Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide AMH2042
Popular in American History
Popular in History
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cristy Laverde on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AMH2042 at DCH Regional Medical Center taught by April Merleaux in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see American History in History at DCH Regional Medical Center.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Reconstruction (1865-1877) 10/17/2015 ▯ Reconstruction Amendments ▯ 13 Amendment (1865) prohibited slavery in the US defined national citizenship ▯ 14 Amendment (1866, came into effect 1868) reduced representation in Congress of any southern state that deprived African Americans of the vote denied former Confederates the right to hold public office extended citizenship rights to African Americans and guaranteeing equal protection of the laws writes civil rights into the constitution ▯ 15 Amendment (1870) prohibited denial of vote on grounds of race, color, or previous servitude gave voting rights to black men Political Violence in the South after the Civil War KKK o terrorized potential voters and those who might be voting for Republican The riot in New Orleans (1866) o Convinced Republicans that the federal government needed to intervene to stop violence White League o Seized control of state government offices and attack left 27 Republican supporters dead (1874) ▯ African American people’s efforts to define freedom and gain political rights after the end of slavery in 1865 Day of Jubilee (1865) o Went in search of their families o Formalized unions and got married o Left plantations/farms for cities o Schools and churches were founded Sharecropping o Gave freedmen some autonomy o Freedom to divide their time between fieldwork and housework th 13 Amendment o abolished slavery Congressional Reconstruction o Republicans seized control of Reconstruction from Johnson Freedmens Bureau (1865) o Protect rights of former slaves and provide them with education and medical care Civil Rights Act of 1866 o Enumerates right of US citizens such as right to make contracts, sue, give evidence in court, purchase and sell property, essentially outlawed Black Codes 14 Amendment (1866) o Guarantees citizenship of A.A’s o Doesn’t guarantee A.A’s right to vote Division of South into Military Districts (1867) o Requires ex-Conf. states to ratify the 14 amendment and guarantee black men the right to vote Impeachment of President Johnson (1868) o Restricted authority over the army 15 amendment proposed by Congress (1869), ratified 1870 o Forbids states from depriving a citizen of voting because of race, color, of previous condition of servitude Force and KKK Acts (1870-1871) o Outlaw violence Civil Rights Act of 1875 o Equal rights in public places and prohibits the exclusion of blacks from juries Dispute Presidential Election of 1876 o Hayes as President slavery ended in 1865 ▯ Western expansion related to North-South reconciliation after the Civil War Civil war united North and South, railroad united East and West By 1893 the Census Bureau was able to claim that the entire western frontier was occupied Why did people go west? o News from bountiful harvests o Free labor and free labor ideology o Mines filling over with gold and silver o Economic growth o Homestead act (1862) allowed any citizen (some blacks too) or any immigrant intending to become a citizen to get title to 160 acres of land by paying a small fee, living on the tract for five years, and making a few improvements ▯ Railroads and transportation as factors facilitating national integration Transcontinental Railroad o Before its construction, travel overland took five or six months o Railroad made it possible in 5 days o Western agricultural products, coal, and minerals could move freely to the east coast o Flourishing trade of goods o Immigrant laborers Great Plains o Surge westward after 1860 caused towns to spring up overnight o Railroad construction stimulated population growth on the plains o National market area- cattle and farming Gold and oil o Generated national dependence on the Great Plains Technological advances- more business to the area o Underground aquifers o Windmill-powered pumps o Steel tipped plows o Mechanical threshing machinery o Water dams ▯ Armed conflict between the U.S. Army and Native Americans A Thirty Years War o 30 year conflict arose as the government sought to concentrate the Plains tribes on reservations o Warfare erupted in Minnesota in 1862 Santee Sioux were confined to a territory 150 miles long and 10 miles wide Denied yearly payment and agricultural aid promised by treaty Rose up in August 1862 and killed 500 white settlers Lincoln appointed John Pope to crush the uprising Sioux surrendered in September 1862 and 1800 were taken prisoner and 303 were condemned to death o Warfare spread to Colorado in 1864 Discovery of gold led to