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Anatomy & Physiology

by: Kyler Ondricka

Anatomy & Physiology BIOL 3751

Kyler Ondricka

GPA 3.84

Linda Rosskopf

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Linda Rosskopf
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kyler Ondricka on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3751 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Linda Rosskopf in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/233994/biol-3751-georgia-institute-of-technology-main-campus in Biology at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus.


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Date Created: 11/02/15
HUMAN ANATOMY TEST 2 GUIDE CHAPTER 11 Muscular System Connective Tissue of Muscle o Epimysium outer layer of dense irregular tissue which ensheaths entire muscle 0 Perimysium middle layer of tissue which groups individual muscle fibers 10 100 into bundles or fascicles o Endomysium inner layer of tissue that ensheaths a muscle fiber made from reticular fibers contains capillaries nerves amp lymphatics o Tendon tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects bone amp muscle 0 Deep Fascia layer of dense fibrous tissue that surrounds ind iv muscles amp divides groups of muscles into compartments Muscle Tendon Unit 0 Origin attachment to stationary end of muscle usually proximal to insertion o Belly muscle tissue contractile component found in center btwn tendons o Insertion attachment to mobile end of muscle 0 Be able to know originsinsertions as proximaldistal attachments Muscle Attachments 0 Most muscles attach to bone either directly or indirectly Direct Fleshy Attachment epimysium is continuous w periosteum EX intercostals muscles Indirect Attachment epimysium continues as tendon or aponeurosis layers of flat broad tendons that merges into periosteum as perforating fibers Strong attachment stress will tear tendon before pulling tendon loose EX biceps brachii tendon abdominal muscles aponeurosis Skin Attachment muscles of facial expression attach to dermis Muscle Architecture arrangement of fascicles o LongitudinalParallel fascicles in line w muscle shortening convergent arrangement also called fusiform cone shaped o Pennate fascicles oblique to line of muscle shortening refers to feather has an angle of pennation from line of muscle shortening DEC range of motion ROM INC of fascicles more force Unipennate muscles on one side of line Bipennate muscles on both sides of line Multipennate muscles on both sides of multiple lines o Pennate vs Parallel parallel has muscle shortening amp fascicle force vector aligned pennate has misaligned forces only Fcose contributes to muscle shortening Musculoskeletal System as Simple Machine 0 Applied Force AF muscle Load L resistance by either weight or inertia Fulcrum F axispoint of rotation at a joint FirstClass Levers moment due to AF exceeds moment due to L causing head to extend EX neck up ampdown Fulcrum in btwn L pushing down ampAF down SecondClass Levers EX getting on tip toes Fulcrum on far left to right is L down rig ht of L is AF up ThirdClass Levers EX moving forearm to upper arm curling Fulcrum on far left to right is AF up right of AF is L down Levers have moments of force M amp can be calculated as 9where rmomentlever arm amp Fapplied force 0 1st amp 2quotdClass Levers are optimum for mechanical advantage 3rdClass Lever most common in body amp more efficient when considering shortening of muscle amp nrg cost ATP associated optimizes movement distance amp speed Activation Types 0 Isometric Contraction muscle contracts but does not shorten produces no force w no external length change no mechanical work Muscle Moment External Mom 0 Concentric Contraction muscle shortens while actively producing force positive mechanical work Muscle Moment gt External Moment Moment of Weight 000 O O O o Eccentric Contraction muscle lengthens while actively producing force negative mechanical work Muscle Moment lt External Moment Moment of Weight Measured as muscle tendon unit length Prime Mover muscle w primary force producing capability for a given movepos Agonist muscle w same fxn as another muscle Antagonist muscle w opposing fxn to another muscle Synergist muscle that in some way assists in creating movement Stabilization muscle is active to hold a bone in place while another muscle creates movement Neutralization muscle is active to counterbalance an unwanted movement so that pure movement can occur Naming Skeletal Muscles 0 Correct names include the term muscle EX biceps brachii muscle 0 Descriptive names include location in body attachment sites fascicle organization relative position structural characteristics amp action Selected Prime Movers for Specific Body Movements By Region 0 Head amp Neck Face Muscles or39g39 quot insert39 ficial fascia ampdermis moves skin Eye Muscles extrinsic muscles inserted in eye ball TongueI PalateI PharynxI amp Larynx Neck Muscles OOOOO Thorax Abdomen Vertebral Column Pelvic Muscles support internal organs 0 Appendicular Muscles Upper Li b Lower Limb HEAD AND NECK 0 Face i l w Masseter Origin Zygomatic Insertion Mandible Temporalis temple Lateral Pterygoid used for side side movement of upperlower jaw oid win i Orbicularis oris surrounds lips oris mouth Zygomaticus ma39orminor from zygomatic bone to orbicularis Sucking Trumpeter we Buccinator to blow horn deep under other face muscles behind lips on sides of cheeks Blinkingzclosing Eye Obicularis ocul orbital part surro Forehead WrinklinggEye Brow Raising 39 Occipitofrontalis starts at frontal lobe amp ends at occipital lobe ll We unds e e palpebral part covers lid 0 Eye Inferir rectus look down Superior rectus look up Medial rectus look medial Inferior oblique look up lateral 39 l g 2 Su erIor oblique look down lateral Ltealrectus look lateral 0 Neck 39 l lzr from claviclesternum to mastoid process Neck Flexion amp Rotation SternocleidomastOId A39Ll J E Neck skin tension amp r Platysma all muscles under chin amp m Neck Extensors back of neck il l outh s o Semispinalis capitis 0 Special Head Muscles Tongue muscles containing g lossus from bone to connective tissue Pharynx muscles containing constrictor superior inferior amp middle Larynx move food down esophagus also use constrictor muscles TRUNK o Trunk Flexion compress abdomen 39 quot 5 Rectus abdominus pubis to ribs along linea alba vertical line that splits abs amp tendinous intersections External obliques outer layer of abs medial down creates contralateral rotation compression posture amp stabilizes vertebral column Internal obliques middle layer of abs medial up creates ipsalateral rotation compression posture amp stabilizes vert column Transverse abdominis innermost layer horizontal movement compresses Tendons aponeurosis of all 3 above insert on linea alba TIE o Hernia protrusion of organ through muscular wall many types umbilical belly button epigastric above belly button inguinal on pelvic mound ampfemoral on leg 0 Trunk Extensors amp Rotators vertebral column muscles 1 Superficial Layer gpgroup Erector spinae spinalis gp erection of spinal cord Longissimus gp covers entire spinal cord longest muscle Illiocostalis gp from ribs to illium Splenius neck Deep Layer Semispinalis gp part in neck part in spine Rotatores rotation of back from vertebrae to ribs Interspinalis connects 2 sides of spine Multifidus multiple finger like connxn to spinal column amp hip bone RESPIRATION o Diaphragm shaped like arachute under lungs lines false ribs splits thoracic amp abdominal cavities Diaphragmat Her a intestine protruding thru hole in diaphragm 0 External Intercostals active in inspiration move rib cage when lungs expand from taking in air cii wwfz PELVIS Organs rest on these muscles 0 Urogenital Triangle superficial amp deep layer contains a urogenital diaphragm External Urethral Sphincter deep la e 0 Anal Triangle contains a pelvic diaphragm External anal sphincter Levator ani Coccygeus UPPER LIMB o Shoulder Abduction 2 Deltoid also involved in shoulder flexionextension o Shoulder Adduction lats amp ecs are onl shoulder muscles originating on axial skeleton Pectoralis major 39 connects to sternum Latissimus dorsi l connects to spine 0 Shoulder Flexion Deltoid anterior fibers Pectoralis major O O FOREARM O O O O O O IHA O LOWER LIMB O O O Shoulder Extension Lattisimus dorsi Deltoid Muscles Actin on Scaula elevates depresses amp adducts scapula adduct retract scapula Rhomboids Levator scapulae Serratus anterior to ribcage Surspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor I Elbow Flexion w w nu Biceps brach inserts on radius Brachialis stronger inserts on ulna WM rr Triceps brachii long hea originates on scapula Anconeus assistor below elbow Pronation muscles anterior Pronator teres Pronator quadrates Supinatio muscles posterior Su inator Extension posterior compartment i Extensor digitorum