PSY101 Exam 3 Study Guide
PSY101 Exam 3 Study Guide PSY 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Phoebe Chang on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Robert Short in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 1549 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
DEVELOPMENTAL 1. Know Piaget’s model and all of their characteristics ○ Sensorimotor ■ Developing object permanence ■ Magic tricks ■ Minnie mouse doll illusion ■ Box study ○ Preoperational ■ Egocentrism ■ Cannot take other’s point of view ■ Theory of mind ■ Realization that others have minds ; begin to infer intentions ■ Evidences ■ Quantity and shape conservation experiment ■ Color / Shape game; stuck with first rule ■ Deception sticker game; can’t trick people ■ Bandaid study ■ Autism ■ Impaired theory of mind ■ Thinking others are the same as themselves ■ Lack of “I” or “ME" ○ Concrete Operational ■ Deductive Reasoning ■ Not able to follow unreasonable rules ■ Following their own experiences ■ Talk to themselves ■ Comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation ○ Formal Operational ■ Can do hypothetical thinking ■ Can reasoning abstractly; not just concrete experiences 2. What is object permanence and conservation? ○ Object permanence ■ Knowing things exist without looking at it ○ Conservation ■ Quantity remains the same even if the shape is different 3. What does it mean to be egocentric? ○ Inability to think from another person’s point of view 4. What is the capacity of longterm memory? Short term memory? ○ Long Term Memory has unlimited capacity ○ Short Term Memory can take 7 +/ 2 words up to 20 seconds 5. Who was Kholberg and who was Erikson and what did they study? ○ Kholberg— Studied reasoning behind moral psychology ■ Preconventional morality ■ Driven by selfinterest ■ Conventional morality ■ Driven by social approval, laws and rules ■ Postconventional morality ■ Driven by affirms agreedupon rights (selfdecision) ○ Erikson— Psychosocial Development; Identity leads to capacity for intimacy ■ Infancy ■ Trust vs Mistrust ■ Meeting basic needs ■ Toddlerhood ■ Selfdependence vs Shame / Doubt ■ Learning to do things themselves ■ Preschoolers ■ Initiative vs Guilt ■ Learn to initiate and carry out plans ■ Elementary School ■ Competent vs Worthless / Inferiority ■ Learning about themselves (in school mostly) ■ Adolescence ■ Identity vs Role confusion ■ Forming one’s identity, trying out new things ■ Young Adulthood ■ Intimacy vs Isolation ■ Forming close relationship ■ Middle Adulthood ■ Generativity vs Stagnation ■ Finding purpose of life, contributing to the society ■ Late Adulthood ■ Integrity vs Despair ■ Reflecting ones’ life, feeling satisfied or failed 6. Give examples of reasoning from each of Kholberg’s model of development. ○ Cheating on the exam is not good ■ Preconventional ■ Cheating on the exam will get punished by mom ■ Conventional ■ Not cheating on the exam because the school rules say so ■ Postconventional ■ Cheating on the exam is not cool, I won’t learn anything anyway 7. What is a longitudinal research design? ○ A sample of population is studied at intervals to examine the effects of development. It can be weeks, months, or years that participants are asked ton etur 8. What is theory of mind? ○ Realizing the people have minds and intentions ○ Being able to fool people; understanding rules MEMORY 1. Declarative memories and Procedural memories (content wise) ○ Declarative memories ■ aka Explicit memory ■ LTM ■ Facts, verbal knowledge ■ Can be consciously recalled ○ Procedural memories ■ aka motor skills ■ LTM ■ Performance of certain procedures ■ E.g. riding a bike, walking, talking 2. What’s the best way to encode longterm memories? ○ Semantic encoding 3. What is the parallel distributed process of memory? The informationprocessing model? ○ Parallel Distributed Process of Memory (PDP) ■ A model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connection ○ Informationprocessing model ■ The processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in series of three stages ■ Sensory memory ■ STM via rehearsal ■ LTM via retrieval 4. Anterograde amnesia/retrograde amnesia ○ Anterograde Amnesia ■ Loss of memory of all events after brain inquiry ○ Retrograde Amnesia ■ Loss of memory of all events before brain inquiry 5. What is the serial positioning effect? ○ Tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body ○ The smiley face effect 6. Priming ○ The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory or response ○ Enhanced ability to think of a stimulus ○ E.g. To remember one’s childhood experience, he formed a vivid mental image of his room at his childhood home 7. Rehearsal ○ Maintenance Rehearsal ■ Repeating information to keep it active in STM ○ Elaborative Rehearsal ■ Thinking abouhow new information links to info in LTM 8. Chunking ○ Organizing individual stimuli so they will be perceived as larger units of meaningful information 9. Types of memory ○ Episodic ■ Specific event while present ■ E.g. What did you have for dinner? ○ Semantic ■ Generalized knowledge of the world ■ E.g. Is this a window or a door? ○ Procedural ■ Complicated sequence of movements that cannot be explain in words ■ E.g. How do you ride a bike? ○ Explicit (process wise) ■ Intentionally memorizing things ○ Implicit (process wise) ■ Unintentional memorizing things ○ Flashbulb ■ Automatic encoding that occurs when unexpected event which triggers strong emotional attachment ○ Shortterm ■ Working memory / Transient memory ■ 7 +/ 2 chunks of information can be memorized within 20 seconds ○ Sensory ■ First stage of memory where raw information from the senses is held for about 1 second ■ Echoic ■ Auditory sensory memory (24 seconds) ■ Eidetic ■ Visual sensory memory (30+ seconds) 10. Processes of memory ○ Encoding ■ Acoustic (Sound) ■ Visual (Vision) ■ Semantic (Meaning) ○ Storage ■ STM: 7+/ 2 chunks ■ LTM: Unlimited ○ Retrieval; Acquisition ■ Sensory memory— bring coherence and continuity to the words (1sec of storage) 11. Interference ○ The process through which either the storage or retrieval of information is impaired by the presence of other information ○ Retroactive interference ■ New information placed in memory interferes with the ability to recall information that’s already in memory ○ Proactive interference ■ Old information in LTM interferes with the ability to memorize new things 12. Mnemonics ○ Methods for placing information in an organized context in order to remember it INTELLIGENCE 1. What are the differences between Divergent and Convergent ways of thinking/intelligence? ○ Divergent ■ Produce many solution to the same problem ■ Creativity; Doing things out of the box; brainstorming ○ Convergent ■ SAT, Admission tests ■ Produce the single best solution to a problem ■ Routine behavior doing things the same way all the time 2. What type of thinking is most closely related to creativity? ○ Both thinking are used by most creative thinkers but convergent thinker seem to have a higher IQ 3. What is test reliability? Validity? ○ Reliability ■ Getting the same result after different trials ○ Validity ■ Getting the accurate result for what you wanted to measure 4. What are the components of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences? ○ Linguistic ■ Words and language ■ Writers, lawyers, speakers, poets ○ Logicalmathematical ■ Logical thinking ■ Accountants, computer experts ○ Musical ■ Musical ability ■ Musician, singers, DJs, tuners ○ Bodilykinesthetic ■ Body movement control ■ Dancers, athletes, actors ○ Spatialvisual ■ Visual and spatial perception ■ Artists, designers, architects, cartoonists ○ Interpersonal ■ Perception of other’s feelings ■ Therapists, leaders, educators ○ Intrapersonal ■ Selfawareness ■ Whoever is selfaware and involved in the process of changing personal thoughts (selfreflection) ○ Naturalist ■ Talented at observing, understanding and organizing patterns related to nature 5. Why study identical twins? ○ To determine if genetics plays a role in intelligence. ○ Hereditary factors are strongly related to IQ 6. Who were Terman’s termites and what did he find? ○ Terman and Stern ■ IQ = mental age / chronological age ■ Intelligence is a fixed inheritable entity ○ Henry Cowell ■ Poor janitor having 140 IQ level (near genius) ■ Set off to find the best and brightest ■ Three rounds of IQ test ■ 1470 kids with 140–200 IQ score ■ They’re called the Termites ■ Longitudinal study to prove they will be successful in the future (future elite of USA) ■ 20% are in A group (successful) ■ 60% are in B group (satisfactory) ○ StanfordBinet ■ First official IQ test for kids from 26 years old ■ The top 2% were gifted (called termites) 7. What is the Bell Curve or Normal Curve? ○ A frequency curve where most occurrences take place in the middle of the distribution and taper off on either side ○ All measures of central tendency occur at the highest point in the curve ○ E.g. Height, IQ of people 8. How have IQ tests been used historically? ○ Galton ■ Breeding genetic superiority ■ Started to quantify; having mental measurement ○ Binet ■ IQ test ■ Identify children who needs remedial programs ○ Terman and Stern ■ IQ = mental age / chronological age ■ Intelligence is a fixed, inheritable entity ○ Goddard (1912) ■ Identify mentally defective immigrants ■ Only in English ■ Jews, Hungarians, Russians, Italians were feeble minded. (dumb) ○ US Army @ WWI ■ Screen out mentally slow recruit ■ Culturally biased ○ US Gov (1924) ■ Scientific evidence to limit immigration ■ Justify segregation of AfricanAmericans ■ Imbecile = dumb 9. What is the Intelligent Quotient? ○ Measuring intelligence with mathematical formula ○ Mental age / chronological age (MA/CA) x100 ○ Now we use scales which 100 is an average score; each standard deviation is 15 points ■ E.g. You score 2 standard deviation above the mean, then you would score a 130
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