World History 104 Final Study Materials
World History 104 Final Study Materials 104
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Morrelli on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 104 at University of Oregon taught by Furtado M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see world history in History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
lden ca ons Mit a o In the Inca Empire 0 14381533 0 Obligation to provide labor for public projects Road building Public service compulsory for males 300 days a year All citizens who could perform labor were required to do so for a set number of days out of a year the basic meaning of the word mit39a is a regular turn or a season Due to the Inca Empire39s wealth a family would often only require sixtyfive days to farm the rest of the year was devoted entirely to the mit39a Important because it allowed the empire to expand immensely and control the large area 0 Needed surplus food in order for this to happen 0 Similar to Egypt with the building of the pyramids Gothic Architecture 0 Originated in 1100 s in France and was used until the 1500 s 0 Characteristics Verticality Stained glass Large size Opulence Pointed arches Ribbed vaults Flying buttress Allowed for the ability of very tall stone walls with large stained glass windows Shifted the weight to the outside pillars 0 most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals abbeys and churches of Europe It is also the architecture of many castles palaces town halls guild halls universities and to a less prominent extent private dwellings 0 its characteristics lending themselves to appeals to the emotions whether springing from faith or from civic pride o It allowed architects to create buildings that were larger and with thinner walls and that also has beautiful designs The Examination System 0 Used in Imperial China primarily during the Tang dynasty starting in the 7th century 0 Designed to select the best potential candidates to serve as administrative officials for the purpose of recruiting them for the state39s bureaucracy OO O O Produced the imperial officials with two objectives in mind to encode in it an ethic of service to society and to recruit the state s servants from as wide a range of social backgrounds as possible Important because it allowed for the best possible people for the job to acquire said job through the process of testing and eliminating the weaker candidates This also allowed for the possibility of people from the lower social classes to acquire jobs in the government Scriptorium O 0 13th century in Europe Literally quota place for writingquot is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the copying of manuscripts by monastic scribes A scriptorium was a necessary adjunct to a library wherever there was a library it can ordinarily be assumed that there was a scriptorium Important because it allowed for mass copying of important documents and manuscripts which helped preserve them for future generations and readers The Crusades Late 11th early 13th centuries religious conflicts during the High Middle Ages through the end of the Late Middle Ages conducted under the sanction of the Latin Catholic Church Pope Urban II proclaimed the first crusade in 1095 with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem While some historians see the Crusades as part of a purely defensive war against the expansion of Islam in the near east many see them as part of long running conflicts at the frontiers of Europe The Crusades helped to reIink Western Europe to the Silk and Spice roads After the fall of the Western Roman Empire that part of the world remained largely isolated and outside of various trade routes too unstable Crusaders returning home often brought with them quotexoticquot eastern goods and Western Europeans were willing to trade for them The desire for silks and spices encouraged the Western Europeans to try and find ways to cut out the middlemen and trade directly with China and India basically encouraging Western European countries to begin exploring the world Along with the flow of goods came a flow of ideas Sapalnca O O 0 Means child of the sun Used in the Inca Empire 14381533 The origins of the position are mythical and tied to the legendary foundation of the city of Cusco but historically it seems to have come into being around 1100 The position was hereditary with son succeeding father Important because the Sapa Inca was the ruler of the entire empire and was believed to be a God on earth who had unlimited power Top of the social classes 0 Similar to the Pharaohs of Egypt with the fact that they were both living gods and they had almost unlimited power Bantu Expansions O a millenniaIong series of migrations of speakers of the original proto Bantu language group he primary evidence for this great expansion one of the largest in human history has been linguistic namely that the languages spoken in subEquatorial Africa are remarkably similar to each other to the degree that it is unlikely that they began diverging from each other more than three thousand years ago Attempts to trace the exact route of the expansion to correlate it with archaeological evidence and genetic evidence have not been conclusive thus many aspects of the expansion remain in doubt or are highly contested Started roughly in 1000 BC and continued through roughly 17th century AD believed that the expansion was caused by the development of agriculture the making of ceramics and the use of iron which permitted new ecological zones to be exploited Important because it affected a very large portion of Africa by mixing cultures languagesandideas 0 Community of Believers O O O