Extensor pollicis longusbrevis Extensor indicis Abduction Abductor ollicis longusbrevis Flexion r Flexor dI Itorum superficialis Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor policis longus Palmaris longus Adduction Flexor carpi ulnaris r Flexor carpi radialis i Intrinsic Muscles ThenarHypothenar Lumbricals Interossei Hip Flexion i i 39 Iliopsoas psoas major amp iliacus common insertion lesser trochanter femur Rectus femoris Sartorius Hip Extensio posterior thigh Gluteus maximus 39 Biceps femoris amp semimembranosus Hip Adduction Adductor manuslonusbrevis LL Pectineus part of the hamstrings along with semitendinosus fifl Gracilis assists in flexion of knee lt quot 0 Hip Abduction Lateral Muscles of Thigh 39r m Tensor fasciae latae inserts on H Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Piriformis o Knee Extension Quadriceps femori very powerful group Rectus femoris Vastus gp Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius Sartorius week extensor o Knee Flexion r a posterior compartment flexes knee extends thigh Biceps femoris Semimembranosus Semitendinosis ANKLE amp FOOT o Dorsiflexion of Ankle anterior com Tibialis anterior 391 iii Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus 2 artment o Plantar Flexion of Ankle posterior compartment Him Gastrocnemius Soleus deep to gastrocnemius Plantaris A attach to cacaneus via Achilles tendon Tibialis posterior Flexor digitorumhallucis longus o Inversion ro ankle towards median Tibialis anterior Tibialis posterior o Eversion ro ankle towards atera Fibularis longus both are from m 7 392i iii uiar nevi at Fibularis brevis o Intrinsic Muscles Extensor digitorum brevis Flexor digitorum brevis Interossei Lumbricals Abductor amp Flexor Hallucis Compartment Syndrome crushing injury swelling amp edema 9vessel amp nerve compression 9ischemia 9tissue death if not treated could kill within 72 hours bc of lack of circulation OR circulation of stale toxic unclean blood after compression lifted CHAPTER 12 Neural Tissue Nervous System Functions 0 Along w endocrine system maintains homeostasis o Sensory afferent neurons conduct signals from receptors to the CNS 9 Interneurons association neurons are confined to CNS 9 Motor efferent neurons conduct signals from CNS to effectors such as muscles amp glands Nervous System Division 0 CNS brain amp spinal cord Functions process amp coordinate sensory data integrates information motor commands higher fxns of brain 0 PNS nerves outside of CNS spinal amp cranial nerves Functions deliver sensory info to CNS afferent carry motor commands from CNS to peripheral tissues amp systems efferent Nerves bundles of nerve fibers axons from nerve cells info travels only one way Nerves covered by epineurium then perineurium around 1 fascicle then endoneurium then Schwann cell then myelinated axon Cranial Nerves connect to brain Spinal Nerves attach to spinal cord Functional Divisions of PNS Sensory Afferent Division 0 Carries sensory info from PNS sensory receptors to CNS 0 Most afferent cells are unipolar neurons Motor Efferent Division 0 Carries motor commands from CNS to PNS muscles amp glands 0 Most efferent cells are multipolar neurons Somatic Division 0 Efferents motor to skeletal muscle muscular reflexes o Afferents info to CNS about outside world amp position Visceral Division 0 Efferents to organs sweat glands autonomic system Afferents from inside body organ systems amp tissues Autonomic Visceral Nervous System ANS controls subconscious actions contractions of smooth muscle amp cardiac muscle amp glandular secretions Sympathetic Division stimulating effect fight of flight Parasympathetic Division relaxing effect Neuroglial Cells support cells 0 Insulate support protect neurons Can reproduce mitotic division Originate from ectoderm except microglial cells Usually responsible for brain tumors gliomas invading neurons Differ in CNS vs PNS More numerous than neurons 5 50x more Types of Glial Cells CNS Oligodendrocytes myelin Astrocytes anchor support Microglial phagocytic scavenger cells Ependymal cells lining produce CSF 0 Types of Glial Cells PNS Schwann Cells forms myelin sheath for insulating neurons envelops axon like jelly roll neurilemma outer layer analogous to oligodendrocytes many Schwann cells form sheath aids in regeneration Satellite Cells surround neuron cell bodies regulate environment around neurons Neurons basic functional unit exhibits longevity but amitotic requires oxygen amp glucose transmit electrical impulses 0 Properties of Neurons Excitability ability to respond to changes in body amp external environment stimuli Conductivity produce traveling electrical signals Secretion when electrical signal reaches end of nerve fiber chemical NT secreted 0 Structure Cell Body Soma contains nucleus amporganelles usually found in CNS collection in PNS found in swelling called ganglia Dendrites receiving region conduct impulse toward soma Axon carries electrical signal action potential towards target arises from axon hillock may be myelinated variable length may branch into collaterals telodend ria distal end synaptic knobs terminal 00 000000 Synaptic Knob expanded area of axon of presynaptic neuron contains synaptic vesicles of NTs Chemical messengers released at presynaptic membrane affect receptors of postsynaptic membrane broken down by enzymes reassembled at synaptic knob diffuse away 0 Interneurons association neurons connects sensory to motor neurons process store recall info make decisions 0 Nerve Tissue Nerve Fiber long process of neuron usually refers to axons Nerve comprised of fascicule nerve bundles enveloped in perineurium connective tissue sheaths Fiber Tracts same as above but inside CNS organized by function Electrical Potentials amp Currents o Nerve pathway is a series of separate cells 0 Neural communication by changing transmembrane potential Transmembrane potential rises or falls In response to temporary changes in membrane permeability Resulting from opening or closing specific membrane channels 0 Living cells are polarized Resting membrane potential is 70 mV w negative charge on inside of membrane Inside cell membrane has a negative charge Na K most important ions 0 Intracellular low Na high K vs extracellular high Na low K o Intracellular has high concentration of charged particles proteins organic acids others membrane impermeable to these Membrane much more permeable K so diffuses out through leak channels NaK pump gt 3 Na out and 2K back in cell 0 Works continuously and requires great deal of ATP 0 Necessitates glucose and oxygen be supplied to nerve tissue To change resting membrane potential 0 Change permeability of certain ions especially Na 0 Ion gradients altered on either side of membrane Sodium amp Potassium Channels Membrane permeability to Na amp K determines TMP They are either passive or active 0 Passive Channels leak channels are always open permeability changes w conditions 0 Active Channels gated channels open amp close in response to stimuli at resting potential most gated channels are closed Chemically ligand Gated Channels Open in presence of specific chemicals eg ACh at a binding site Found on neuron cell body and dendrites VoltageGated Channels Respond to changes in transmembrane potential Have activation gates opens amp inactivation gates closes Characteristic of excitable membrane Found in neural axons skeletal muscle sarcolemma cardiac muscle Mechanically Gated Channels Respond to membrane distortion Found in sensory receptors touch pressure vibration Local Graded Potential Local disturbances in membrane potential 0 Occur when neuron is stimulated by chemicals light heat or mechanical disturbance Depolarization decreases potential across cell membrane due to opening of ligand gated Na channels TMP INC O O Na rushes in down concentration and electrical gradients Na diffuses for short distance inside membrane producing a change in voltage called a local potential Repolarization TMP DEC after climax is reached TMP drops below threshold for Relative Refractory Period 9 climbs back to resting potential EPSP Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential voltage closer to zero graded incomplete depolarization Summation of EPSPs to produce AP temporalspatial O 0 Temporal Summation Intense stimulation by one pre synaptic neuron EPSPs spread from one synapse to trigger zone Post synaptic neuron fires Spatial Summation Simultaneous stimulation by several pre synaptic neurons EPSPs spread from several synapses to trigger zone Post synaptic neuron fires IPSP Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential voltage further from zero brief transient hyperpolarization Action Potentials more dramatic change in membrane potential produced where high density of voltage gated channels occur called a spike Characteristics 0 O O O Follows an all or none law Voltage gates either open or don t Non decremental