Psyc4220 Exam 3 Study Guide
Psyc4220 Exam 3 Study Guide PSYC 4220
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This 33 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
PSYC4220 BOOK NOTES EXAM 3 CHAPTER 9 Pg. 224-228 Information Processing Approaches Information-Processing Approaches to Cognitive Development o Information processing approaches focus on changes in the kinds of “mental Programs” that children use when approaching problems o For many child developmentalists represents the dominant, most comprehensive, and ultimately the most accurate explanation of how children develop cognitively Preschoolers’ Understanding of Numbers Average preschooler is able to count in a systematic, consistent manner o When shown a group of several items, they know they should assign just one number to each item and that each item should be counted only once Preschoolers may demonstrate a surprisingly sophisticated understanding of numbers, although their understanding is not totally precise By the age of 4, most are able to carry out simple addition and subtraction problems by counting, and they are able to compare different quantities Memory: Recalling the Past Autobiographical memory: memory of particular events from one’s own life, achieves little accuracy until after 3 years of age o Accuracy then increases gradually and slowly throughout the preschool years 3 yos can remember central features of routine occurrences o sequence of events involved in eating at a restaurant typically accurate in their responses to open- ended questions accuracy is partly determined by how soon memories are assessed o meaningful/vivid-more likely to be remembered not all autobiographical memories last into later life affected by cultural factors o Chinese college students’ memories of early childhood are more likely to be unemotional and reflect activities involving social roles o US college students’ earliest memories are more emotionally elaborate and focus on specific events Memories of familiar events are often organized in terms of scripts: broad representations in memory of events and the order in which they occur o Ex. Eating in a restaurant= talking to waitress, getting food, and eating o w/ age, scripts become more elaborate o b/c events that are frequently repeated tend to be melded into scripts, particular instances of a scripted event are recalled less accurately preschoolers have difficulty describing certain kinds of info o complex causal relationships-may oversimplify memories are susceptible to the suggestion of others o Forensic Developmental Psychology: Bringing Child Development to the Courtroom Forensic developmental psychology: focuses on the reliability of children’s autobiographical memories in the context of the legal system Considers children’s abilities to recall events in their lives and the reliability of courtroom accounts where they are witnesses or victims Memories are susceptible to the suggestions of adults asking them questions Prone to making inaccurate inferences about the reasons behind others’ behavior and are less able to draw appropriate conclusions based on their knowledge of a situation Some events recalled with seeming accuracy, never actually happened Error rate is heightened when same question is asked repeatedly Also when questions are highly suggestive Most accurate recollections: Question them right after event has occurred Specific questions are answered more accurately than general ones Asking questions outside of courtroom is preferable o Information-Processing Theories in Perspective Cog. devel. consists of gradual improvements in the ways people perceive, understand, and remember information Quantitative advances in information processing, not qualitative changes suggested by Piaget, that constitute cog. devel. Reliance on well-defined processes that can be tested, with relative precision, by research is one of the most important features Provides a comprehensive, logical set of concepts Contribution of mental skills like memory and attention to children’s thinking Pays little attention to social and cultural factors Pays so much attention to detailed, individual sequence of processes, doesn’t paint a comprehensive picture of cog. devel. o Vygotsky’s View of Cognitive Development: Taking Culture Into Account Viewed cog. devel. as result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation, working with mentors to solve problems Social and cultural world is source of devel. Children gradually grow intellectually and begin to function on their own because of assistance from adults and peers Culture and society establish institutions-preschools and play groups that promote devel. by providing opportunities for cog. devel. Social expectations about gender also play a role The Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding: Foundations of Cognitive Development Vyg proposed that children’s cog. abilities increase through exposure to info that is new enough to be intriguing, but not too difficult for the child to contend with o Zone of proximal development: level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so with assistance from someone more competent For cog. devel. to occur, new info must be presented within ZPD o Scaffolding: assistance or structuring provided by others; support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth Mexican mothers provided more scaffolding than fathers Cultural tools: actual, physical items, as well as an intellectual and conceptual framework for solving problems o Language used within a culture, alphabet and numerical system, math and science systems, and religious systems Evaluating Vygotsky’s Contributions Consistent theoretical system and can help explain a growing body of research attesting the the importance of social interaction in promoting cog. devel. Consistent with research Lack of precision in conceptualization of cog. growth Broad concepts Virtually silent on how cog. processes like memory and attention develop and how natural cog. capabilities unfold Pg. 235-239 Schooling and Society Schooling and Society o Early Childhood Education: Taking the Pre-Out of the Preschool Period Almost ¾ of children in the US are enrolled in some form of care outside the home Much of which is designed explicitly or implicitly to teach skills that will enhance intellectual as well as social abilities Reasons for increase: Rise in # of families in which both parents work outside the home o Close to 60% of women with children under 6 are employed, most full-time Developmentalists have found increasing evidence that children can benefit from some sort of educational activity before they enroll in formal schooling The Varieties of Early Education Child care centers o Provide care for children all day, while parents are at work o Aimed at providing some form of intellectual stimulation o Primary purpose tends to be more social and emotional rather than cognitive Family child care centers o Small operations run in private homes o Quality of care can be uneven o some are unlicensed o not often trained professionals preschools o explicitly designed to provide intellectual and social experiences for children o more limited in their schedules typically provide care for 3-5 hours per day o mainly serve children from middle and higher SES o vary in activities they provide some emphasize social skills, while others focus on intellectual development o Montessori preschools Employ a carefully designed set of materials to create an environment that sensory, motor, and language development Children are provided with a variety of activities to choose from, with the option of moving from one to another o Reggio Emilia preschool Children participate in “negotiated curriculum” that emphasizes the joint participation of children and teachers Curriculum builds on interests of children, promoting their cognitive development through the integration of the arts and participation in week-long projects School child care o Almost ½ of of the states in the US fund pre-K programs for 4 year olds, often aimed at disadvantaged children o Often of higher quality The Effectiveness of Child Care Preschoolers enrolled in child care centers show intellectual development that at least matches that of children at home and often is better o More verbally fluent, show memory and comprehension advantages, and achieve higher IQ scores than at-home children Early and long term participation in child care is particularly helpful for children from impoverished home environments or who are otherwise at risk Children in high quality programs tend to be more self-confident , independent, and knowledgeable about the social world in which they live Children in child care have been found to be less polite, less compliant, less respectful of adults, and sometimes more competitive and aggressive than their peers Children who spend more that 10 hours a week in preschools have a slightly higher likelihood of being disruptive in class extending through the 6 grade Every dollar invested in high-quality preschool programs produced $3.50 in benefits o Benefits included increased graduation rates, higher earnings, savings juvenile crime, and reductions in child welfare costs High-quality care provides intellectual and social benefits, while low-quality care not only is unlikely to furnish benefits , but may harm children The Quality of Child Care Major characteristics of high-quality: o Care providers are well trained o Child care center has an appropriate overall size and ratio of care providers to children Single groups should not have many more than 14-20 children, and there should not be more than 5-10 3 year olds per caregiver, or 7 to 10 4-5 year olds per caregiver o The curriculum of a child care facility is not left to chance, but is carefully planned out and coordinated among the teachers o Language environment is rich, with a great deal of conversation o Caregiver’s are sensitive to children’s emotional and social needs, and they know when and when not to intervene o Materials and activities are age appropriate o Basic health and safety standards are followed US lags behind almost every other industrialized country in the quality of its child care as well as in its quantity and affordability o Preparing Preschoolers for Academic Pursuits: Does Head Start Truly Provide a Head Start? In US, best-known program designed to promote future academic success is Head Start Stresses parental involvement, was designed to serve the “whole child,” including children’s physical health, self-confidence, social responsibility, and social and emotional development Graduates of Head Start programs tend to