influx of whites Colorado militia slaughtered about 150 Cheyenne at Sand Creek (November 1864) o Conflict spread to Utah between 1865 and 1868 Teton Sioux tried to stop the construction of the Bozeman Trail and killed captain William Fetterman and 79 soldiers o 1867- Peace Commission passed by Congress Recommended Indians be moved to small reservations, where they would be Christianized, educated, and taught to farm o 1867-1868 Federal government demanded that the Plains Indians give up their lands and move to reservations In return for supplies and annuities, Plains Indians were told to move to poor, unproductive lands in Oklahoma and Black Hills of Dakotas Alternative was warfare o 1871- War breaks out in New Mexico and Arizona massacre of more than 100 Indians at Camp Grant Apache War did not end until 1886 Red River War ended only when Indian food supplies were destroyed and 100 Cheyenne warriors were killed o Shift in military balance of power and destruction of the Indian food supply led to the defeat of the Plains Indians Sand Creek Massacre o 1864- 700 U.S. army volunteers stormed through an Indian encampment near Big Sandy Creek in Colorado, slaughtering scores of women and children o After six hours, about 150 Indians, a quarter of the camp's population, lay dead Battle of the Little Big Horn o 1874- Custer led an expedition into the Black Hills of what is now South Dakota, which was then reserved for the Sioux o expected there to be no more than 1500 Indians, but their population was composed of 8000 Indians and more than 3000 warriors o Within an hour, every soldier in Custer’s command had died Nez Perce o last great war between US government and an Indian nation ended October 1877 o chief Joseph of the Nez Perce surrendered 87 men, 184 women, and 147 children to units of the U.S. cavalry o surrender of Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce ended a decade of warfare between Indians and the U.S. government o all western Indians were forced to live on government reservations Battle of Wounded Knee o 1890- marked the end of three centuries of bitter warfare between Indians and whites o fearful the Ghost Dance would cause an uprising, army officials ordered Indian police to arrest Sitting Bull o This caused an uprising and he was killed o Indians were taken to a cavalry camp at Wounded Knee o Battle began there and over 200 Indian men, women, and children were slaughtered ▯ Andrew Carnegie and other “robber barons” who developed new business methods during the “Gilded Age” Andrew Carnegie o Carnegie Steel company o Produced armor for battleships, rails for western railroads, and beams, girders, and steel plates for bridges and skyscrapers o “Material prosperity is helping to make the national character sweeter, more joyous, more unselfish, more Christ like." o “it is only to the man of morality that wealth comes” o by the time of his death he divested himself of 95% of his wealth to funding libraries and providing pensions to professors J.P Morgan o Banking house o Organized syndicates to float bond and stock issues o instrumental in helping to create the modern American economy o re-organized railroads and industrial companies after the panic of 1893 Jay Gould o Railroad pirate who stirred up the most enmity o Personified the unscrupulous, greedy robber baron o Sought to create railroad and communication systems capable of meeting the needs of an expanding nation ▯ ▯ Economic depressions of 1873 and 1893 Financial Panic of 1873 o End of reconstruction o Business failures, unemployment, and tightening credit heightened class and racial tensions o High state budgets o Spending on public schools and the care of orphans, the sick, and the insane was sharply reduced Financial Panic of 1893 o Gilded Age ended with this financial scare o Weakened American currency o Tied the dollar to gold- not much gold available, so federal government couldn’t print many dollars o Prices for farm crops kept falling, thousands of farmers lost their land o Dollar lost value when tied to silver, particularly in the eyes of the lenders in Britain, a country on a pure gold standard o Droughts and plagues made it increasingly difficult to live as a farmer ▯ ▯ Major strikes Great Railroad Strike 1877 o set the stage for later violence o decreased wages and cut work weeks o workers blockaded freight trains near Baltimore and in West Virginia, allowing only passenger traffic to get through Pullman Strike in 1894 o George Pullman laid off several thousand employees and cut pay 25 to 50 percent o revolt of working men against low prices of labor, which have not been accomplished with corresponding low prices of food, clothing and house rent ▯ ▯ Growth of immigration from Europe; movements for immigration restriction Some 334,203 immigrants arrived in the United States in 1886 European immigration to the United States greatly increased after the Civil War, between 1882 and 