do not get weaker with distance Irreversible once started goes to completion amp can t be stopped Travels in one direction due to membrane region Absolute Refractory Period no AP can take place Relative Refractory Period AP possible if stimulus is large enough Impulse Conduction Unmyelinated Fibers O O 0 Threshold voltage in trigger zone begins impulse Nerve signal impulse a chain reaction of sequential opening of voltage gated Na channels down entire length of axon Nerve signal nondecremental travels at 2msec Saltatom Propagation Myelinated Fibers O O O O Na inflow at node generates AP slow but non decremental Na diffuses along inside of axolemma to next node fast but decremental Excitation of voltage regulated gates will generate next AP Action potentials jump from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier Factors which Increase Velocity of Propagation O O Myelination of Axon Larger Neuron axon diameter 0 Heat Local Potential vs Action Potential 0 O O O 0 0000039 Chemical Signaling O Neurotransmitters depolarize or Graded strength of stimulus Local effects Decremental Reversible Only depolarize All or none Propagates a distance Non Decremental Irreversible Chemicals released by neurons at synapse pre synaptic terminal O O gt100 different substances identified as quotcommunicatorsquot Binding results in either an EPSP or IPSP then quickly removed from synapse Diffusion Reuptake Degradation Post synaptic neuronorgan contains specific receptors for each neurotransmitter Receptor dictates the effect on the postsynaptic cell Acetylcholine Ach excitatoryinhibitory found at NMJ excitatory first NT characterized degraded by AchE Nerve gas inactivates AchE muscle tremors Botulism toxin decreases Ach release DEC respiration Catecholamines affect arousal mood substances derived from tyrosine Dopamine excitatory amp inhibitory Parkinson s amp cocaine DEC dopamine Norepinephrine sympathetic nerves excitatory or inhibitory adrenergic receptors Serotonin precursor is tryptophan plays role in mood sleep sensory perception amp temperature regulation effects of LSD DEC serotonin GABA gamma aminobutyric acid inhibitory valium increases release associated w reducing anxiety B Endorphin inhibitory belong to class of endogenous opiates morphine heroine results in DEC pain perception by CNS Synaptic Transmission AP arrives at synaptic knob depolarizing it Voltage regulated Ca open causing Ach to be released via exocytosis Ach binds with receptors on post synaptic neuron opening ligand regulated gates Na in K out If strong enough opens voltage regulated gates in trigger zone Ach is broken down into acetate and choline by AchE Synaptic knob reabsorbs choline from cleft amp uses to resynthesize Ach GABA inhibitory NT process above is same except GABA receptor is Cl channel by opening Cl moves into cell making inside more NEG amp harder to stimulate Synaptic Dysfunction Impairment of neurotransmitter synthesisrelease Impairment of binding of neurotransmitter to receptor Speed of degradation DownUp regulation of receptors DEC in for LESS sensitivity INC receptors for GREATER sensitivity CHAPTER 13 Peripheral Nervous System Spinal Cord 0 000000 extends from medulla to vertebral levels L1 or L2 Has 3 coverings meninges Epidural space blood vessels and fat Subarachnoid space contains CSF 2 way conduction sensory input motor output Spinal reflexes no brain involvement Meninges Dura Mater thick fibrous outer layer Arachnoid Mater weblike intermediate layer Pia Mater thin layer that adheres to spinal cord deepest layer Associate Spaces Epidural fat vertebral venous plexus Subarachnoid CSF Features Cervical attachments of large nerves that supply upper limb amp Lumbar lower limb enlargements caused by INC neural input amp output to upperlower extrem Conus medullaris terminal end of cord occurs near L1 L2 Cauda Equina consists of dorsalventral roots O Filum Terminale terminal nerve root tail prolonged downward from apex of conus medullaris consists of 2 parts Internum pia mater Externum dura mater attaches to coccyx Gray Matter cell bodies Dorsal Horn sensory Ventral Horn motor Lateral Horn autonomic White Matter axonstracts bundles of myelinated axons that carries signals updown to and from brainstem 3 columns each of which is filled w named tracts or fascicule fibers w similar origin destination amp fxn Dorsal Column Lateral Column Ventral Column Spinal Nerves exit cord via intervertebral foramen apertures btwn 2 vertebrae formed by convergence of dorsal amp ventral roots covered by Epineurium surrounds entire nerve fuses with dura Perineurium surrounds fascicles bundles of axons Endoneurium surrounds individual axon Dorsal Rootlets from dorsal horn converge to form dorsal rami afferent sensory root 0 Dorsal Root Ganglion collection of cell bodies at end of dorsal root Ventral Rootlets from ventral horn converge to ventral rami efferent motor axons Branches of Spinal Nerve o Ventral Ramus ramus branch to ventral truck amp extremities o Dorsal Ramus to dorsal trunk muscle amp skin 0 Communication Rami to sympathetic trunk Blood Supply to Spinal Cord aa quotarteries Cervical vertebral aa ascending cervical aa deep cervical aa Thoracic intercostals aa Lumbar lumbar aa Sacral lateral sacral aa Each contributes to form Anterior Spinal amp Posterior Spinal 2 arteries Medullary a forms longitudinal spinal aa Radicular a supplies neural tissue w blood directly supplies lumbar enlargement of lower spinal cord Venous Drainage of Spinal Cord v vein 0 Radicular amp Medulary w o Spinal Intervertebral w sits in pia mater form venous plexus 0 Internal External Vertebral Plexuses drain from vertebral bod ie OOOOO Neuronal Pools functional groups of interconnected neurons in gray matter Divergence spread info from 1 neuronpool to several neuronspools permits broad distribution occurs when sensory neurons bring info into CNS EX visual info from eyes reaches conscious awareness at same time it is distributed to areas of brain controlling posture amp balance at subconscious Convergence several neurons synapse same post synaptic neuron works on conscious amp subconscious levels EX Movement ofdiaphragm amp ribs controlled by brain subconsciously but can also be done consciously when taking deep breath Serial Processing info relayed in stepwise fashion from 1 neuron to another occurs when sensory info is relayed from one part of brain to another EX pain sensations en route to conscious awareness make 2 stops at neuronal pools along the pain pathway Parallel Processing several neurons process same info at one time divergence must occur first allows many responses to occur simultaneously EX step on something sharp 9info is sent allowing you to withdraw foot shift weight move arms feel pain amp shout at same time Reverberation produced by positive feed back branches extend back toward source of impulse amp further stimulate pre synaptic neurons continuous until fatigue 0 Spinal Nerve Distribution kind of like downtown connector Efferent motor somatic Afferent sensory somatic amp visceral Autonomic sympathetic visceral efferent o Spinal Nerve Reflexes stereotypical response to specific stimuli Reflex Arc neural pathway that mediates reflex action sensory neurons don t pass directly into brain but rather synapse in spinal cord 9 allows reflex actions to occur relatively quickly by activating spinal motor neurons without the delay of routing signals through the brain Reflexes can be classified By Response 0 Autonomic Reflex control actions of smooth amp cardiac muscles 0 Somatic Reflex control skeletal muscle contractions includes superficial amp stretch reflexes By Development 0 Innate Reflexes genetically or developmentally determined 0 Acquired Reflexes learned reflexes By Processing Site 0 Spinal Reflexes processing in spinal cord no ascending tracts automatic stereotypical responses to stimuli 5 components Sensory Receptor stimulated muscle spindle after stretching Afferent Neuron stimulates motor neuron 9 excites extensor muscle amp interneuron 9 inhibits flexor muscle anatagonist sends signal to IC Integrating Center sorts signals Efferent Neuron stimulates extensor muscle to contract Motor Effector muscle spindle of extensor contracts Stretch reflex muscle spindles proprioceptor monitor muscle length changes by comparing length of 2 fiber types Flexion Withdrawal Reflex flexors stimulated while extensors inhibited when painful stimulus felt gray horns distribute excited amp inhibited interneu rons to other segments of s cord Crossed Extensor Reflex on plant foot flexors inhibited while extensors stimulated on injured foot opposite rxns crossing over commissure in spine causes opp rxns Sensing Interoception give info about internal organs Proprioception awareness of body s movements Exteroception info from outside environ ears eyes 0 Cranial Reflexes processing in brain By Complexity of Circuit 