show immediate IQ gains, increases do not last Preschoolers who participate are better prepared for future schooling Have better future school adjustment Are less likely to be in special ed classes or to be held back Show higher academic performance at the end of high school (gains are modest) Preschool readiness programs are cost effective For every dollar spent on program, taxpayers saved $7 by the time graduates reached age of 27 Compared with children who did not participate in early intervention programs, participants in programs showed gains in emotional or cognitive development, better educational outcomes, increased economic sufficiency, reduced levels of criminal activity, and improved health-related behaviors Are We Pushing Children Too Hard and Too Fast? David Elkind US society tends to push children so rapidly that they begin to feel stress and pressure at a young age Academic success is largely dependent on factors out of parent’s control, such as inherited abilities and a child’s rate of maturation Children require developmentally appropriate educational practice: education based on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child CHAPTER 10 Pg. 261-268 Moral Development and Aggression Moral Development and Aggression o Developing Morality: Following Society’s Rights and Wrongs Moral development: changes in people’s sense of justice and of what is right and wrong Piaget’s View of Moral Development One of first to study moral development Proceeds in stages Earliest stage=heteronomous morality o Rules are seen as invariant and unchangeable o Age 4-7 o Children play games rigidly o Each child may play with different set of rules o Winning is equated with having a good time Incipient cooperation stage o Age 7-10 o Children’s games become more clearly social o Learn actual formal rules of game, and play according to shared knowledge o Rules are still seen as largely unchangeable o There is a “right” way to play the game Autonomous cooperation stage o Begins at age 10 o Children become fully aware that formal game rules can be modified if the people who play them agree Children in heteronomous stage believe in immanent justice: notion that rules that are broken earn immediate punishment Children beyond heteronomous stage understand that one must make judgments about the severity of a transgression based on whether the person intended to do something wrong Evaluating Piaget’s Approach to Moral Development Underestimated the age at which children’s moral skills are honed Preschool age children understand notion of intentionality by age 3 o This allows them to make judgments based on intent at an earlier age than Piaget supposed By age of 4, they judge intentional lying as being wrong Social Learning Approaches to Morality Focuses more on how the environment in which preschoolers operate produces prosocial behavior: helping behavior that benefits others Some instances of prosocial behavior stem from situations in which they have received positive reinforcement for acting in a morally appropriate way Children also learn moral behavior more indirectly by observing models o Imitate models who receive reinforcement for their behavior, and learn to perform behavior themselves Not all models are equally effective o Preschoolers are more apt to model the behavior of warm, responsive adults o Models viewed as highly competent or high in prestige are also more effective Modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principals in a process called abstract modeling o Older preschoolers begin to develop generalized principles that underlie the behavior that they observe Empathy and Moral Behavior Empathy: the understanding of what another individual feels Lies in the heart of moral behavior 1 year old will cry when it hears another infant crying 2-3 year olds will offer gifts and share toys with other children and adults Freud: o Negative emotions may promote moral development Preschoolers’ attempts to avoid experiencing negative emotions sometimes leads them to act in more moral, helpful ways o Aggression and Violence in Preschoolers: Sources and Consequences Aggression: intentional injury or harm to another person During early preschool years, aggression is aimed at attaining a desired goal Aggression declines as children move through their preschool years as does the frequency and average length of episodes Children become better at controlling the emotions that they are experiencing Emotional self-regulation: the capability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity Age 2-children can talk about feelings and engage in strategies to regulate them Develop sophisticated social skills Learn to use language to express wishes and become increasingly able to negotiate with others Aggression is a relatively stable characteristic: most aggressive preschoolers tend to be the most aggressive during school-age years Boys typically show higher levels of physical, instrumental aggression Instrumental aggression: aggression motivated by desire to achieve concrete goal Girls are more likely to practice relational aggression: nonphysical aggression that is intended to hurt another person’s feelings Name-calling, withholding friendship, saying mean, hurtful things that make recipient feel bad The Roots of Aggression Freud: o We all are motivated by