Exam 2 Problems/Notes
Exam 2 Problems/Notes biol 208
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly O'Neil on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to biol 208 at Towson University taught by Dr Firestone in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Exam 2 Study Guide Textbook problems Lecture 9 read page 516 Reading Notes the early atmosphere had C02 but no 02 the evolution of photosynthesis added 02 to the ocean and atmosphere providing an environment conductive to the evolution of cellular respiration 200 million year lag between origins of photosynthesis and 02 in environment 0 Events that occurred rst in eukaryotic evolution compartmentalization and formation of the nucleus 0 The chloroplasts of brown algae are surrounded by two membranes Chapter 30 Seedless Plants Reading Notes green plants include green algae and the land plants al green plants arose from a single freshwater green algal species characteristics of land plants protected embryos and multicellular haploid and diploid phases land plants survival is enhanced by waxy cuticle stomata and specialized cells for transport of water and minerals The evolution of trachieds allowed more efficient vascular systems to develop vascular tissue develops in the sporophyte and vascular plants have a much reduced gametophyte Stems evolved before roots 0 Roots provide structural support and transport capability Leaves evolved more than once polyphyletic 0 Plant structures and their functions stomata allows gas transfer tracheidsallow the movement of water and minerals cuticle prevents desiccation o Genera that most likely gave ride to the land plants Chara 0 Things found in a bryophyte mycorrhizal associations rhizoids and photosynthetic gametophytes not found tracheid cells 0 Archegonium and antheridium represent haploid structures that produce reproductive cells 0 All pterophytes have a dominant sporophyte generation 0 Plants without roots can obtain sufficient nutrients from the soil by mycorrhizal fungi they assist with the transfer of nutrients A major innovation of land plants is embryo protection a moss embryo is protected from desiccation by the Archegonium An evolutionary trend that is seen in seedless land plants there is an increased protection of the sporophyte generation in its early developmental stages Leaves of lycophytes and pterophytes have different origins Chapter 31 Seed Plants The seed protects the embryo helps it resist drying out and allows a dormant a stage that pauses the life cycle until environmental conditions are favorable Water is not required to transport the male gametophyte to the female gametophyte Angiosperms are distinct from gymnosperms and other plants because their ovules are included within diploid tissue called the ovary at the time of fertilization they form fruits Horizontal gene transfer occurred in land plants Flowers are separated into 4 parts sepals petals androecium and gynoecium Most species use owers to attract pollinators and reproduce Nectar and sent attracts animal pollinators but some angiosperms are wind pollinated Seed helps protect the embryo by maintaining dormancy during unfavorable conditions protecting the embryo and providing food for the embryo and providing means of dispersal A fruit is a mature ovary can be dry or eshy is genetically unique because it contains tissues from the parent sporophyte the gametophyte and the offspring sporophyte The lack of seeds is a characteristic of lycophytes Seeds are adaptations that allow plants to pause their life cycle until environmental conditions are optimal Terms associated with a male portion of a plant antheridium pollen grains and amborella not megaspores Oldest known species of angiosperms Amborella The integuments of an ovule will develop into the seed coat The pericarp is the ovary wall Reproduction in angiosperms can occur more quickly than in gymnosperms because angiosperms pollen tubes grow more quickly than gymnosperm pollen tubes Fruits that attract animal dispersers is an innovation likely to have contributed to the tremendous success of angiosperms Gymnosperms are quotnaked seed plantsquot has an ovule that is not completely protected by sporophyte tissue Angiosperms have evidence of ower structures and double fertulization Chapter 32 Fungi Fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants and form 7 monophyletic phyla The body of a fungus is a mass of connected hyphae Fungal cells have many more than one nucleus Mitosis is not followed by cell division Fungi can reproduce sexually and asexually Fungi are heterotrophs that absorb the products Characteristics of fungi cell walls made of chitin a form of mitosis different from plants and animals lamentous structure not the ability to conduct photosynthesis Groups that are monophyletic Basidiomycota Ascomycota glomeromycota Most ancient phylum of fungi chytridiomycota Symbiotic relationships occur between the fungi and plants animals and bacteria Exchange of nutrients is an example of the symbiotic relationship between animals and fungi Fungi have cell walls and are immobile except for chytrids and mobility is a key characteristic of the animals Mycorrhizal relationships between fungi and plants allow plants to make use of nutrient poor soil Chapter 33 Animal Diversity and the Evolution of Body Plans General characteristics for animals heterotrophy meaning they obtain energy and organic molecules by ingesting other organisms multicellularity no cell walls active movement have a wide array of different sizes and forms most are invertebrates lacking a backbone such as the millipede go through a process of development beginning with series of cell divisions called cleavage diversity of form and habitat sexual reproduction embryonic development tissues Five key innovations that can be noted in animal evolution symmetry tissues allowing specialized structures and functions a body cavity various patterns of embryonic development and segmentation or repeated body parts Most animals exhibit radial jelly sh or bilateral lizard symmetry The evolution of tissues allowed for specialized structures and funcUons Each tissue consists of differentiated cells that have characteristic forms and functions A body cavity made the development of advanced organ systems possible Coelom the cavity that lies within tissues derived from mesoderm Pseudo coelom lies between the tissues derived from the mesoderm and the guy ln protostomes the mouth develops from or near the blastomere A protostome has determinate development and many have spiral cleavage Segmentation allowed for redundant systems and improved locomotion segmentation evolved multiple times and allows for ef cient and exible movement Characteristic unique to all animals no cell walls Animals are unique in the fact that they possess muscle tissue for movement and nervous tissue for conducting signals between cells In animal sexual reproduction the gametes are formed by the process of meiosis The evolution of bilateral symmetry was a necessary precursor for the evolution of cephalization getting a head A uid lled cavity that develops completely within a mesodermal tissue is a characteristic of a coelomate Segmentation allows the evolution of redundant systems enhances locomotion and represents an example of convergent evolution Animals are organized by molecular systematics The coelom is a Synapomorphy for the clade comprising protostomes and deuterostomes A coelomate organism may have a circulatory system internal skeletons and larger size than a pseudo coelomate
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