0 Monosynaptic one synapse direct communication btwn sensory amp motor neuron o Polysynaptic multiple synapses 2 1005 interneuron facilitates sensory motor communication 0 Spinal Cord Injury level of injury determines dysfunction Neurons don t grow back in CNS as well as PNS bc PNS injuries generally damage axons while CNS damages cell bodies 9 reflex control centers Level of injury determines dysfunction Paralysis loss of fxn inferior to lesion 0 Paraplegia damage to T1 L2 o Quadriplegia damage to C1 C4 Peripheral Nerves o Cranial Nerves 12 pairs originate in Brain 0 Spinal Nerves 31 pairs arise from spinal cord all mixed nerves numbered according to level spine Cervical Cl 8 Thoracic T1 12 Lumbar L1 5 Sacral Sl 5 Coccygeal Co Named according to spinal segment from which they emerge emerge through intervertebral foramen lateral opening below specific vertebra except Cervical Plexus braid or convergingdiverging network of spinal nerve fibers from intermingling of ventral rami in each region except thoracic Cervical C1 C4 o Cutaneous Branches sensory amp autonomic supply skin of neck throat shoulder posterolateral head auricular ampupper chest Lesser Occipital n Great Auricular n Transverse Cervical n Suprascapular n Ansa Cervicalis o Muscular Branches motor sensory ampautonomic supply Trapezius ampSCM spinal accessory n Infrahyoid Muscles via ansa cervicalis Deep Flexors of Neck Diaphragm phrenic n Brachial C5 T1 ventral rami sensory amp motor innervates upper limb via muscles on trunk neck amp shoulder nerves go thru armpit under clavicle o Plexus Structure Rami converge into trunks Trunks superior middle amp inferior Divisions anterior amp posterior Chords lateral posterior amp medial Branches o KNOW NERVES 0N SLIDE 18 FOR B PLEXUS Dorsal Scapular n off ramus C5 back of neck Long Thoracic n damage causes wing scapula Suprascapular n to rotator cuff muscles Medial Pectoral n to pectoral muscles Lateral Pectoral n to pectoral muscles Upper Subscapular n Lower Subscapular n Thoracodorsal n Medial Cutaneous n to armforearm Musculocutaneous n to biceps brachii anterior arm Radial n to triceps brachii posterior arm largest vulnerable injury humerus fracture elbow amp wrist extension Axillary n to deltoid Median n to flexors of anterior forearm amp palm of hand pronation wrist flexion thumb movement carpel tunnel synd Ulnar n runs down medial side of forearm wrist finger flexion amp finger abduction thumb adduction funny bone Thoracic no plexus segmental innervations of trunk wall dermatomes amp myotomes like cutaneous innervations for muscles intercostals nn amp thoracoabdominal nn are included 0 Ventral Ramus stems from spine amp circles cavity Lumbar L1 L4 L4 lumbrosacral trunk T12 subcostal n below rib not part of lumbar plexus covers abdomen anterior amp medial thigh o Iliohypogastric n abdominal mm Ilioinguinal n abdominal mm Genitofemoral n sensory skin of genitals Lateral Femoral Cutaneous n sensory skin of thigh Femoral n muscles of anterior thigh Obturator n muscles of medial thigh Sacral L4 S4 0 Superior gluteal n gluteus median amp min mm o Inferior gluteal n gluteus maximus m o Posterior Femoral Cutaneous n OOOOO o Sciatic n largest in body muscles of posterior thigh leg foot Branches Common Fibular deep anterior leg amp superficial lateral leg dorsal foot fibular nn Tibial medial amp posterior leg plantar nn foot Sciatica shooting pain down leg foot sciatic n Pudendal n mm of pelvic amp UG diaphragm penisclitoris ADVANTAGE multiple segment innervations to area Dermatomes sections of skin innervated by particular spinal segment edges overlap 50 damage to nerve can disrupt cutaneous feedback EX shingles CHAPTER 14 Central Nervous System Brain highly vascularized blood flow 0 Cerebrum conscious thought processes intellectual fxns memory storage regulation of skeletal muscle contractions communicate remember amp understand Cerebral Hemispheres covers diencephalon amp brainstem similar to mushroom cap two hemis control opp sides of body contralateral hemis are specialized for diff cognitive fxns not fxnally symmetrical Central Sulcus splits frontal amp parietal lobe Lateral Sulcus splits parietal amp temporal lobe Longitudinal Fissure divides brain into L amp R hemis fissure deeper than sulcus Insula 5th lobe deep win lateral sulcus btwn parietal frontal amptemporal lobes Cortices Motor Cortex frontal lobe Sensory Cortex parietal lobe Visual Cortex occipital lobe AuditoryOlfactory Cortex temporal lobe Gustatory Cortex insula lobe Association Areas motor sensory speech amp auditory are found in all lobes Integrative Areas Wernicke area understanding language Broca area using language Prefrontal cortex planned movements abstract thought White Matter Association Fibers communication win hemisphere Commissural Fibers communication btwn hemis corpus callosum Projection Fibers comm btwn hemis amp rest of CNS Grey Matter Basal Ganglia collection of nuclei below lateral ventricles in each hemi deal w subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone amp learned moves help control ongoing movement consists of o Caudate Nucleus o Putamen o Globus Pallidus o Diencephalon Thalamus Relay ascending info to sensory cortex 2 collections of nuclei L amp R 9 one in each hemi Surrounds 3rd ventricle Coordinates basal ganglia amp cerebral cortex 0 Awareness of emotional states 0 Touch pressure pain Proprioception 0 Visual info Hypothalamus centers controlling emotion autonomic fxn amp hormone production Control feeding reflexes mamillary bodies Secretes ADH amp oxytocin Influences heart rate BP BT pituitary fxn Pineal Gland epithalamus secretes melatonin controlling circadian rhythm O O O O Mesencephalon Midbrain process visual amp auditory info generate reflexive somatic motor responses maintenance of consciousness Tectum Superior Colliculus visual relay Inferior Colliculus auditory relay Tegmentum Red Nucleus motor coordination gait Substantia Nigra Parkinson s disease inhibitory to basal ganglia Cerebral Peduncle Descending pathways from cerebrum 9 cerebellum via pons amp spinal cord Origin of Cranial Nerve CN 3 amp 4 Fans relays sensory info to cerebellum amp thalamus subconscious somaticvisceral centers Nuclei for CN 5 8 Respiratory Nuclei Cerebral Peduncles link cerebellum amp midbrain medulla cerebrum amp spinal cord Medulla Oblongata relays sensory info to thalamus brain stem autonomic center for regulation of visceral fxn cardiovascular respiratory digestion Most inferior portion of brainstem Continuous with spinal cord below Nuclei of CN IX X XI XII Autonomic reflex centers Respiratory timing input from nuclei in pons Cardiovascular eg HR contraction strength Relay centers for motor and sensory o Nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus somatic o Solitary nucleus visceral sensory information Decussation crossover of information takes place in medulla Cerebellum coordinates complex somatic motor patterns adjusts output of somatic motor centers in brain amp spinal cord helps maintain equilibrium homeostasis Location roof of 4th ventricle dorsal to pons amp medulla Components Gray Matter cerebellar cortex cell bodies of neurons amp nuclei involuntary coordination amp control of ongoing body movements White Matter tracts of axons links cortices amp hemis arbor vitae space inside cortex cerebellar peduncles inferior superior middle Hemispheres 2 left and rig ht each w anterior amp posterior lobes Afferents to Cerebellum Eguilibrium from vestibular complex amp brainstem vestibular nuclei posture o Inferior cerebellar peduncle Proprioceptive information on current movements from the spinal cord 0 Inferior cerebellar peduncle Information on planned movements from the premotor cortex 0 Middle cerebellar peduncle Function Information on planned motor activity from the cerebrum Compare plans with proprioceptive information on the current state Resolve differences and send information back to the motor cortex Pathology Anterior amp Posterior lobe damage slow jerky movements that overreach their targets Ataxia Floculonodular lobe damag disturbs equilibrium wide stance drunken gait Coverings of Brain Meninges continuous w meninges of spinal cord Dura Mater outer fibrous covering 0 Periosteal Layer outer layer near bone boneendosteal layer 0 Meningeal Layer inner layer near arachnoid form special dural fold Falx Cerebri fold that splits L amp R hemis Tentorium Cerebelli tent ike covering of cerebellum o Dural Venous Sinuses chambers btwn the 2 layers drainage of blood for skull SuperiorInferior Saggital Sinus Straight Sinus Transverse Sinus Confluens of Sinuses Arachnoid mater subarachnoid space w CSF continuous w ventricles Pia Mater adheres to surface of brain 0 Ventricles of Brain synthesize amp circulate CSF protection for floating brain waste removal inside ventricles is choroid plexus ependymal glial cells makes CSF Lateral Ventricles 2 in cerebrum