tom boys” (1/2 of college women), wish they were boys (more common than boys saying they wish they were girls) § Masculinity is valued in our society so it makes sense that girls want to be boys because girls seen as lesser and weaker Perspectives on Gender: Biological • Biological differences between sexes lead to gender differences o Ex: prenatal hormonal differences – exposed to different hormones in the womb § Androgenized females more likely to be tomboys, have male interests, friends Perspectives on Gender: Social Learning • Gender roles develop through reinforcement, punishment, and observational learning/imitation o Direct Tuition (Direct Teaching): reinforcing appropriate behaviors, pushing inappropriate ones (gender behavior) § Even before 2 y.o., parents reinforce children for gender congruent behavior • Ex: boy picks up truck, parent plays with the child § Parents who do this most = kids who label own gender earlier, have stronger gender-‐related preferences, have greater understanding of gender stereotypes § Fathers do this more than mothers § Starting in preschool, parents reduce direct tuition and peers take over • 2 y.o. critical of kids playing with opposite gender toys • Kids also learn about gender by watching and imitating people o Observe models of both sexes to figure out gender-‐role stereotypes • Evidence: o Kids more likely to play with toy if same sex model played with it o Parents who are less traditional have kids that are less aware of stereotypes o Children with opposite sex siblings often less gender stereotypes o The media still very gender stereotypes § Children who watch more TV are more likely to have rigid gender ole ideas and prefer same activities and toys Perspectives on Gender: Gender Schema Theory • Gender role development occurs as children create gender schemas: o Organized set of beliefs and expectations about males and females • Gender schemas influence what they pay attention to and remember • Next form in-‐group/out-‐group schema based on their gender: o Label some things as for own gender and some things as for other gender • Things labeled as being for out-‐group seen more negatively o Children shown unfamiliar gender neutral toys more likely to say they liked toys labeled as for their gender • Last, create own sex schema o More detailed knowledge about activities and behaviors of own sex that allow them to perform those behaviors Chapter 11: Physical Development in Middle Childhood (6 years to puberty or ~12 years) Body Growth • Continues at slow, steady pace o 2-‐3 inches, 5 lbs per year o By age 9, girls taller, heavier than boys § By 12, girl at around 94% of their height § Start adolescent growth spurt ~2 years earlier § Girls start to pick up more fat and boys more muscle • Worldwide variations in size o Due to genetic, environmental factors • Bones thicken, broaden o Muscle strength increases o Ligaments loosely connected o Very flexible children at this age • Primary teeth lost, permanent teeth come in o Girls loose teeth faster o Typically start 6 years and last tooth out usually at 12 Malnutrition and Obesity • Need well balanced diet with many veggies, fruits, whole grains o Prolonged malnutrition can = slower physical growth, lower IQ, poor motor coordination, inattention § These people live in areas of extreme poverty § Negative effects can be permanent • Obesity: body weight 20% above average weight for age, height o 95% percentile to be overweight o 1 out of 8 kids in US o Negative effects: § More likely to be overweight as an adult, likelihood increases with age § High BP, heart disease, diabetes § Earlier puberty for girls § Social, emotional, school problems • Socially isolated, problems with bullying Obesity • Causes: o Genetics – obese children have at least 1 obese parent o Poor eating habits – high calorie, low nutrient foods § Parents start this pattern by overfeeding children o Not enough exercise o Socioeconomic status o Lack of sleep • Treatment: o Can be challenging o Usually requires family wide changes o Usually focuses on improving eating habits, increasing physical activity o Usually do not put children on diet because will grow into weight Motor Development • Gross motor skills: improvement in balance, agility, force, reaction time • Improvement in fine motor skills • Gender differences continue o Boys have > strength, stamina o Girls have > balance, coordination, fine motor skills o Different small when kids regularly take part in similar activities o American Academy of Pediatrics: boys and girl should engage in same types of sports in mixed gender groups until puberty • Children (especially boys) who perform well physically more popular with peers Brain Development • Development of new synapses, myelination, thickening of cortex o From 6-‐8 primary area = motor and sensory cortexes § Result = improved fine motor skills, hand-‐eye coordination o From 10-‐12 primary area = frontal lobes, reticular formation (deals with attention ability) § Result = • Increase in logical thought, planning, attention • Increase in selective attention Chapter 12: Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development: Concrete Operations (7-‐11 yrs) • Can recognize symbols in mind • Can perform mental actions on objects, as long as they are not abstract o Can add, subtract, categorize and order thing all in head and not physically • Master logical operations lacking in preoperational thinkers: o Understand conservation, decentration, acquire reversibility of though • Horizontal Decalage: not all skills of each stage are mastered at once o Example: children develop the ability to conserve slowly over this stage o Conservation of numbers is easiest/earliest to understand and conservation of volume or water is last to learn • Relational Logic: logic used to understand relationships between objects o Seriation: mentally order objects along quantifiable dimensions § Once children can do this, they are better at accurate social comparison – put people in order • Ex: maybe I am not fastest in class o Transivity: understand logical relationship of objects in a series § Ex problem: if stick A longer then stick B and B longer than C, is A longer than C? • Major Limitation: organized, logical thinking only when dealing with concrete physical world o Can not think logically about abstract or hypothetical problems § Harder to do 7x+3=10 in head than 7+3 = 10 Language Development • School age children continue to: o Build Vocabulary § 20 words per day, 40,000 by age 11 § Increase understanding of grammar and