O O 0 Not yet Muslims called themselves the believers Saw itself as a community existing to promote these values Believed in the cause amp the basic values not just the idea of Islam Included many different kinds of people Christians and Jews Wasn tjust us vs them muslims vs others not so confrontational All monotheist can become a believer amp keep your faith Broader definition not just Islam traditions Lots of Christians involved Not so clearly defined as a specific religion more of a monotheistic revival Based on similarities monotheistic holy texts words of God Iastjudgment prayer The Hundred Years War 0 0 13371453 The problem with feudalism Edward Ill king of England duke of Normandy and Philip VI king of France Taxation and the growth of states English parliament Lords and commons French estates general Clergy nobility commoners War over the control of the French throne Edward III claimed that he should be the rightful king of France not Phillip VI Significance O Although primarily a dynastic conflict the war gave impetus to ideas of French and English nationalism Militarily it saw the introduction of weapons and tactics that supplanted the feudal armies dominated by heavy cavalry The first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire were introduced for the war thus changing the role of the peasantry For all this as well as for its duration it is often viewed as one of the most significant conflicts inmedieval warfare England lost all its possessions in France except for Calais this effectively removed England as an important player in continental European affairs for over a century The Flower Wars 0 O O 0 Mid 15th century the battles fought between the Aztec Triple Alliance and some of their enemies thought to be one of three things religious ritual Training ground Terror weapon One popular idea of the Flower Wars is that it was a special institutionalized kind of warfare where two enemy states would plan battles through mutual arrangement in order to satisfy the religious needs of both combatants for war captives to use insacrificial rituals but also possibly to train young warriors and enable social mobility which for the lower classes was primarily possible through military service Many different ideas surrounding the flower wars and no one is too sure of what their purpose was for sure The Jacquerie OOOOO Took place in France in 1358 a popular revolt in late medieval Europe by peasants Loss of confidence in nobility No king no leadership Basically the French nobility had sunk to a new low To secure their rights the French privileged classes the nobility the merchant elite and the clergy forced the peasantry to pay everincreasing taxes for example the taille and to repair their wardamaged properties under corve39e without compensation The passage of a law that required the peasants to defend the Chateaux that were emblems of their oppression was the immediate cause of the spontaneous uprising Many peasants questioned why they should work for a feudal upper class that could not meet its implied obligation to provide protection for them Frustrated by plague famine and mercenaries the peasants of northern France rebelled in 1358 As violent as the Jacquerie was reported to be the revolt was quashed by the aristocracy with greater savagery One repercussion of the Jacquerie was the return of royalist ideals that were being threatened by constitutional movements in the Estates General Yuan Dynasty 0 O O O 1271 1368 Also known as the Mongol Dynasty the empire established by Kublai Khan leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan after he conquered Southern Song dynasties in China Although the Mongols had ruled territories which included today39s northern China for decades it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style The Mongols do not Sinicizemake of become Chinese No inter marriage between Mongols and Chinese Maintain dress Do not learn Chinese Eliminate exam system Trade flourishing A rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan Dynasty The major cultural achievements were the development of drama and the novel and the increased use of the written vernacular The Mongols39 extensive West Asian and European contacts produced a fair amount of cultural exchange During the time period of Marco Polo Feudalism O O O O a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries political fragmentation diffusion of power a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility revolving around the three key concepts of lords vassals and fiefs A lord was in broad terms a noble who held land a vassal was a person who was granted possession of the land by the lord and the land was known as a fief In exchange for the use of the fief and the protection of the lord the vassal would provide some sort of service to the lord There were many varieties of feudal land tenure consisting of military and nonmilitary service The obligations and corresponding rights between lord and vassal concerning the fief form the basis of the feudal relationship 0 The University 1200 universitas magistrorum et scholarium civil problems canon laws Theology paris where teachers were paid by the church Law bologna where students hired and paid for the teachers Medicine salerno A medieval university is a corporation organized during the High Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning the term began to be used by itself with the exclusive meaning of a self regulating community of teachers and scholars whose corporate existence had been recognized and sanctioned by civil or ecclesiastical authority From the early modern period onwards this Westernstyle organizational form gradually