Government of the U.S
Government of the U.S POL 1101
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adele Brakus DVM on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL 1101 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/233972/pol-1101-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Political Science at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
POLnoI 5m Quid 1 Be certain that you understand the ideas in the summary to each assigned chapter 2 DON39T FORGET Review all of the boldfaced terms in the text Ask yourself whether you understand each term and whether you understand why it is important Do the same for the ideas listed below Remember the key challenges for you are quotDo I know what x isquot and quotDo I know what difference x makesquot 3 For each section or subsection of the book determine the major theme and its relevance 4 The topics and questions below are not a list of your total responsibilities They are intended to guide you as you study for the exam You may expect some questions based on additional ideas 39om the text and lectures 5 The green factoids on the web pages are NOT to be memorized for this course They are there for your amusement or outrage or to be used in dinner conversations to astound and imitate your acquaintances Janda Chapter 17 On p 555557 Janda describes several good reasons why people generally disagree about public policies This is largely your iture fault quothow rapid technological change can suddenly thrust a new issue onto the public agendaquot Janda39s de nition of quotpublic policyquot is good but it leaves out the decision to NOT act as a possible form of pursuing a policy objective What are the four or ve Janda didn t include policy adoption as I did main stages in the policymaking process Which stage marks its end In class I stressed the importance of problem perception and de nition as part of the agendasetting phase What is a quottax expenditurequot Janda offers four useful categories of policies which I didn39t discuss in class prohibit protect promote and provide You should know these well enough to be able to apply these labels to an example of a type of policy Returning to the subject of implementation the paragraph on p 567 beginning with quotAlthoughquot is use il Regarding policy evaluation like implementation this is the subject of an entire course in the School of Public Policy It attempts to use the best techniques of data analysis and causal modeling to determine how well policies work So why is it so dif cult What are the causes of the agmentation that often occurs in policymaking in America What are the techniques used to try to achieve coordination of policies You should memorize the chart on p 577 Just joking about p 577 But you should understand why quotToday policymaking in telecommunications bears no resemblance to an iron trianglequot Remember this is the realm of activity not telecommunications per se but interactions across public private and notforpro t institutions that is likely to be the milieu that shapes your careers You should understand the dynamics of issue network politics along with the differences between quotiron trianglesquot and quotissue networksquot What are the advantages and disadvantages of policy subsystems in a democracy Re ect on the list of models of the policy process elite pluralist marxist rationalcomprehensive and think about how each draws attention to different aspects of policy Which model is quottruequot Particularly relevant for you Tech types is the controversial role of expertise in policy making Janda focuses on con ict of interest issues but I39m more interested in the role of experts vs the average public in a democracy You should be too Why might it be fair to say that experts play a lessthanobjective role in the policy process Janda Chapter 18 Janda allows you to compare and contrast laissez faire Keynesian monetarist and supplyside economic theory with respect to the role of government in the economy What was Say39s Law and What did it say Why did Keynes say Say39s Law might not be use il even if true What is a wellfunctioning market What are the major types of market quotfailuresquot Be able to identify an example of each type of market failure What are possible roles for the government in responding to each type of market failure p 588 what are the major problems with measuring in ation via the CPI Which institutions of government make scal policy decisions In what way have they created quotautomatic stabilizersquot that are consistent with the prescriptions of scal policy In what ways is the Federal Reserve Board independent of the president and Congress What are the three major tools it can use to affect the nation39s supply of money and credit from lectures and web notes Do yourself a favor and use the link on quotthe current amounts of M1 M2 and M3quot to look up the October 2000 gure for M1 it may appear as M11 in the table because there is a superscripted footnote quot1 quotD Was the Reaganera supply side experiment a fair test of supply side economics Remember that at the same time Reagan39s tax cuts went into effect we had the largest increase ever in social security tax rates in addition to the factors mentioned in the book What did the Philips Curve and Laffer Curve seem to promise In what ways is a federal budget de cit harmful to the economy Under what circumstances might it not be totally bad What is quotgoodquot borrowing Think about it two di erent ways that de cits might be considered bene cial are quotKeynesianquot de cits and de cits that are used to invest in productive activities such as RampD and education We have a web link that wasn t discussed in class Emissions Trading You should know the purpose why is it in the public interest for Firm A to work out a deal with