Septum Pellucidum separates the 2 lateral ventricles Interventricular Foramen communication w 3rd ventricle Third Ventricle 1 around diencephalon thalamus median cleft btwn thalami Cerebral Aquaduct filled w CSF communication w 4th ventricle Fourth Ventricle 1 anterior to cerebellum posterior to pons Central Canal of spinal cord runs continuously below 4th Vent o Meningeal Space Epidural Space potential space btwn bone amp dura Subdural Space potential space btwn dura amp arachnoid Subarachnoid Space fluid filled space btwn arachnoid amp pia o Damage to Brain Hematomas caused by head trauma assoc w INC intercranial pressure ICP Epidural artery btwn bone ampdura damaged caused by direct impact high pressure rapid bleed lucid interval delay Subdural damage to vein btwn brain ampdura low pressure slow bleed caused by head shaking 0 Blood Supply to Brain Internal Carotid aa ampVertebral aa bring blood to brain sinuses drain blood BloodBrain Barrier forms separation of CNS from systemic circulation semi permeable endothelial cells of caps have tight jxn astrocytes glial have influence Blood CSF Barrier formed by ependymal glial cells of choroid plexus tight jxns Useful to know what amp will not diffuse into CSF amp Brain when treating cancer 0 Limbic System fxnal grouping not anatomical consist of nuclei amp tracts from all parts brain Functions Establish emotional states Link conscious intellectual fxns of cerebrum w unconscious fxn of brainstem Facilitate memory storage amp retrieval Amygdala heart rate emotions to memories Hippocampus long term memory Fornix connects hippocampus to hypothalamus Cranial Nerves 0 CN 1 Olfactory smell thru ethmoid CN 2 Optic vision thru orbit via optic canal CN 3 Oculomotor innervates 46 muscles controlling eyes enters orbit via sup orb fiss CN 4 Trochlear innervates superior oblique control eyes enters orbit via sup orb fiss N 5 Trigeminal largest CN face sensation exits via maxilla mandible N 6 Abducens innervates lateral rectus control eyes enters orbit via sup orb fissure N 7 Facial tongue taste facial expression exits internal auditory meatus N 8 Vestibulocochlear hearing balance exits internal auditory meatus N 9 Glossopharyngeal tongue taste pharynx sensation BP exit via jugular foramen CN 10 Vagus relays sensory info about organs exits jugular foramen CN 11 Spinal Accessory innervates neck mm enters foramen magnum 0 CN 12 Hypoglossus innervates tongue mm exits hypoglossal canal 00000 O O O O O O O O O O Innervation of Tongue done by 4 different nerves motor muscles of tongue sensory tast r O Hypoglossal n o Sensom ANATOMY STUDY GUIDE TEST 1 TOPICS TO KNOW Intro Histo Bone Tissue Skeleton Joints Muscles INTRODUCTION Anatomy the study of form 0 Gross Anatomy what is visible with the naked eye observation of surface structure cadaver dissection physical examination palpation feeling for size of object auscultation listening to internal sounds percussion listen to echo 0 Microscopic Anatomy cytology cellular structure histology examination of tissues Physiology the study of function 0 Study of bodily functions by use of methods of experimental science 0 Comparative physiology involves the study of different species 0 Basis for the development of new drugs and medical procedures Human Structure hierarchy of complexity o organism is composed of organ systems organ systems composed of organs organs composed of tissues tissues composed of cells cells composed of organelles organelles composed of molecules 0 molecules composed of atoms Skeletal System 0 Major Organ bones cartilages associated ligaments bone marrow 0 Functions provides support and protection for other tissues stores calcium and other minerals forms blood cells Muscular System 0 Major Organs skeletal muscles and associated tendons 0 Functions provides movement provides support and protection for other tissues generates heat that maintains body temperature Anatomical Variation no 2 humans are alike variation in organ locations structure Physiological Variatio differs with age sex diet weight physical activity 0 Reference Man typical human values 22 years old 154 lbs light physical activity 2800 kcalday 0 Reference Woman 22 years old 128 lbs light physical activity 2000 kcalday Anatomical Terminology o Renaissance major anatomical discoveries in latin rushedconfusion 1998 Terminolgia Anatomica TA becomes standard for anatomy terms Anatomical Position 0 Body erect head and eyes face forward 0 Arms at side palms forward supinated thumbs to outside lateral 0 Feet flat on floor toes face forward OOOOO Analyzing Medical Terms 0 Scientific terms at least one root stem that bears the core meaning combining vowels that join roots together prefix that modifies the core meaning of the word suffix that modifies the core meaning of the word Forearm Positions 0 O Directional Terms 0 000000 0 Regional Terms 0 000000000 O 0000 Supinated palms face forwards or upwards radius and ulna are parallel Pronated palms face rearward or downward radius and ulna are crossed l SUPERIOR Righ Left Proximal Superior cranial toward the head Inferior caudal toward the tail Anterior ventral front Posterior dorsal back Medial toward the midline Lateral away from the midline Proximal closer to axial skeleton Distal farther from the axial skeleton Lamaquot Antecubital Axillary Brachial Cervical Umbilicus Femoral Inguinal Iliac Patellar Popliteal Distal Aquot INFERIOR l Thoracic b Body Pla nes Sagittal Anteroposterior divides body into right and left portions Midsagittal equal halves Parasagittal unequal portions Frontal Coronal divides body into front and back portions Transverse Horizontal divides body into top and bottom portions CrossSection across the long axis Longitudinal Section parallel to long axis Body Cavities O Dorsal Cranial Cavity brain Vertebral Cavity spinal cord Meninges membrane layers that line dorsal cavity 0 Ventral Thoracic Cavity pleural lungs amp pericardial heart Abdominopelvic Cavity o Abdominal digestive organs kidneys spleen P lvic reproductive organs rectum bladder Ventral cavity contains 0 s membrane 2 layers that lines cavites and covers organs 0 Parietal outer wallquot clings to wall Visceral inner wall clings to organ 0 Serous Fluid between the 2 layers lubricates membranes amp allows viscera to move over each other with very little friction Pleura C 39ty Valium Abdominal mm H l hallway 4 Ammlmpawl ml 00 av Perica rdial Cavity rito neum o HOMEOSTASIS WATER PH AND MEMBRANE TRANSPORT o Homeostasis all body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment systems respond to external and internal changes to fxn win normal range ex Body temp fluid balance 02 pH body is everchanging and complexes work to keep the body around the average normal range Feedback Loop structure responsible for maintaining homeostasis Receptor senses chan e o Integrator control center that processes signal and sends out instructions 0 ector structures that carry out instructions to restore homeostasis Negative Feedback EX room temperature Mechanism to keep a variable close to its set point average 0 When body senses a change it activates mechanisms to reverse it 0 Most body systems use Negative Feedback 0 uman Thermor l 39 e e rs in skin and hypothalamus Integrator Brain senses chan e in blood temp sends instructions 0 If overheating vessels dilate in the skin sweat39 g begins 0 If too cold vasoconstriction in the skin shivering begins Positive Feed back Physiological change that leads to an even greater change in the same direction selfamplifying 0 Body is moved away from homeostasis normal range is lost 0 Normal way of speeding up processes EX birth blood clotting protein digestion generation of nerve signals 0 Can produce lifethreatening situation Fever when temp gets to 108 metabolic rate INC causing body to produce heat faster cycle repeats as temp INC fatal at 113 degrees Mechanisms of Regulation 0 A oregulation Instrinsic automatic response in a cell tissue or organ X ecrease in tissue 02 lea s to dilation ofm ve Extrinsic Regulation responses controlled by nervous and endocrine s stems EX controlling blood pressure Systems Integration tems work together to maintain homeostasis o Homeostasis is a state of equilibrium opposing forces are balanced 0 Physiological systems work to restore balance failure results in diseasedeath I N n E m x m E o x o rn pH O O 0 Acid proton donator releases H ions Strong Acids completely dissociate EX HCl Base proton acceptor releases OH Ions Stong Bases completely dissociate EX NaOH pH of Human Blood 735 745 Slight disturbances in pH can Disrupt physiological fxns tremors fainting paralysis Alter drug actions effect ability to pass thru cell membranes Plasma Membrane Pair of dark parallel lines around cell under electron microscope Lipid bilayer amp protein selectively permeable Functions 0 O O o Transp Physical Isolation defines cell boundaries separate