spread from the medieval Latin west across the globe eventually replacing all other higherlearning institutions and becoming the preeminent model for higher education everywhere A university was not a physical space but a collection of individuals banded together as a universitas Soon however universities began to rent buy or construct buildings specifically for the purposes of teaching Increased the general intelligence of the population of Europe by teaching things such as arts law medicine and theology Huitzilopochtli 0 00000 Swahili O O Hummingbird of the south God of the Sun War and Human Sacrifice God in the Aztec religion Aztec Empire 1428 1521 Patron God of the city of Tenochtitlan Since he was the patron god of the Mexica he was credited with both the victories and defeats that the Mexica people had on the battlefield It is important to remember that the defeat of their patron deity meant the defeat of his people This is one of the many reasons why they were concerned with providing exquisite tribute and food for him Not only was it important for him to survive his battles but the fate of the Mexica people would have rested in the victory of Huitzilopochtli Bantu Arabic Islamic expansion and trade slowly incorporated its way into Swahili culture and language Demand for cloves soon established permanent trade routes and Swahili speaking merchants settled in stops along the new trade routes For the most part this process started the development of the modern Swahili language The earliest known documents written in Swahili are letters written in Kilwa in 1711 ADin the Arabic script Some Swahili vocabulary is derived from Arabic through more than twelve centuries of contact with Arabicspeaking inhabitants of theSwahili Coast Important because it showed the effect of both Islamic expansion and African expansion along with the importance of trade routes along the west African coast Dhimmi 0000 Started around the 9th century AD A historical term referring to nonMuslim citizens of an Islamic state Dhimma allows rights of residence in return for taxes According to scholars dhimmis had their rights fully protected in their communities but as citizens in the Islamic state had certain restrictions They were excused or excluded from specific duties assigned to Muslims did not enjoy certain political rights reserved to Muslims and were subject to payment of a special tax iizyah but were othenNise equal under the laws of property contract and obligation Under sharia law dhimmi status was originally afforded to Jews Christians and Sabians The protected religions later came to include Zoroastrians MandaeansHindus and Buddhists The dhimma contract is an integral part of traditional Islamic sharia law From the 9th century AD the power to interpret and refine law in traditional Islamic societies was in the hands of the scholars ulama This separation of powers served to limit the range of actions available to the ruler who could not easily decree or reinterpret law independently and expect the continued support of the community Grand Canal 0 The Grand Canal also known as the BeijingHangzhou Grand Canal is the longest canal or artificial river in the world Primarily constructed during the Sui dynasty 581 61 8 AD The sections of the Grand Canal today in Zhejiang and southern Jiangsu provinces were in large part a creation of the Sui Dynasty a result of the migration of China s core economic and agricultural region away from the Yellow River valley in the north and toward the southern provinces Its main role throughout its history was the transport of grain to the capital The institution of the Grand Canal by the Sui also obviated the need for the army to become selfsufficient farmers while posted at the northern frontier as food supplies could now easily be shipped from south to north over the pass Although the Tang Dynasty 618 907 capital at Chang39an was the most thriving metropolis of China in its day it was the city of Yangzhou in proximity to the Grand Canal that was the economic hub of the Tang era Besides being the headquarters for the government salt monopoly and the largest premodern industrial production center of the empire Yangzhou was also the geographical midpoint along the northsouth trade axis and so became the major center for southern goods shipped north One of the greatest benefits of the canal system in the Tang Dynasty and subsequent dynasties was that it reduced the cost of shipping grain that had been collected in taxes from the Yangtze River Delta to northern China The Black Death 0 O 1348 The bubonic plague Oriental rat flea Yersinia pestis European mortality rate 3060 Origins in central asia Spread via trade routes silk road Consequences Social leveling Crisis of faith for the church and secular power Black markets protectionism Labor opportunities and wage control Slow population recovery Dietary changes gt meat and dairy Resulted in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people The aftermath of the plague created a series of religious social and economic upheavals which had profound effects on the course ofEuropean history It took 150 years for Europe39s population to recover The plague reoccurred occasionally in Europe until the 19th century Battle of Manzikert 0 00000 1071 fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuq Turks Byzantine Empire reduced to Byzantine and Greece Turks convert Anatolia into what will become Turkey Conversion to Islam Begins The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos lV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia and allowed for the gradual Turkification of Anatolia Important because it started the turkification of the peninsula