sexual, aggressive instincts Konrad Lorenz: o Animals share a fighting instinct that stems from primitive urges to preserve territory, maintain a steady supply of food, and weed out weaker animals Evolutionary psychologists: o Aggression leads to increased opportunity to mate, improving likelihood that one’s genes will be passed on to future generations o May help to strengthen the species and its gene pools as a whole, because the strongest survive o Aggressive instincts promote the survival of one’s genes to pass on Instinctual explanations: o Fail to take into account the increasingly sophisticated cognitive abilities that humans develop o Relatively little experimental support o Provide little guidance in determining when and how children and adults will behave aggressively Social Learning Approaches to Aggression Emphasize how social and environmental conditions teach individuals to be aggressive Learn through direct reinforcement Exposure to aggressive models Bandura Viewing Violence on TV: Does it Matter? Children’s tv programs actually contain higher levels of violence (69%) Evidence showing that real-world viewing of aggression is associated with subsequent aggressive behavior is correlational Longitudinal studies have found that children’s preferences for violent tv shows at age 8 are related to the seriousness of criminal convictions by age 30 Observation of media violence can lead to a greater readiness to act aggressively, bullying, and to an insensitivity to the suffering of victims of violence Children who play violent video games may be at higher risk of behaving aggressively Children can be taught to view violence with a more skeptical, critical eye Being taught that violence is not representative of the real world, that viewing violence can affect them negatively, and that they should refrain from imitating the behavior they have seen on tv can help children interpret the violent programs differently and be less influenced by them Observation of nonaggressive behavior can reduce aggression Cognitive Approaches to Aggression: The Thoughts Behind Violence Key to understanding moral development is to examine preschoolers’ interpretations of others’ behavior and of the environmental context in which the behavior occurs Some children are more prone than others to assume that actions are aggressively motivated o Unable to pay attention to the appropriate cues in a situation and unable to interpret the behaviors in a given situation and unable to interpret the behaviors in a given situation accurately o They assume that what’s happening is related to other’s hostility o Base behavior on inaccurate interpretation of behavior o May behave aggressively in response to a situation that never in fact existed Fails to explain why such inaccurate perceivers so readily respond with aggression, and why they assume that aggression is an appropriate/desirable response Means to reduce aggression: teach preschool- age children to be more accurate interpreters of a situation, we can induce them to be less prone to view others’ behavior as being motivated by hostility CHAPTER 11 Pg. 280-282 Health in Middle Childhood o Health During Middle Childhood More than 90% of children are likely to have at least one serious medical condition over the 6 year period of middle childhood Asthma A chronic condition characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath More than 7 million US children Racial and ethnic minorities are particularly at risk Occurs when the airways leading to the lungs constrict, partially blocking the passage of air o b/c airways are obstructed, more effort is needed to push air through them, making breathing more difficult o as air is forced through the obstructed airways, it makes the whistling sound called wheezing anxiety and agitation make attack worse triggered by: o respiratory infections=most common o allergic reactions to airborne pollutants o stress o exercise o sudden change in temp/humidity more and more children are suffering from it o increasing air pollution? o More accurate identification of asthma? Poverty may play an indirect role o Higher incidence of asthma o Poorer medical care and less sanitary living conditions o Exposed to more triggering factors-dust mites, cockroach feces and body parts, and rodent feces and urine o Psychological Disorders 1 in 5 children and adolescents has a psychological disorder that produces at least some impairment children’s symptoms are not entirely consistent with the way adults express similar disorders can be treated using drug therapy little evidence for long-term effectiveness of antidepressants no one knows consequence on developing brains little is known about correct dosages some evidence links use of antidepressants with increased risk of suicide Pg. 285-286 Threats to Safety o Threats to Children’s Safety, Offline and Online Rate of injury for children increases b/t ages of 5 and 14 Boys are more apt to be injured than girls Level of physical activity is greater Injury and death rates are highest for American Indians and Alaska Natives Lowest for Asian and Pacific Islanders Whites and African Americans have same death rates from injuries Accidents Children who regularly walk to school on their own face risk of being hit by cars or trucks Bicycle accidents pose an increasing risk Most frequent