Firm B What39s the difference between income tax and social security tax What happened to each during the 19805 and early 1990s How bad is the tax burden in the US compared with those in other western democracies From the web page how have the Total Federal E ective Tax Rates For All Families changed in recent years You should know the largest categories of federal government spending Why in general terms has government spending increased faster than in ation What is an quotuncontrollablequot spending outlay What are progressive and regressive opposite of progressive tax policies So what Would a national sales tax be progressive or regressive Why does J anda say quotthe nation39s tax policies as a whole favor the wealthyquot Tax burdens are discussed in several places in Chapter 18 What have been the overall effects of transfer payments to individuals What are several possible objectives of tax policy Janda Chapter 19 Who bene ts from social policies The story about TANF in Oregon is a nice success story but ask yourself how many parts of the system must work well for it to achieve such happy outcomes You don39t need to know the details of the history of social policies but you should appreciate the importance of the Great Depression and the 196039s Great Society and War on Poverty programs In general terms how has spending on social welfare programs changed since 1960 In what way is every Georgia Tech student receiving public assistance Why did the Reagan administration call for a reexamination of social welfare policies and with what effect What is the difference between quotprocedural equity and quotsubstantive equityquot Be able to think of an example of a policy dispute that involves each type of equity What types of rights do we have Why would anyone be opposed to raising the minimum wage What are the alleged tradeo s that are involved and what is the evidence about these tradeoffs Know about the multiple types of responses available to government with regard to health care problems You should be able to say something about the dif culties in de ning quotpovertyquot Class notes and a web link will help Be able to distinguish the major types of unemployment and the possible policy responses to each What are cash transfer payments and in kind transfer payments You should know what percentage of federal transfer payments are quotmeanstestedquot that is are allocated on the basis of the recipient39s income onesixth Janda discusses meanstesting on p 643 It is imperative that you understand the impact of the Great Depression on social policies It is also necessary to understand how the priorities of the 1960s affect today s social policies What is an quotentitlementquot Why does Janda say that domestic aid programs demonstrate pluralist politics in action How successful generally are lobbies for the poor Regarding social security you should be able to associate the following concepts with today39s social security problem 1935 Medicare COLAs stag ation changing demographics 12 trillion surplus trust fund By the way the web page tells you that the 1983 reforms increased the tax rate to 765 on the rst 53600 of income That means that alter you earn 53600 you don39t pay any FICA tax at all on additional income That cap rises with in ation and is currently 76500 And you pay this tax only on wages and salary not on investment income Is that a quotprogressivequot or quotregressivequot tax You pay unavoidable taxes into the Medicare system so it wouldn39t hurt to know about Part A and Part B Medicare The paragraph on p 634 about attempts to reform Medicare is a good illustration of the complex effects resulting from apparently simple solutions On p 638 be sure to notice what the 1996 legislation on health insurance meant for workers who change or lose jobs Believe it or not someday this information will be relevant to you What are the arguments in favor of quotending welfare as we know itquot What are some of the hazards of casual and super cial descriptions or analyses of why people are on welfare What replaced AFDC in 1996 What does the book mean by the quotfeminization of povertyquot p 627 Environmental Policy Web Page What are the key issues for policy makers who confront a typical environmental quotproblemquot Why does Lubchenco say that we need a new quotsocial contract for sciencequot What would that entail think speci cally about the challenges of the interdisciplinary work that she says is needed What is the relevance of thermodynamics for environmental policy You should memorize Commoner39s Laws of Ecology not just for the exam but for life What is quotsustainabilityquot Regarding environmental problems what is a quotnegative externality What are the possible governmental responses to extemalities and why is it usually dif cult to design an optimal policy for preventing or compensating for them Be sure that you are familiar with the concepts of commandandcontrol regulation and quottechnology forcing quot Why don39t liability solutions offer the best outcome What is quotThe Tragedy of the Commonsquot and what are modern examples of such problems Why can39t markets resolve these problems What are the problems for the government when it tries Why is costbene t analysis so appealing What does it promise to do In practice can it achieve this goal Why not What are the advantages of using CBA anyway and what are the dangers for which you should be watch il The REQUIRED link on this topic uses urban air quality as an example of several approaches to analysis healthbased technologybased etc For you very careful readers here39s a bonus quotBecause costbene t analysis attempts to identify the most economically ef cient option the type of information needed for comprehensive analysis tends to become more complex at quot Which stage of the policy