of Anatolia with the population beginning to convert to Islam Part of Muslim expansion 0 The Yam 0000 13th century Pony express system created by the Khan Can send and receive info quickly throughout the large empire Need to have peace throughout the empire in order for this to happen Roads also needed Relates to lnca Empire had runners to bring goods throughout the empire carried things like messages and food ex Could bring fish to people before it spoHed Relay stations were used to give food shelter and spare horses for Mongol armies messengers Genghis Khan gave special attention to Yam because Mongol armies traveled very fast so their messengers had to be even faster covering 200 300 km per day The system was used to speed up the process of information and intelligence the first system of communication that connected the Far East and the West 0 As a result of the relatively lucid communication and ease of movement the Mongols were able to govern their vast empire effectively thus ensuring political and economic stability Pax Mongolica O 0 000000 Means Mongol Peace coined by Western scholars to describe the stabilizing effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries The term is used to describe the eased communication and commerce the unified administration helped to create and the period of relative peace that followed the Mongols39 vast conquests Teachers lawyers and artists exempt from taxation Use of Written Alphabet First correction fluid Art About horses Safe and wellrun discipline the rule In order for a time of great peace and prosperity to happen there needs to be security throughout the empire and a surplus of food needs to be acquired This is so that people can focus on specialization of tasks instead of constantly working to acquire food for them and their families 0 Srivijaya Maritime Empire 0 0 7th 13th century AD a powerful ancient thalassocraticMalay empire based on the island of Sumatra modern day Indonesia which influenced much of Southeast Asia Srivijaya was an important centre for Buddhist expansion in the 8th to 12th centuries lrish empire controlled straight of morocco lndian ocean trade routes In the world of commerce Srivijaya rapidly rose to be a farflung empire controlling the two passages between India and China namely the Sunda Strait from Palembang and the Malacca strait from Kedah Arab accounts state that the empire of the maharaja was so vast that in two years the swiftest vessel could not travel round all its islands which produced camphor aloes cloves sandalwood nutmegs cardamom and cubebs ivory gold and tin making the maharaja as rich as any king in India Other than fostering the lucrative trade relations with India and China Srivijaya also established commerce link with Arabia Important because it controlled much of the trade around the Indian ocean and it impacted cultures and people around that area Chinampas O O a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small rectangular areas of fertilearable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico Used by the Aztecs 14281521 Sometimes referred to as quotfloating gardensquot They were artificial islands created in order to grow crops in the swampy marshland of the valley of mexico These were very important because without them the civilization would have had much difficulty existing due to the harsh growing conditions and the type of land that they were controlling Among the crops grown on chinampas were maize beans squash amaranth tomatoes chili peppers and flowers It is estimated that food provided by chinampas made up onehalf to twothirds of the food consumed by the city of Tenochtitlan Great Zimbabwe 0 O 0 11th 14th centuries Great Zimbabwe is a ruined city in the southeastern hills of Zimbabwe near Lake Mutirikwe served as a royal palace for the Zimbabwean monarch and would have been used as the seat of political power One of its most prominent features were the walls some of which were over five metres high and which were constructed without mortar one of the most significant civilizations in the world during the Medieval period European travelers from Germany Portugal and Britain were astonished to learn of this powerful African civilization in the interior of southern Africa Was an important trading center The Timurid Empire 0 O O O O 0 13071507 Mongols under Timur the Lame Timurlane ruled over modernday lran Afghanistan much of Central Asia as well as parts of contemporary Pakistan India Mesopotamia Anatolia and the Caucasus lntermingling results in adoption of Turkish language culture Adoption of Islam Adoption of Persian literature and culture Harun al Rashid O O O O Ruled from 786809 5th Arab Caliph His rule encompassed modern Iraq his time was marked by scientific cultural and religious prosperity lslamic art and Islamic music also flourished significantly during his reign He established the legendary library Bayt alHikma quotHouse of Wisdomquot promoted lslamic art Baghdad became cultural center of the empire Need specialization of labor and good trade in order for this to occur Essays Question 1 What were the characteristics of Muslim expansion and how did that expansion affect the development of civilization in Eurasia Africa 0 Islam spread effectively by trade along the sea routes of maritime Asia and across the Sahara As Muslim Merchant communities dispersed the founded their own mosques elected or imported their own preachers and sometime attracted local people to join them As East African ports became integrated into the trace routes of the Indian ocean so they developed Muslim communities composed at first of Arab and Persian merchants and gradually attracting local people to