1914, approximately 20 million immigrants came to the United States Largely Catholic and Jewish in religion, the new immigrants came from the Balkans, Italy, Poland, and Russia Some came as the result of the loss of their property to come earn money and be able to go back home Others, particularly Jewish immigrants from Russia, were feeling from religious persecution and planned to stay Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882- most Chinese immigrants were barred from entering the US and established stringent conditions under which Chinese merchants and their families could enter Contract labor/indenture system- allowed Indian and Chinese immigrants to work in exchange for clothing, shelter, food, and medical care Additional restrictions were issued in 1882 which prohibited the immigration of contract laborers (1885) and all Asian immigrants except for Filipinos Immigration act of 1924- placed a numerical cap on immigration ▯ Santa Clarthv. Southern Pacific Railroad (1886) –corporations covered by 14 amendment to protect corporations' ability to operate free from excessive state regulation states wanted to regulate business practices- such as limiting the amount of investment and restricting the scope of the company’s operations Santa Clara v. Southern Pacific Railroad Company, the court held that the 14th Amendment's guarantee of due process applies to corporations Case helped define the personhood of corporations in terms of the 14th amendment ▯ ▯ ▯ Jim Crow segregation (1890s-1950s) Laws in the south beginning in 1887 that insisted on segregation Jim crow laws enforced segregation and also southern states began to pass new laws that restricted the voting rights of African American men Women still didn’t have the right to vote Black schools were underfunded ▯ ▯ Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Rules that separate is constitutional as long as facilities are equal Plessy, a 7/8 white man was arrested when he tried to travel together with whites on a train In the Plessy decision, the court gave its sanction to the "separate but equal doctrine" and gave states permission to legally separate blacks and whites at everything from drinking fountains to schools ▯ ▯ Ida Wells Barnett/ middle class African American responses to segregation and lynching Ida B. Wells o middle-class A.A activist o Focused increasing attention on lynching and violence in the South o Her ideal civilization would be composed of a fair legal system and a sense of defense against the lynches o Said that if the US is the most civilized in the world, the lynches are not civilized at all Lynching o 4,742 lynchings took place between 1882 and 1968 o Lynchings started as a reaction of blacks being able to obtain an education o Most of these crimes occurs as public spectacles and were photographed and produced as post cards o ▯ Consumer culture and politics ▯ Politics Power operates through hierarchies and some people come to have more power Voting and laws and political parties have a great deal to do with how power works and hierarchies are created and maintained ▯ Second Industrial Revolution Expands the range of consumer goods A lot more stuff is being produced that people an buy for a lot less many Labor movements allow for more people to work to make this stuff Consumer revolution- mass production brought the cost of production down and enables middle and working class to purchase goods ▯ Changes in mentality Who you are is based on what you buy, and where you shop Explicit campaigns Middle class women wanted companies with good conditions that don’t implement child labor and low wages 1890’s organizations are formed by women reformers- women have the control of their family’s purse strings ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Spanish American War and the Philippines American War Spanish American war o Cubans began to fight for their independence from Spain in 1895 o America sympathized but divided Republican speaker of the house did not want to join unless America was directly threatened Theodore Roosevelt, Republican assistant secretary of the Navy, pushed for war against Spain President McKinley against the war (last president to have served in the Civil War) o Public opinion pushed American into war and made it an international power o Newspapers and publishers encouraged the war fever Published leaked letter of Spanish diplomat insulting President o Explosion sank US Maine in Cuba’s Havana harbor o Congress declared war after adopting Teller Amendment Made clear the US did not harbor imperialist ambitions Announced that the US would not acquire Cuba o US defeats Spanish US set up military government on Cuba Made soldiers’ withdrawal contingent on the Cubans accepting the Platt Amendment Gave US right to intervene in Cuba to protect 144 day war resulted in the US taking control of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam Philippines