cytosol Regulates exchange with environment Ions and nutrients enter Wastes eliminated and cellular products released Monitors the environment Extracellular fluid composition Chemical signals Structural support Anchors cells and tissues ort Since the plasma membrane is a barrier 1 nutrients must get in 2 products and wastes must get out Permeability determines what moves in and out Impermeable nothing gets in or out Freely Permeable lets anything pass through Selectively Permeable restricts movement based on size electrical charge molecular shape and lipid solubility Transport can be Active requiring energy and ATP EX vesicular transport Passive no nrg required EX diffusion carrier mediated Diffusion fxn of the concentration gradient CG molecules mix randomly solute spreads through solvent solutes move down CG eliminates CG Factors affecting Diffusion distance molecule size temperature steepness of gradient electrical forces Diffusion Across Membranes 0 Simple Diffusion materials include lipid soluble compounds alcoholsfatty acids amp dissolved gases 02 o ChannelMediated materials include water soluble compounds amp ions passage depends on size charge amp interaction with channel Osmosis special case of diffusion diffusion of water across cell membrane through aquaporins Membrane freely permeable to water selectively permeable to solutes Water molecules diffuse across membrane toward solution with more solutesless water Volume increases on the side with more solutes Osmotic Pressure force of CG of water equals the force hydrostatic pressure needed to block osmosis The Osmotic Effect of a solute on a cell Osmolarity solute concentration in aq soution Tonicity ability of soln to affect volume of cell 0 O OO O Carrie I HISTOLOGY STUDY 0 Based I o Origins Isotonic iso same tonos tension solution that does not cause osmotic flow of water in or out of a cell Hypotonic hypo below Has less solutes amp more water a more dilute solution cell gains water swells and may burst EX hemolysis of red blood cells Hypertonic hyper above Has more solutes amp less water more concentrated solution cell loses water shrivels EX crenation of red blood cells rMediated Transport 2 substrates Facilitated diffusion amp active transport Specificity one transport protein has one set of substrates Saturation Limits rate depends on transport proteins not substrate Regulatio done by cofactors EX hormones Cotransport 2 subs move in same direction at same time Countertransport 1 sub moves in while 1 moves out Passive Form Facilitated Diffusion carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins EX glucose amino acids Active Form Exchange Pump move subs against CG requires nrg ATP ion pumps move ions EX Na K Ca Mg exchange pump countertransports 2 ions at same time EX SodiumPotassium Exchange Pump Functions of Na K Pump Regulation of cell volume heat production maintenance of a membrane potential in all cells daily calories 0 Vesicular Transport bulk transport Materials move in and out of cell in vesicles Endocytosis bringing matter into cell active transport ATP 0 Receptormediated glycoproteins bind ligands Pinocytosis cell d rinking o Phagocytosis engulfingdigesting bacteria amp viruses Exocytosis granules released from the cell 0 OF TISSUES Tissues collections of cells and cell products that perform specific limited fxns Classifications Epithelial protection secretion absorption Connective support bindings nrg storage protection transport Nervous control carry electrical signals communication Muscular movement contracts EX skeletal cardiac smooth On Types amp fxns of cells Characteristic of matrix extracellular material such as fibrous proteins gels cartilage Space occupied by cells vs that of the matrix connective tissue cells are widely separated epithelial amp muscle cells contain little matrix between Arose from same region of embryo Embryo begins as single cell which divides into many cells amp layers strata 3 Primary Germ Layers Epithelia Ectoderm outer forms epidermis amp nervous system Endoderm inner forms mucous membrane lining GI tract respiratory system and digestive glands Mesoderm middle becomes mesenchyme gives rise to bone muscle and blood 0 Characteristics Highly Cellular closely adhering cells Exposed Free Surface external or internal cavity Skin linings organs amp glands Protects absorbs secretes Basement Membrane Thin layer of collagen and adhesive proteins Deep anchors to connective tissue Avascular underlying connective tissue supplies oxygen Regenerates via Mitosis o Basal Lamina bottom layer of tissue consists of 2 layers Lamina Lucida clear layer thin layer secreted by epithelia barrier to proteins Lamina Densa dense layer thick fibers produced by connective tissue strength ampfiltration o Classifications Based on shape Squamous thin and flat scale like 0 Simple Squamous absorption amp diffusion controls vessel permeability secretes serous fluid lines body cavities heart blood vessels ampalveoli o Stratified Squamous MOST COMMON found in areas of wear and tear 2 types keratin protein that adds strength and water resistance Keratinized skin Nonkeratinized vagina esophagus mouth Cuboidal square shaped 0 Simple Cuboidal found in glands ducts thyroid functions as limited protection secretion ampabsorption 0 Stratified Cuboidal found in lining of some ducts rare functions as P S ampA Columnar tall rectangular 0 Simple Columnar found in GI tract lining uterus kidneys functions as P S A o Stratified Columnar found in male urethra larynx amp anal canal rare functions as P amp S cilia movement 0 Pseudostratified Columnar found in much of respiratory tract parts of male reproductive tract functions as P amp S of mucous Transitional cycles of stretching and recoiling able to return to previous shape wo damage change from cuboidal to flat found in urinary bladder bladder fills and empties dynamic Glandular o Endocrine Glands release hormones into blood EX thyroid pituitary testes o Exocrine Glands produce secretions onto epithelial surfaces amp through ducts EX sweat salivary Based on Layers I Simple single layer of cells Stratified several layers stacked Pseudostratified appear layered cells reach basement membrane but not free surface Connective Tissue Characteristics 0 O O 0 Most abundant and variable tissue type EX Fibrous tissue fat cartilage bone blood Composed of specialized ces widely scattered in nonliving ground substance amp Fibers Varied degree of vascularity None cartilage 9 rich blood supply bone adipose Common embryonic origin mesenchyme Functions connects structu resorgans gives supportstructure and protection physical and immune stores energy heat production in infants ampchidren insulates movement and transport of materials Examples Fibrocytes Macrophages Adipocytes Mesenchymal ces Melanocytes Mast ces Lymphocytes microphages Fibrous Connective Tissue Collagen Most abundant protein Tough white resist stress long straight unbranched Found in all connective tissue most abundant deep layers skin tendons ligaments Elastin Stretch and recoil Yellow color branched and wavy Skin lungs arteries ligaments have more than tendons Reticular Fiber Short thin inelastic interwoven fibers strong In and around organs Loose Connective Tissue gel like substance btwn ces packing material Areolar open space least specialized holds tissue fluid interstitial cushions organs underlies a epithelia btwn muscles passageways for nerves amp blood vessels Adipose Fat very ceuar vasuarized found deep to the skin near sides butt amp breasts padding around eyes 0 White Fat MOST COMMON stores fat nrg reserve insulation padding for organs absorbs shock 0 Brown Fat infants amp children fat breaks down as heat release energy 0 Adipose Cells Adipocytes don t divide expandshrink Mesenchymal divide to produce more fat cells or when more storage is needed Reticular mesh like of fibers forms framework stroma or spleen lymph nodes liver Dense Connective Tissue fibers fi spaces btwn ces EX dense regular CT dense irregular CT amp elastic tissue Dense Regular CT densely packed parae collagen fibers some elastic found in ligaments btwn bones and tendons amp aponeuroses btwn skeletal muscles amp skeleton function as firm attachment of muscles amp bones reduction of friction Dense Irregular CT interwoven networks of collagen fibers in diff directions withstands stresses from diff directions found in dermis capsules around organs periosteum Cartilage composed of collagen amp chondroitin sulfate flexible rubbery matrix it is avascular rely on joint movement for 02 delivery has no nerves offers protection amp shock absorption Hyaline gristle MOST COMMON predecessor to bone perichondrium surrounds EX nose trachea ends of bones Fibrocartilage interwoven collagen fibers no perichondium poor healing EX knee meniscus intervertebral discs Elastic elastic fibers perichrondrium supportive yet flexible returns