source of injury to children is car accidents Auto crashes annually kill 4 out of every 100,000 children between 5 and 9 Fires and burns, drowning, and gun-related deaths follow in frequency To decrease auto and bike injuries: o Seat belts o Wear appropriate protective gear outside Safety in Cyberspace Most reliable safeguard is close supervision by parents Parents should warn children to never provide personal information to people on public “bulletin boards” or in chat rooms Children should not be allowed to hold face-to- face meetings with people they meet on the internet Pg. 287-291 Children With Special Needs o Children with Special Needs Sensory Difficulties: Visual, Auditory, and Speech Problems Visual impairments o Legal impairment=blindness: visual acuity of less than 20/200 after correction o Partial sightedness: visual acuity of less than 20/70 after correction o Legal criterion only pertains to distance vision; educational tasks require close-up vision Legal def doesn’t consider abilities in perception of color, depth, and light o 1 in 1000 students requires special ed services related to visual impairment o signals of visual problems: frequent eye irritation continual blinking facial contortions when reading holding reading material unusually close to face difficulty in writing frequent headaches, dizziness, or burning eyes Auditory impairments o Can produce academic and social difficulties o Hearing loss affects 1-2% of school-age population o Some cases-hearing is impaired only at limited range of frequencies or pitches o If loss of hearing occurs at infancy, effects will probably be more severe o Loss of hearing after child has learned language will not have as serious consequences on subsequent linguistic developments o Severe and early loss of hearing is also associated with difficulties in abstract thinking o Often accompanied by speech impairments Speech impairment=when speech deviates so much from the speech of others that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or produces maladjustment in the speaker Present in 3-5% of school-age population o Stuttering: involves a substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech, is most common speech impairment Hinders communication Can produce embarrassment/stress Strategies: Attention should not be drawn to stutter Child should be given sufficient time to finish what they began to say Learning disabilities o Characterized by difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, and math abilities o Diagnosed when there’s a discrepancy between actual academic performance and apparent potential to learn o Dyslexia: reading disability that can result in the misperception of letters during reading and writing, unusual difficulty in sounding out letters, confusion b/t left and right, and difficulties in spelling Possible explanation=problem in part of brain responsible for breaking up words into sound elements that make up language o Causes of learning disabilities are generally attributed to brain dysfunction, probably due to genetic factors Some experts suggest they’re produced by such environmental causes as poor early nutrition or allergies `Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder o ADHD: marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and generally a great deal of inappropriate activity o Most common symptoms: Persistent difficulty in finishing tasks, following instructions, and organizing work Inability to watch an entire tv program Frequent interruption of others or frequent talking Tendency to jump into a task before hearing all the instructions Difficulty in waiting or remaining seated Fidgeting, squirming o 3-7% of those under 18 o Ritalin or Dexadrine (stimulants) reduce activity levels Side effects can be considerable and long-term health consequences are unclear o Behavior therapy Use of rewards for desired behavior Increase in structure of classroom activities o Mainstreaming: exceptional children are integrated as much as possible into traditional education system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternatives Purpose: equalize opportunities available to all children CHAPTER 12 Pg. 298-301 Information Processing and Vygotsky o Information Processing in Middle Childhood Children become increasingly sophisticated in their handling of information Memory Ability to code, store, and retrieve info Encoding-initially record info in a form usable to memory Stored-must be placed and maintained in memory system Retrieval-material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness, and used Three-system approach to memory: there are 3 different memory storage systems or stages that describe how info is processed in order for it to be recalled o Sensory memory: initial, momentary storage of info that lasts only an instant Records an exact replica of the stimulus o Short-term memory: (working memory) information is stored for 15-25 seconds according to its meaning o Long-term memory: info is stored relatively permanently, although it may be difficult to retrieve During middle childhood, short-term memory capacity improves significantly o Children are increasingly able to hear a string of digits and then repeat the string in reverse order Difficulty children experience in solving conservation problems may stem from memory limitations