syntax § Also understand multiple meaning for words by context • Use passive voice o Ex: ball was hit by Ben § Increase understanding of pragmatics • Learn to be more specific so listener understand • Get better at inferring meaning • Start picking up sarcasm Schooling • Most U.S. kids enter formal schooling during middle childhood o Used to “redshirt” kids so child would be older and at advantage o No evidence to suggest that benefits of delaying start of kindergarten; may even be a disadvantage Aspects That Affect School Quality • Class size: o Smaller (18 or less) = more effective § Kids in small classes (13-‐17) outperformed those in regular classes on reading, math tests • Differences greatest for students in minority groups • Having teacher’s aide in regular class size did not help • Advantages were long lasting – through 9 grade, more likely to graduate § Teachers spend more time teaching, giving individual attention § Students – better concentration, class participation, attitude towards school • Educational Philosophy: o Traditional vs. Constructivist o Most U.S. schools today follow traditional approach o Constructivist: § Children construct their own learning and knowledge § Teachers guide learning to help when child gets stuck § Children compared to themself when evaluated – how much have they improved? § Very popular approach in 70s and then fell back to traditional in 80s • Individual accountability becoming more and more important o Standardized tests: individual performance evaluated by comparing score to average score of large number of similar individuals § Achievement Tests: tests designed to assess specific information learned in school • Compare performance to other kids of same grade o Concerns: § Not always getting at deep levels of learning § Spend too much time on this – preparing or teaching to and for the test Aspects That Affect School Quality Continued… • Teachers: o Effective teachers typically similar to authoritative parents § Best teachers: caring, helpful, stimulating § Caring relationships especially important to kids from low SES, at risk of learning disabilities • But more likely to have sensitive, supportive relationship with high SES kids o Teacher Expectancy Effect (or Educational Self-‐Fulfilling Prophecy): when an educator’s expectations for a student actually bring about the expected behavior § Ex: teacher’s were told in experiment that 5 random students will do well in the class so the teachers treated them in a special way and they did well § Has larger impact on low achieving students How Well Does U.S. Education System Work? • International studies of reading, math and science o Hong Kong, Korea, Japan = top performers § Canada in top tier § US = avg., sometimes below avg. • The worst in math • US instruction less challenging • Rely a lot on memorization and not analyzing/critiquing • Performance varies greatly between schools = lack of equity in educational opportunities • Factors that support high achievement: o Cultural valuing education: talking about education in positive ways, teachers paid higher o Emphasis on effort: you can do well as long as you work hard § Instead of natural ability § Teachers more willing to help kids outside of school o High quality education for all – no high or low math classes for example o Education plans that are interesting and go in depth – no repetition o More time for instruction § On avg., 50 days longer § Longer schools days: more recess, extracurricular activities included in day, more breaks • Still more time in instruction Homeschooling • ~2.4% of kids in US o Why? § Parents believe they’ll do a better job § Want kid to get individual attention § Want kid to learn certain religious/moral beliefs • Want to protect against unwanted social/cultural influences § Child has special needs • ~8% have a disability o How effective? Hard to know because research is sparse and the research there is out there is not good; small sample sizes § Research is sparse: no good large-‐scale experimental data • Smaller, less controlled studies: o No difference in social, emotional development o Above average on standardized tests, equally likely to enroll in college o Closer to parents, family § Critics: • What about peer interaction? Experiencing diversity? Technology? Lack of training of parents? o There are homeschooling networks § Some parents teach mini classes of subject they are good in to a group of homeschool children § There are homeschool sports teams Online PowerPoint for Cancelled Class Information Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective • Main idea: Cognitive development highly influenced by social interaction, culture • Kids are seen as apprentices • Culture affects cognitive development • Tools of intellectual adaptation: methods of thinking, problem solving passed on in a culture • Because tools, values, beliefs of cultures are different, cognitive development not universal • Instead, cognitive skills are context-‐specific • Culture determines speed AND content of skills of developed • Social interaction affects cognitive development: • Most skills acquired through social interactions • Zone of proximal development: gap between what person can accomplish alone vs. with assistance of skilled partner • Best opportunity for cognitive growth = tasks just beyond child’s capabilities alone but possible with assistance • More skilled person engages in scaffolding: carefully tailoring help to level of learner Evaluation of Vygotsky • Pros: • Emphasized impact of social interaction/culture on cognitive development • Evidence supports importance of social interaction for cognitive development • Useful in education • Cons • Focus on verbal interaction, scaffolding as most important= Western bias • Lack of attention to impact of basic cognitive, perceptual, motor development • Not very precise, so hard to test Preschool Language Development • Vocab continues to grow rapidly • 10-‐15,000 words by 6 • Fast mapping: connecting a new word with its meaning after only a brief encounter • Syntactical bootstrapping: figure out meaning of words by observing how they’re used in structure of sentence • Sentences slowly become more complex and less holographic • Around 3, start using grammatical modifiers Preschool Language Development • Overregularization: applying rules of grammar to exceptions where rules don’t apply • Example: saying “Daddy goed” instead of “Daddy went”; gooses instead of geese • Relatively rare, more likely with words used less often • Begin mastering pragmatics