the new religion Although lslam made little progress in West Africa before the 11th century immigration and the spread of the Arabic language and Islamic culture along the Saharan trade route prepared the way for lslamization On this frontier lslam lacked professional missionaries Occasionally however a Muslim merchant might interest a trading partner or even a pagan ruler in Islam Chronology lslamic Expansion 0 O O O 0 570632 Life of Muhammad 630early 650 s Muslim conquest of Iraq Syria Palestine Egypt Persian Empire 700 Muslim conquest of North Africa 715 Muslim conquest of Spain 751 Battle of Talas Arabs victorious against Chinese Conquered societies were slow to become lslamized Some historians have tried to measure the rate of acceptance of Islam by calculating the number of people who gave their children Muslimsounding names The method suggests that only 25 percent of the population of Iran were converted to Islam in the 7th century 0 Not until the early 9th century was the majority of the population Muslim The remainder was lslamized during the 9th and 10th centuries lslam dominant in Southwest Asia and North Africa spread by conquest conversion and migration among Turkic peoples and around the trade routes of the Indian Ocean and the Sahara Spread of Islam began when prophet Muhammad 570 632 started preaching the revelation he claimed to have received from God at the age of 40 Muslim conquests in the first centuries after Muhammad39s death led to the creation of caliphates political and spiritual entities where only believers of Abrahamic religions were allowed to keep their faith albeit with higher taxes and other limitations and conversion to Islam was encouraged through multiple means These early conquests and later through contact with Muslim traders and Ottoman Empire conquests resulted in the spread of Islam from Mecca to the Atlantic Ocean in the west and eastward to the Pacific Ocean and the creation of a Muslim world Phase 1 The early Caliphs and Umayyads 610750 AD 0 This was the time of the life of Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his early successors the four rightly guided Khalifahs Within the first century of the establishment of Islam upon the Arabian peninsula and the subsequent rapid expansion of the Arab Empire during the Muslim conquests resulted in the formation of one of the most significant empires in world history The objective of the conquests was more than anything of a practical nature as fertile land and water were scarce in the Arabian peninsula A real lslamization therefore only came about in the subsequent centuries For the polytheistic and pagan societies apart from the religious and spiritual reasons each individual may have had conversion to Islam quotrepresented the response of a tribal pastoral population to the need for a larger framework for political and economic integration a more stable state and a more imaginative and encompassing moral vision to cope with the problems of a tumultuous societyquot Only in subsequent centuries with the development of the religious doctrine of Islam and with that the understanding of the Muslim ummah did mass conversion take place The new understanding by the religious and political leadership in many cases led to a weakening or breakdown of the social and religious structures of parallel religious communities such as Christians and Jews Phase 2 The Abbasids 7501258 0 Expansion ceased and the central disciplines of Islamic philosophy theology law and mysticism became more widespread and the gradual conversions of the populations within the empire occured The reasons why by the end of the 10th century a large part of the population had converted to Islam are diverse One reason could be lslam had become more clearly defined and the line between Muslims and nonMuslims more sharply drawn Muslims now lived within an elaborated system of ritual doctrine and law clearly different from those of nonMuslims The status of Christians Jews and Zoroastrians was more precisely defined and in some ways it was inferior Conversion to Islam also came about as a result of the breakdown of historically religiously organized societies with the weakening of many churches for O O 0 example and the favoring of Islam and the migration of substantial Muslim Turkish populations into the areas of Anatolia and the Balkans the quotsocial and cultural relevance of Islamquot were enhanced and a large number of peoples were convened Along with the religion of Islam the Arabic language and Arab customs spread throughout the empire A sense of unity grew among many though not all provinces gradually forming the consciousness of a broadly ArabIslamic population something which was recognizably an Islamic world had emerged by the end of the 10th century Phase 3 Dissolution of the Abbasids and the emergence of the Seljuks and Ottomans 9501450 The expansion of Islam continued in the wake of Turkic conquests of Asia Minor the Balkans and the Indian subcontinent The earlier period also saw the acceleration in the rate of conversions in the Muslim heartland while in the wake of the conquests the newly conquered regions retained significant nonMuslim populations in contrast to the regions where the boundaries of the Muslim world contracted such as Sicily and AI Andalus where Muslim populations were expelled or forced to Christianize in short order The expansion affected the development of civilization in Eurasia by having many people change the way they lived their life Islam affected Europe s economy greatly At the time Islamic groups had some of the most advanced technology Europeans picked off many of these technologies from their enemies many of these