Metamemory: understanding about processes that underlie memory also emerges and improves Increasingly engage in control strategies: conscious, intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive processing o Ex. Repetition of info Increasingly use mnemonics: formal techniques for organizing info in a way that makes it more likely to ne remembered Improving Memory Can be taught to use mnemonic strategies, but need to know when and where to use them Keyword strategy: one word is paired with another that sounds like it Rehearsal: consistent repetition of info that children wish to remember Organization: placing material into categories Cognitive elaboration: mental images are linked with info that someone wants to recall o Vygotsky’s Approach to Cognitive Development and Classroom Instruction Children should actively participate in their educational experiences Classrooms are seen as places where children should have the opportunity to experiment and try out new activities Education should focus on activities that involve interactions with others Nature of interactions must be structured to fit in child’s ZPD Cooperative learning: children work together in groups to achieve common goal Individual children benefit most when at least some of the other members of the group are more competent at the task and can act as experts Reciprocal teaching: technique to teach reading comprehension strategies Skim content of passage, raise questions about central point, summarize passage, and predict what will happen next Pg. 302-303 Bilingualism o Bilingualism: Speaking in Many Tongues Nearly 1 in 5 people in US speaks a language other than English at home Bilingual education: children are initially taught in their native language, while at the same time learning English Ultimate goal=increase English proficiency while improving skills in native language Alternative=immerse students in English as quickly as possible, teaching solely in that language, and providing minimal instruction in student’s native language Knowing more than one language offers several cognitive advantages Learning in one’s native tongue is associated with higher self-esteem in minority students May score higher on tests of intelligence Pg. 305-307 Reading o Reading: Learning to decode the Meaning Behind Words Reading Stages st Stage 0: (birth-start of 1 grade) learn essential prerequisites for reading, including identification of the letters in the alphabet, sometimes writing their name, and reading a few very familiar words Stage 1: first real type of reading o Involves phonological recoding skill st nd o 1 and 2 grade o can sound out words by blending letters together o complete job of learning the names of letters and the sounds that go with them Stage 2: (2 ndand 3 grade) learn to read aloud with fluency o Don’t attach much meaning to words Stage 3: (4 -8 grade) reading becomes a way to learn o Able to comprehend info only when it is presented from a single perspective Stage 4: able to read and process info that reflects multiple points of view o Begins during transition to high school o Permits children to develop a far more sophisticated understanding of material How Should We Teach Reading? Code-based approaches to reading: reading should be taught by presenting basic skills that underlie reading o Emphasize components of reading- sounds, letters, combinations o Reading consists of processing individual components of words, combining them into words, and then using the words to derive the meaning of written sentences and passages Whole-language approaches to reading: reading is viewed as a natural process, similar to acquisition of oral language o Learn to read through exposure to complete writing o Encouraged to guess meanings of words based on context o Trial-and-error approach Code-based approaches are superior to whole- language Pg. 307-310 Educational Trends, Multiculturalism, and Emotional Intelligence o Educational Trends: Beyond the 3 R’s US schools are experiencing a return to educational fundamentals embodied in traditional 3 R’s-reading, writing, and arithmetic Multicultural Education Multicultural education: goal is to help minority students develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original cultures Cultural Assimilation or Pluralistic Society? o Cultural assimilation model: goal of education is to assimilate individual cultural identities into a unique, unified American culture o Pluralistic society model: American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual features o Presence of students representing diverse cultures enriched and broadened the educational experience of all students Should Schools Teach Emotional Intelligence? Emotional intelligence: set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions Critics suggest that nurturance of emotional intelligence is best left to families, and schools should concentrate more on traditional curriculum o Adding emotional intelligence can reduce time spent on academics o No specified criteria for what constitutes emotional intelligence so it is difficult to develop curriculum Goal=produce people who are cognitively sophisticated and able to mange their emotions effectively QUIZLET: https://quizlet.com/102145088/psyc4220-exam-3-flash- cards/?new
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