process and why Why does the article argue that quotThe method does not provide a basis for analysts to judge one outcome as superior to the otherquot We brie y discussed several examples of value con icts which can be the crucial determining factor in environmental policymaking Think about native Americans and the discount rate for future lives and about property rights vs environmental protection We didn39t have a chance to cover environmental activism the media and public opinion in class Sorry We also didn39t examine the EPA in detail but the web page offers several comments about its mission its ability to measure effectiveness the key decision makers and the agmentation of authority of environmental policy all of which relate to Max Weber39s generalizations about bureaucracies Much of my current research concerns risk policy so I sacrificed heavily to the Florida election mess by skipping this section Nevertheless ask yourself a few relevant questions To what degree can risk policy be purely scienti c Why might people have such different ways of thinking about the risks of smoking oods driving too fast and nuclear power plants Why are scienti c approaches in toxicology and epidemiology crucial but incomplete bases for risk assessment and management What are some of the biases that appear in risk estimatiOn even when experts are doing the estimating What are some of the quotqualitative characteristicsquot that shape our perception of risk We didn39t have time to talk about risk management but you can read from the lecture notes on the web StudyGuide2html age 1 of4 Study Guide 2Fall 2000 POL 1101 Government of the US READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS SOME ARE NEW 1 Be certain that you understand the ideas in the summary to each assigned chapter NEW Note that because the reading load was substantially lighter for this test than for the rst one it is likely that the questions may be somewhat more focused on the textbook ALSO notice that several links on the web pages for these sections of the course are required readings 2 Review all of the boldfaced terms in the text Ask yourself whether you understand each term and whether you understand why it is important Do the same for the ideas listed below Remember the key challenges for you are quotDo I know what x isquot and quotDo I know what difference x makesquot 3 For each section or subsection of the book determine the major theme and its relevance 4 The questions below are not a list of your total responsibilities They are intended to guide you as you study You may expect some questions based on additional ideas from the text and lectures and several items from current events Janda Chapter 11 and the web notes and links You should understand the political signi cance of the Great Compromise and how the differences between the powers of the House and Senate re ect the logic of that agreement What are the major functions of Congress From where in the Constitution does Congress obtain its oversight authority and why does it need to perform this function How can Congress conduct oversight without passing laws You should know the list of enumerated powers of Congress and what they mean What are the roles of the two chambers of Congress in the treaty process and why was the system designed this way You should be able to explain how the Commerce Clause has been used to expand the activities of Congress What does the quotnecessary and properquot clause allow Congress to do If we hate Congress so much why do we keep electing incumbents What advantages do they enjoy Know the pros and cons of term limits Remember In politics the analogue to the Conservation of Energy is Conservation of Political Power Take power away from incumbent members of Congress with term limits and where will that power go Regarding the legislative process understand the meaning and signi cance of agenda referral of a bill to committees and subcommittees hearings markups Rules Committees and openclosed rules and libustersclotnre remember House Senate differences floor debate and roll call votes conference committees and the president39s options when he gets the Act of Congress to sign Whew What are the four major types of committees p 355 6 Five types if you count subcommittees Remember that both authorization and appropriations committees are types of standing committees Why do committees exist How are their chairs chosen and what powers do they have httpclasswebgatecheducoursesiacpubpolbarkeStudyGuide2html 103 000 StudyGuidethml Page 2 of 4 Some of you thought that the seniority system of selecting committee chairs is unfair If so Why does Congress maintain that way of allocating power Any organization and especially one such as Congress must nd ways to specialize divide labor and yet coordinate its activities through leadership and standard operating procedures such as seniority reciprocity and willingness to compromise Think about the analogies of centrifugal and centripetal forces Why do we refer to party leadership as providing a quotcentripetal forcequot in Congress What is the quotcentrifugal forcequot The current leaders of the House and Senate are Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott RMiss Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle DSD House Majority Leader Dick Armey RTex House Minority Leader Richard Gephardt DMissouri What roles do the parties play in holding the 535 members of Congress together What are the roles of staff after all you may decide to join one someday and support agencies in Congress What are the congressional duties of the President Remember sharing as well as separation of powers Oversight is very important Note what the book says about the purpose of most oversight Micromanagement can be a problem but Congress simply doesn39t have