facilitated trade enormously For example Europeans learned how to build better ships and use the compass Islam also brought forth the use of coinage which helped the economy greatly people didn t have to use the now obsolete barter system in which they had to drag hundreds of pounds of food to faraway places risking being assaulted by thieves in order to get clothes or other goods From the 11th to the 13th century Europe absorbed knowledge from the Islamic civilization Affected the sciences in Europe by further developing or introducing concepts such as algebra chemistry geology spherical trigonometry astronomy physics etc In the 12th century Europe owed Islam an agricultural revolution due to the progressive introduction into Europe of various unknown fruits the artichoke spinach aubergines peaches apricots The Muslim Agricultural Revolution in particular diffused a large number of crops and technologies into medieval Europe where farming was mostly restricted to wheat strains obtained much earlier via central Asia Spain received what she in turn transmitted to the rest of Europe many agricultural and fruitgrowing processes together with many new plants fruit and vegetables These new crops included sugar cane rice citrus fruit apricots cotton artichokes aubergines and saffron Others previously known were further developed Muslims also brought to that country lemons oranges cotton almonds figs and subtropical crops such as bananas and sugar cane 0 Numerous new techniques in clothing as well as new materials were also introduced muslin taffetas satin skirts Trade mechanisms were also transmitted tarifs customs bazars magazins 0 Also transmitted via Muslim influence a silk industry flourished flax was cultivated and linen exported and esparto grass which grew wild in the more arid parts was collected and turned into various articles74 Industries established for sugar plantations86 ceramics distillation technologies clocks mechanical hydropowered and wind powered machinery matting pulp and paper perfumery silk sugar water and the mining of minerals such as sulfur and ammonia were transferred from the Islamic world to medieval Europe87 Factory installations and a variety of industrial mills including fulling mills gristmills hullers paper mills steel millscitation needed sugar mills may have also been transmitted to medieval Europe88 along with the suction pump Question 3 What was Southernization and how can we explain its creation Phenomenon whereby the population and economy shifted southward across Eurasia 0 Muslim Expansion Baghdad Indian Ocean Trade is Southerly Venice and Genoa Southern products adapted Moved south for trade goods that were there I Spices I Silks of Chinese 0000 Southernization was initiated mainly South Asia and consequently spread to the other parts of the world leaving a significant impact on the lives of people living in those countries The process of southernization had first started in India during the reign of Guptas 320535 CE It then spread to the neighboring China followed by areas controlled by Muslim Caliphates during the eighth century As the southernization reached China and pars of Muslim caliphates it causes dramatic in almost every aspect of lives of the inhabitants Later in the thirteenth century the process began to cast its impact on the Christian world By the advent of thirteenth century the process of southernization had resulted in successfully leaving a deep impact from China to the areas under the rules of Islamic Caliphates This process was largely aided by south39s advancement in the field of mathematics the pioneering of finding new routes in ocean that led to the extraordinary discoveries of gold and different usefully crops such as cotton sugar and spices Question 4 Describe the catastrophic 14th century and the consequences those catastrophes had for the later development of Eurasia The Great Famine 13151317 OOOOOO End of the medieval warm period 13101330 Overpopulation Yield reduction Animal diseasesplagues Strange diets the first of a series of large scale crises that struck Europe early in the fourteenth century Places affected include continental Europe extending east to Russia and south to Italy as well as Great Britain It caused millions of deaths over an extended number of years and marks a clear end to an earlier period of growth and prosperity between the eleventh to thirteenth centuries Starting with bad weather in spring 1315 universal crop failures lasted through 1316 until summer harvest in 1317 Europe did not fully recover until 1322 It was a period marked by extreme levels of crime disease mass death and even cannibalism and infanticide It had consequences for the Church state European society and future calamities to follow in the fourteenth century Consequences The first consequence was for the Church In a society where the final recourse to all problems had been religion and where Roman Catholicism was the only tolerated faith no amount of prayer seemed effective against the causes of the famine which undermined the institutional authority of the Catholic Church This helped lay the foundations for later movements that were deemed heretical by the Church because they opposed the Papacy and blamed the failure of prayer upon corruption within the church Second was the increase in criminal activity Medieval Europe in the fourteenth century had already experienced widespread social violence and even acts then punishable by death such as rape and murder were demonstrably far more common especially relative to the population compared to modern times With the famine even those who were not normally inclined to criminal activity would resort to any means to feed