American War o Feb 1899 to July 1902 o Helped establish the US as a power in the Pacific o National debate over the US involvement overseas o Anti Imperialist League Some opposed feared an influx of non-white immigrants Some considered it immoral and inconsistent with US values o Popularized white man’s burden: notion that US and Western European societies had a duty to civilize and uplift the “benighted” races of the world o Paved way for migration from the Philippines o 1898- Spain ceded the Philippines to the US for $20 million Filipinos thought they would become independent and US protectorate (Emilio Aguinaldo) McKinley (under pressure to not lose Filipinos to other countries) annexed- “added to the country” o 1899 fighting breaks out between US adopts extreme and gory methods to defeat Fllipinos against their gorilla warfare tactics o Aguinaldo captured by raid in 1901 o War over July 1902 but fighting continued for more years o Convinced US to no longer conquer overseas o Gave internal control back to Filipinos in 1907 and granted independence in 1946 ▯ Home front politics o When entering WWI o The US wasn’t involved right, away. Woodrow Wilson had other concerns and he desired to stay out of the war o First ever domestic propaganda campaign CPI place pro war ads, massive advertising campaign for war bonds, huge demonstration of power of propaganda Women Suffrage (voting rights) o 1860 gives women’s rights for wages, right to bring court action, and guardianship over their children Political dissenters o 1917, Espionage Act- gave postal offices authority to ban newspapers and magazines from mails and threatened individuals convicted of obstructing the draft with fines and years in jail o 1918, Sedition Act—made it a federal offense to use disloyal or abusive language about the Constitution, government, American uniform, or flag Red Scare o Post war panic over political radicalism and fear of bombs, communism, and labor unrest o Palmer raids- President Wilson’s attorney general, Palmer, led raids against leftist organizations such as the Communist Party and radical labor unions (negative connotation) ▯ ▯ Progressivism and homefront politics ▯ Progressivism (1890s-1910s) label for a wide range of economic, political, social, and moral reforms stronger role for the government in protecting citizens from most harmful aspects of capitalism progressives believed things could get better in society if social problems were approached in a scientific way, based on thorough study and knowledge labor and capital are key pieces around progressivism ▯ Outlaw of Alcohol o 18th amendment- prohibition of alcohol (1919) o 21 amendment- repeals 18 amendment (1933) Regulate child labor and sweatshops Minimum wage for women Laws limiting work hours for women and children Workmen’s compensation Scientifically manage natural resources Conservation o Roosevelt launched conservation as a national political movement o 1906 Antiquities Act- enabled a president to protect wild lands as national monuments Americanize immigrants or restrict immigration altogether Regulate business practices Health hazards and labor relations o 1902, President Roosevelt first president to intervene on side of workers o army against coal mines unless owners agreed to arbitrate the strike improve working conditions government reform o give public more direct control over government o Wisconsin idea- provided model for reformers for direct primaries to select party nominees o Presented tax reform, opposition to political bosses Women’s rights Civil rights o W.E.B Dubois- first A.A to receive a Ph.D from Harvard, start of the NAACP ▯ Home front politics When entering WWI Wilson administration was convinced that it had to mobilize public opinion in support of war The US wasn’t involved right, away. Woodrow Wilson had other concerns and he desired to stay out of the war First ever domestic propaganda campaign o CPI place pro war ads, massive advertising campaign for war bonds, huge demonstration of power of propaganda Women Suffrage (voting rights) o 1860 gives women’s rights for wages, right to bring court action, and guardianship over their children o women gained the right to vote in 1919 Political dissenters o 1917, Espionage Act- gave postal offices authority to ban newspapers and magazines from mails and threatened individuals convicted of obstructing the draft with fines and years in jail o 1918, Sedition Act—made it a federal offense to use disloyal or abusive language about the Constitution, government, American uniform, or flag ▯ Red Scare Post war panic over political radicalism and fear of bombs, potential power of international socialism and communism Fear about immigrants and assumption they are anarchist leftists Massive sweeps were done deporting immigrants Increased level of surveillance on part of the FDI, restricting people’s civil liberties ▯
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