to shape EX ear epiglottis Bone Osseous functions to support protect store fat amp synthesize blood cells has a harder matrix more collagen amp inorganic Ca P than cartilage well vascularized Blood Hemopoetic fluid ground substance plasma found in cells like erythrocytes leukocytes amp thrombocytes function to transport amp protect immunity Muscle Tissue o Contractile 0 11m Skeletal striated long thin voluntary responsible for movement Smooth small tapered involuntary propels content thru organs Cardiac found only in heart striated branching cells expels blood Nervous Tissue 0 Communication Rapidly senses internal or external environment Processes information and controls responses 0 Cell Types Neurons generate impulses regeneration is limited Glial non conducting work to protect support amp insulate Tissue Growth 0 Hyperplasia tissue growth through cell multiplication o Hypertrophy enlargement of preexisting cells muscle growth with exercise 0 Neoplasia growth of tumor benig nmalignant thru growth of abnormal tissue 0 Metaplasia changing from 1 type of mature tissue to another EX simple cuboidal tissue before puberty changes to stratified squamous after puberty Tissue Shrinkage and Death 0 Atrophy loss of cell size or number from disuse EX leg in cast 0 Necrosis pathological death of tissue EX gangrene infarction ulcer o Apoptosis programmed cell death via shrinking amp phagocytosis Tissue Repair 0 Inflammatory Response tissue s first response to injury sig nsheat swelling pain amp redness 0 Tissue wz Good Regeneration epithelial bone amp blood 0 Tissue wz Poor Regeneration skeletal muscle cardiac muscle neurons cartilage dense regular CT 0 Mechanisms Regeneration same cells replace damaged fxn restored Fibrosis normal tissue replaced with scar tissue fxn not restored Aging maintenance amp repair slow atrophy from reduced use Nutritional Effects Vitamin A epithelial regeneration Vitamin C collagen regen and protein BONE TISSUE Bone Tissue dynamic CT that continually remodels influenced by loading amp physiological state relatively rigid but will display some compliance amp elasticity O O O O O O O 0 Made of connective tissue with a matrix hardened by minerals Ca Ph Make up skeletal system Individual bones are made of bone tissue marrow cartilage amp periosteum Bone is highly vascular has an extensive supply of blood Functions of Skeletal System Support protect movementleverage blood formation mineral amp lipid storage amp pH balance Matrix of Osseous Tissue 13 organic amp 23 inorganic matter Organic collagen amp protein carb complexes Inorganic 85 hydroxyapatite Ca Ph salt 10 calcium carbonate 5 other minerals F Sulfate K Mg Combination of matters provides for strength amp resilience like fiberglass fibers embedded in a polymer bones adapt to tension amp compression by varying proportions of minerals and collagen fibers Bone Marrow soft tissue occupies meduary cavity of long bone or spaces of spongy bone Red Marrow looks like thick blood mesh of reticular fibers amp immature ces hemopoetic produces blood cells found in vertebrae ribs sternum pelvis amp heads of femurhumerus Yellow Marrow fatty marrow of long bones in adults Gelatinous Marrow appears in old age yeow marrow replaced w reddish jelly Bone Composition Osteogenic Cells progenitor differentiated cells in endosteum 9 osteoblasts Osteoblasts bone builders synthesize organic matrix and mineralize bone non mitotic become osteocytes Osteocytes mature bone cells trapped in lacunae in matrix formed by osteoblasts maintain bony matrix do not divide Osteoclasts bone cleavers develop in bone marrow very large derived from stem cells secrete acids to dissolve bone matrix Homeostasis Bone building by osteoblasts must balance bone recycling by osteoclasts if not bones can become weak exercise builds bone Wolf s Law bone will adapt to loads placed upon it Types of Bone Tissue Spongy Trabecular ooks spongy in appearance delicate bone fis heads of long bones epiphyses amp interior of flat bones diploe always covered by compact bone Doesn t have osteons matrix forms an open networks of trabeculae sma beams which have no blood vessels space btwn trabeculae is filled with red bone marrow forms blood Provides strength w little weight trabeculae develop along bone s line of stress amp can realign as direction of stress changes Compact Lamellar ooks solid most dense external ayer O I I I Load d Bone Shapes O Osteon haversion system basic structural unit made of cylinders of tissue form around central haversion canal holding blood vessels and nerves Outer Lamellae wrap around long bone and bind osteons Perforating Volkmann Canals vascular canals perpendicularly joining central canals Bone Performance In bending long bone will be placed under compression amptension Will deform slightly ramatically increases with movement Long Bones long ampthin found in arms legs hands feet etc Flat Bones thin w parallel surfaces external amp internal surfaces are compact while middle layer is spongy found in skull sternum ribs Sutural Bones small irregular bones found btwn flat bones of skull highly variable and not always present Short Irregular Bones have complex shapes found in vertebrae pelvis Bones small amp thick found in ankle wrist bones Sesamoid Bones small amp flat develop inside tendons near joints 0 Ossification Endoc I O hondral Ossification long short amp irregular Hyaline Cartilage makes model of bone first then ossification Primary ossification center in middle of model Secondary ossification center on ends of model STEPS Chond rocytes in center enlarge decreasing matrix calcification Cuts off diffusion of nutrients cells die amp marrow space forms Peripheral blood vessels develop Cells in perichond rium differentiate into osteoblasts forming a collar around the shaft Blood vessels penetrate bringing osteoblasts Osteoid tissue deposited and calcified into trabeculae Osteoclasts work to enlarge primary medullary cavity Process repeats for secondary ossification centers Begins at or near time of birth Hyaline cartilage remains on joint surface as articular cartilage and at jxn of diaphysis amp epiphysis Metaphysis region of transition from diaphysis to epiphysis contains cartilage that remains as growth plate btwn medullary cavity amp 2quotd ossification centers 0 Intramembranous Ossification flat bones mandible clavicle Mesenchyme condenses into sheet of soft tissue form soft trabeculae spicules Osteoblasts develop on trabeculae amp form osteoid tissue uncalcified bone O blasts deposit matrix calcium phosphate trapping osteoblasts gt osteocytes Blood vessels trapped within bone Osteoclasts and osteoblasts remodel center to form spongy bone amp surface to form compact bone Mesenchyme at surface gives rise to periosteum I Bone Growth amp Remodeling Bones increase in length by interstitial growth of epiphyseal plate Bones increase in width by appositional growth Factors Affecting Bone Growth Hormones control bones in youth growth hormones thyroid hormones sex hormones bones grow especially rapid at puberty bc of increase in hormones girls grow faster Nutritional 0 Vitamin C collagen synthesis stimulate o blast diff 0 Vitamin A stimulates osteoblast activity 0 Vitamins K B12 synthesize bone proteins 0 Calcium amp Phosphorous 0 Vitamin D calcium absorption 0 Osteoporosis degeneration of bone matrix 0 Calcium Phosphate Homeostasis Changes in calcium can be serious Hypocalcemia deficiency of blood calcium causes excitability of nervous system Na channels open easily Hypercalcemia excess of blood calcium depresses nervous system muscle weakness amp sluggish reflexes Ca Ph Homeostasis controlled by the hormones calcitriol calcitonin and Parathyroid hormone PTH SKELETAL SYSTEM Human Skeleton functions are support protection and mobility 206 bones in typical adult skeleton start at 270 at birth and DEC as bones fuse 0 Axial Skeleton 80 Bones Includes Skull Vertebrae Ribs Sacrum amp Hyoid Function support amp protect o Appendicular Skeleton Bones Includes pectoral girdle amp upper limb pelvic girdle amp lower limb Articulate with axial skeleton at sacrum amp sternum Function support amp mobility locomotion throwing grasping Bone Markings o Elevations amp Projections Process any projection or bump Ramus extension of bone making angle w rest of structure 0 Processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach Trochanter large rough projection Tuberosity small rough projection Tubercle small rounded projection Crest prominent ridge Line low ridge Spine pointed or narrow process 0 Processes formed for articulation with adjacent bones Head expanded articular end of epiphysis split from shaft by neck Neck narrow connection btwn epiphysis amp diaphysis Condyle smooth rounded articular process Trochlea smooth grooved articular process shaped like pulley Facet small flat articular surface 0 Depressions Fossa shallow depression