themselves or their family After the famine Europe took on a tougher and more violent edge it had become an even less amicable place than during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries Third was the failure of the Medieval governments to deal with the crisis Fourth the Great Famine marked a clear end to an unprecedented period of population growth that had started around 1050 Black Death 0 1348 o The bubonic plague Oriental rat flea Yersinia pestis European mortality rate 3060 Origins in central asia Spread via trade routes silk road Consequences Social leveling Crisis of faith for the church and secular power Black markets protectionism Labor opportunities and wage control Slow population recovery Dietary changes gt meat and dairy Resulted in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people The aftermath of the plague created a series of religious social and economic upheavals which had profound effects on the course ofEuropean history It took 150 years for Europe39s population to recover The plague reoccurred occasionally in Europe until the 19th century The combination of Great Famine followed by the Black Death epidemic caused millions of deaths wiped out nearly one third of the population across Europe and demonstrated the vulnerabilities in the expansion of European societies Together these two natural disasters provided a onetwo punch that subjected the growing population of medieval 14th century Europe to tremendous amount of hardships The Hundred Years War 0 The Hundred Years39 War actually consisted of a series of separate trade wars between England and two competing French royal families each competing for the throne of France The Hundred Years39 War crippled western cultural development but lead to military evolution as the weaponry tactics army structure and the social impact of war changed dramatically due to the demands of the war coupled with advancement in technologies and battlefield strategies Before the Hundred Years39 War heavy cavalry was considered the most powerful unit in an army But by the war39s end this belief had shifted as the heavily armored Knight on horseback was rendered useless by divisions of longbow infantrymen The Great Schism O the title given to a large split within the Catholic Church during 1378 to 1417 During the Great Schism split two men simultaneously claimed to be the true Catholic pope who hurt the reputation of the Catholic Church lead to isolation of the competing religious camps and stalled culture and religious development across Europe The split was the result of politics rather than any religious or theological disagreement The Great Schism was officially ended in 1418 by the Council of Constance The 14th century was a very difficult period in history which resulted in large number of death39s and created a period of isolation between eastern versus western European cultures which in turn stalled and postponed cultural development for a variety of reasons The Jacquerie Took place in France in 1358 a popular revolt in late medieval Europe by peasants Loss of confidence in nobility No king no leadership Basically the French nobility had sunk to a new low To secure their rights the French privileged classes the nobility the merchant elite and the clergy forced the peasantry to pay everincreasing taxes for example the taille and to repair their wardamaged properties under corve39e without compensation The passage of a law that required the peasants to defend the Chateaux that were emblems of their oppression was the immediate cause of the spontaneous uprising o Frustrated by plague famine and mercenaries the peasants of northern France rebelled in 1358 As violent as the Jacquerie was reported to be the revolt was quashed by the aristocracy with greater savagery One repercussion of the Jacquerie was the return of royalist ideals that were being threatened by constitutional movements in the Estates General 00000 Consequences for the later development of Eurasia 0 Black Death One was a series of vicious attacks on Jews lepers and outsiders who were accused of deliberately poisoning the water or the air Lepers were singled out and persecuted Anyone with a skin disease such as acne or psoriasis was thought to be a leper and leprosy was believed to be an outward sign of an inner defect of the soul They were for the most part exterminated throughout Europe lt caused a substantial change in the economy and society in all areas of the world Economic historians have concluded that the Black Death began during a recession in the European economy that had been under way since the beginning of the century and only served to worsen it The Black Death should have opened the way to increased peasant prosperity Europe had been overpopulated before the plague and a reduction of thirty percent to fifty percent of the population should have meant less competition for resources There was more available land and food and higher wages The great population loss brought economic changes based on increased social O mobility as depopulation further eroded the peasants39 already weakened obligations to remain on the land Later many of the survivors sought comfort in selfindulgence Selfindulgence was aided by the fact that the survivors inherited the wealth of the dead and wages increased because of severe labor shortages Episodes of hysteria and religious fanaticism were also common By 1400 the worst of the upheavals had passed and European society was on the mend The term Renaissance was first used in the late 14th century by Italian scholars who saw themselves as the vanguard of a period of improved conditions
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