the time to do much of it What is the difference between a trustee and a delegate Which roles do most legislators adopt NOTE that you can nd much of the material about the budget process that I covered in class in Janda Pages 592608 You should be familiar with quotconstant dollarsquot Fiscal Year and when it begins the difference between budget authority and budget outlays the role of OMB in the process how an agency can quotpoliticallyquot try to get an increase in its budget the idea if a quotcurrent servicesquot budget and the differences between authorization and appropriation What is quotlegislative clearance quot and why does it make sense from the President39s point of view What would be likely to happen if agencies ignored the legislative clearance requirement for the big issues You will understand much of government and politics better if you spend some time exploring the OMB web pages There is a link on the web page to an assigned OMB site that discusses the difference between quotmandatory spendingquot and quotdiscretionary programsquot What39 s the difference and so what What is a quotspending capquot and what is the purpose of the quotpay asyougoquot requirement Janda Chapter 12 and the web notes and links After studying this chapter you should be able to answer the questions in the paragraph that straddles pp 3789 Why is Article II in the Constitution much more vague about the powers of the president than Article I on Congress What are the primary duties and powers of a president Regarding presidential powers understand quotinherentquot quotdelegation ofquot and quotpersuasionquot Did Lincoln act unconstitutionally Why would Congress ever want to give away any of its powers It is important to know what Neustadt said about the value of persuasion In what ways does the textbook say that a president is helped by higher levels of popularity What does President Clinton s current status tell us about that argument What are the major factors that affect a president39s popularity Do you think the textbook s generalizations apply in 2000 httpclasswebgatecheducoursesiacpubpolbarkeStudyGuide2htrnl 103 000 StudyGuichhtml Page 3 of 4 What are the causes and consequences of divided government quotVoters appear to usequot Regarding the executive branch establishment know the role of the chief of staff OMB particularly its functions in shaping the president39s budget and in managing the executive branch the vice president and the cabinet Think care illy about the problem of how to be the chief executive of cer of an organization with several million employees and an enormous range of responsibilities how to know what they39re doing and how to make sure that they know what you want them to do Loyalty isn39t just a sel sh passion According to the book why doesn39t the Cabinet play a major role in shaping the president39s policies What are the president s choices when Congress sends him a piece of legislation that both chambers have passed What were the basic provisions of the line item veto Regarding Figure 125 on p 405 remember what I said in class about the dangers of trying to quantify a president39s legislative successes How does the president and his staff attempt to in uence Congress Armtwisting What role do the parties play Look back to p 671 to learn more about the War Powers Resolution We spent time on this in class too Take this as a hint How many times has Congress actually declared war more than 4 less than 6 The characterpersonality analyses on pp 40912 makes social scientists nervous It is unquestionably important in understanding a president39s approach to the of ce but it39s almost impossible to apply the normal criteria of scienti c tests of knowledge to these questions 0ne of the required web links discussed the quotlegislative vetoquot which permitted Congress to terminate powers delegated to the Chief Executive or to disapprove particular exercises of power by him or his agents You don39t need to know the details of INS v Chadha but you should know why the Supreme Court held a oneHouse congressional veto to be unconstitutional with one decision the Court struck down 200 other statutory provisions that included a legislative veto What are the primary mechanisms by which a president39s priorities become part of the legislative process Think about it Janda Chapter 13 and the web notes and links What does the case of ValuJet tell you about the dilemmas created when bureaucracy is charged with regulating industry when many people don39t want government agencies to interfere with business According to Max Weber what are the essential components of any bureaucracy How do these help explain many characteristics of the federal bureaucracy such as red tape and the civil service What would you say to someone who offered a simple comparison of the quotef ciencyquot of government agencies and business rms How does the size of the American government39s role in the economy compare with that of other similar nations What are the ve factors that have contributed to the growth of bureaucracy and what are the dif culties that plague e orts to reduce bureaucracy How should you respond to a complaint that quotthe bureaucracyquot has grown during the past fifty years Know why presidents often feel they have inadequate control of the bureaucracy What is an independent regulatory commission In what way is it quotindependentquot Why would we want to have such a thing in our political system Note that the book could be a bit misleading on p 423 quotindependent agenciesquot are part of the executive branch but independent regulatory commissionsquot are supposed to be separate from both the executive and legislative branches httpclasswebgatecheducoursesiacpubpolbarkeStudyGuide2html 103000
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