Sulcus narrow groove o Openings Foramen rounded passageway for blood vessels or nerves Canal or Meatus passageway through substance of a bone Fissure elongated cleft Sinus or Antrum chamber win a bone normally filled w air Axial Skeleton 0 Skull 22 bones 8 pairs most joined together by sutures immovable joints Cranial Bones surround cranial cavity 8 bones in contact w meninges membranes enveloping CNS calvaria skullcap forms roof and walls base composed of 3 fossa each holds lobe of brain Facial Bones support teeth ampform face parts of nasal cavity and orbit 14 bones with no direct contact w meninges attachment of facial muscles amp muscles of mastication At birth skull bones made of fibrous CT called fontanels soft spots Major Sutures Coronal Sagittal Lambdoid Squamous Frontal Bone forms forehead amp part of roof of cranium forms roof of the orbit eye cavity contains frontal sinus SEE SLIDES FOR BONES amp LOCATIONS JOINTS Joints articular system function to create moving connections between bones o Trade off exists between mobility and stability forjoints more mobile joints shoulder elbow more stable joints hip cranial sutures 0 Classification Functional vs Structural Functional based upon amount of movement allowed Synarthrosis immovable common in axial skeleton Amphiarthrosis slight moveable common in axial Diarthrosis freely moveable common in appendicular Structural based upon material CT that binds bones together Fibrous no joint cavity EX sutures syndesmosis Cartilaginous no joint cavity EX synchondrosis symphysis Synovial joint cavity joint capsule synovial membrane 0 Classified by articular surface shape PlaneGliding 2 opposed flat surfaces of bone glide across another EX intercarpal joint Hinge C shape end of one bone swings about rounded end ofanother flexionextension EX elbow ankle fingerjoints Pivot ring of bones rotates about a process of bone rotation only EX skull on spine Condyloid reduced ball and socket model where no rotation occurs EX wrist joint Saddle concave surface of 2 bones articulate w each other all movement possible but rotation limited EX thumb Ball and Socket ball like head of one bone fits into socket like head of another permits all movements EX shoulder amp hip joints 0 All share these characteristics Articular cartilage hyaline Joint Cavity separates the two bones MUSCLE TISSUE Muscle O O OO Articular capsule fibrous amp synovial layers forms sac that fluid resides in Synovial fluid between synovial cavity reduces friction nutrientwaste Bursae forms bag filled with lube reduces friction in vulnerable areas vary in their presence around joints when inflamed bursitis or tendonitis occurs Factors Influencing Synovial Joint Stabilitngobility Articular surface shape size congruence Ligaments ampjoint capsule size location Muscle Shoulder Joint complex ofjoints Sternoclavicular Joint claviclesternum classified as saddle joint articular disc present Acromioclavicular Joint claviclescapula classified as plane joint Glenohumeral Joint humerusscapula classified as ball and socket joint flexion extension abduction adduction medlat rotation Scapulohumeral Rhythm integrated motion of scapula clavicle amp humerus to achieve normal full shoulder ROM Elbow Joint synovial hinge joint flexionextension Radioulnar Joint synovial pivot joint anular ligament pronationsupination Wrist Joint radiocarpalmidcarpal synovial condyloid joint flexionextension abductadduction 1st Metacarpal Joint thumb synovial saddle flexext abductadduct Hip Joint synovial ball and socket flexext medlat rotation abductadduct supportive ligaments iliofemoral ischiofemoral limit extension of hip Knee Joint synovial hinge modified flexext medlat rotation when flexed cruciate ligaments prevent tibiofemoral slip menisci absorbs shock Ankle Joint talocrural synovial hinge plantarflexiondorsiflexion Deltoid Ligament limits eversion of ankle strengthens medial aspect of ankle joint capsule made of 4 ligaments tibionavicular anterposterior tibiotalar amp tibiocalcaneal Lateral Ligament limits inversion of ankle made of 3 ligs anterposterior talofibular amp calcaneofibular most frequently sprained Subtalar Joint complex of intertarsal joints inversioneversion movements Tempormandibular Joint synovial plane amp hinge has articular disc elevationdepression protractionretraction lateral excursiondeviation 0 Characteristics Excitable generate resting and action potentials Contractile can shorten ampdevelop force measured mechanically via whole muscles biceps cellular fibers or molecular actinmyosin Elastic able to elongate amp return to original length Adaptable can change characteristics following exposure to stimuli 0 Characteristics mechanical chemical morphological o Stimulus training detraining immobilization 0 Types Smooth Muscl o Spindleshaped cells Elongated nuclei Lack of visible cross striations Myofilaments arranged randomly maller dIameter 210 um than skeletal muscle 10100 um Slower contracting EC coupling different Surrounds hollow organs blood vessels GI tract bladder uterus diac Muscle striated branching myocytes Small 25 um diameter 100 um long Central nuclei Abundant capillaries Myocytes are functionally coupled via intercallated disks Continuous network of branching and anastomosing cells Functional syncytium Y O n No tetan39c contractions Skeletal Muscle striated cells are long and cylindrical 0 Functions m maintaining posture 0 Support amp Protection visceral organs body entrances 0 Heat Generation via muscle contraction 0 Energy Stores contain protein AA which can be oken down to glucose by liver or for energy Connective Tissue 39mysium surrounds muscle bundles fascicles into a muscle connected to fascia o Perimysium surrounds fascicles bundles fibers into fascicles contains nerves amp blood vesse s o Endomysium covers individual muscle fibers contains nerves capillaries amp myosatellite cells Sacromere basic contractile unit of striated muscle composed of interchanging thin actin and thick myosin filaments thin filaments attached to ZLine each sacromere runs from Zline to ine Sliding Filament Theory filaments chemically interact amp slide past each other generating tension amp changin length 0 ortening sacromeres results in shortening ofwhole muscle creating tension that moves bone 0 Muscles always will pull or tend to pull cannot push 0 Can lengthen while producing tension NOT PUSHING 0 Steps in Muscle Contraction Ach acetylcholine released binding to receptors Action potential reaches T tubule Sarcoplasmic Reticulum releases Calcium ions Active site exposure cross bridge formation pivoting of myosin head Contraction begins 0 Steps in Muscle Relaxation Ach broken down by AChE acetylcholine esterase Sarcoplasmic reticulum recaptures Calcium ions Active sites covered no cross bridge interaction Contraction ends Relaxation occurs passive return to resting length 0 Properties of Active Muscle LengthTension maximum tension is related to an optimum length ForceVelocity tension produced is inversely prop to speed of length change Concentric Muscle Activation shortening while producing force isotonic POS mechanical work Muscle Moment gt External Moment Eccentric MA lengthening while actively producing force isotonic NEG mechanical work Muscle Moment lt External Moment Isometric MA produces force w no length change NO mechanical work Muscle Moment External Moment Prime Mover muscle w primary force producing capability for given moment amp position Agonist muscle w same fxn as another muscle Antagonist muscle w opposing fxn to another muscle Synergist muscle that assists in creating movement Stabilization muscle is active to hold a bone in place while another muscle creates movement Neutralization muscle is active to counterbalance unwanted movement so that pure movement can occur 0 Parts of a Skeletal Muscle muscle tendon unit Origin attachment to stationary end of muscle proximal to insertion Belly muscle tissue contractile component Insertion attachment to mobile end of muscle distal to origin 0 Muscle Attachment Most muscles attach to bone either direct or indirect Direct fleshy attachment epimysium continuous w perio Indirect attachment epi continues as tendon or aponeurosis that merges into perio as perforating fibers 0 Strong attachment tendon will tear before pulling loose from muscle or bone Dermis attachment muscles of facial expression 0 Muscle Architecture Fascicles can be arranged either LongitudinalParallel fascicles in line with muscle shortening convergence also called fusiform Pennate fascicles oblique to line of muscle shortening pinnate refers to feather which describes angle of pennation more force bc more fascicles but less ROM Musculoskeletal System simple machine of levers Moment of Force quot 9where Mmoment rmoment lever arm Fforce o Naming Muscles Correct names include the term muscle at end


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