of language Effects of the Environment on Language Development: Poverty • Children living in poverty: • Hear fewer words • Are spoken to and interacted with less often • Less likely to be read to • Are more likely to hear simple sentences and prohibitions • Have smaller vocabulary • Differences begin early: slower verbal processing at 18mo, learn fewer words between 18 and 24mo • Lower IQs by age 5, less ready for school Book Notes Chapter 9: Cognitive Development in the Preschool Years Information-‐Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development • Most people have accurate and unambiguous memories starting from as early as 3 • These approaches focus on the changes in the kinds of “mental programs” that children use when approaching problems • These approaches represent the dominant, most comprehensive and accurate explanation of how children develop cognitively • Two areas that highlight the approach if IPA in preschool years o Understanding of numbers o Memory development Preschoolers’ Understanding of Numbers • Researchers using this approach have found increasing evidence for children’s’ sophistication of numbers • The average preschooler is able to count is a fairly systematic and consistent matter • Preschoolers know that items are each assigned one number • By 4, most can add and subtract and compare different quantities Memory: Recalling the Past • Autobiographical Memory: memory of particular events from one’s own life • Accuracy of memories increases gradually and slowly throughout preschool years starting after 3 years old • 3 y.o. can remember routine occurrences (ex: sequence of events of eating at restaurants) and are accurate in responding to open ended questions (ex: what do you like best at the amusement park?) • Memories are not likely to be remembered unless they are very vivid or meaningful • Memories also affected by cultural factors: o Chinese college students memories of early childhood are more unemotional and reflect activities involving social roles like working in the family store o American college students memories are more emotionally elaborate and focus on specific events such as birth of a sibling • What children remember may not be wholly accurate § Ex: may not remember a specific time of a grocery trip o Preschooler’s memories of familiar events are organized by scripts: broad representations in memory of events and the order in which they occur § Ex: represent eating at restaurant in a few steps: talk to waitress, get the food and eat o With age, scripts become more elaborate • Children may have difficult time remembering information because they may oversimplify the recollection because was too complex to understand at the time • Preschooler’s memories are also susceptible to the suggestions of others Forensic Developmental Psychology: Bringing Child Development to the Courtroom • Forensic developmental psychology: focuses on the reliability of children’s autobiographical memories in the context of the legal system o Considers children’s ability to recall events and their reliability when they are witness or victims • Preschool children are very vulnerable to suggestion o They are also more prone to make inaccurate inferences and less able to draw appropriate conclusions • The error rate for children is heightened when they are asked the same question repeatedly • False memories may be more persistent than actual memories • When questions are highly suggestive, children are more apt to make mistakes in recall • The longer the time between the actual event and questioning, the less firm the child’s recollections • Specific questions answered more accurately than general ones • Asking questions outside a courtroom is preferable because not as intimidating Information-‐Processing Theories in Perspective • Quantitative advances constitute cognitive development • Cognitive development consists of: o Gradual improvements in way people perceive, understand and remember information o With age and practice, preschoolers remember info more efficiently and are able to handle increasingly complex problems • IPA provide testable, comprehensive and logical set of concepts • As preschoolers grow older, they have longer attention spans, can monitor and plan what they are attending to more effectively and become increasingly aware of their cognitive limitations o These advances may be due to brain development § Ex: increased attention allows older children to attend to both height and width of tall and short glasses which allows them to understand conservation; preschoolers unable to attend to both dimensions simultaneously and thus less able to conserve • IPA pays little attention to social and cultural factors though • Also focuses too much on specifics and cannot paint a whole comprehensive picture of cognitive development • IPA theorists argue though that they have a precise model of cognitive development that can be tested and that there is more research supporting their approach than others Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development: Taking Culture Into Account • Cognitive development is a result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation, working with mentors to solve problems • Focuses on social aspects of development and learning • Saw children as apprentices, learning cognitive strategies and other skills from adult and peer mentors who also provide not just how to do things but also provide assistance, instruction and motivation • Children grow because of the assistance that adults and peer partners provide • The nature of the partnership between developing children and adults and peers and determined by cultural and societal factors o Culture and society establish institutions such as preschools and play groups • Societal expectations about gender also play a role in how children come to understand the world o Ex: study conducted said that parents explained detailed scientific explanations more to boys than girls in a science museums which may lead to more sophisticated learning of science in boys and may produce later gender differences • Vygotsky saw cognitive apprentices, learning from master teachers the skills that are important in child’s culture • Vygotsky saw preschoolers as using others to gain an understanding of the world • Children’s cognitive development is dependent on interaction with others • Argued that only though partnership with other people that children can fully develop their knowledge, thinking process
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