Review Notes for Exam 2
Review Notes for Exam 2 BIOLOGY 1114 - 0010
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sean Bhatnagar on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOLOGY 1114 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Biological Sciences: Form, Function, Diversity, and Ecology in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Biology 1114 Midterm 2 Review NOTES The following set of notes include all information for Midterm 2 Adaptations n pl are specialized features that enhance tness They can be used for Feeding speacializations crypsis They must improve tness such that organisms with the traits have higher tness Adaptations are usually gradual Analogous structure functionally similar but structurally and historically different Vestigial structures Structures with little or no current function Set 2 From week 9 For speciation to happen 2 populations of the same species must be isolated in some way Why Gene ow between them would slow this downkeep it from happening They need to be isolated to Clicker Question Which will have higher heterozygosity 1 A population with 2 alleles in equal proportion or 2 Three alleles in hardy Weinberg equilibrium 3 alleles Hardy Weinberg HAS nothing to do with it It doesn t matter Assuming equal proportions heterozygosity will most of the time be higher Same question except if they are NOT in hardy Weinberg equilibrium 3 alleles Speciation The mechanisms by which populations attain reproductive isolation Commonalities of all species concepts 0 Species are populations linked by history Characterized by shared derived attributes Genetic and morphological continuity Isolating mechanisms Phenomena that prevent gene ow between populations or members of the same population Prezygotic barriers Prevent mating between populations 0 May outright prevent or just decrease the frequency or incidence of mating Positive Assortive mating o Nonrandom mating based on genotype or phenotype Reproductive Isolations Physical barriers between populations are not enough 0 Biologically based reproductive barriers accompany speciation From Week 10 Models of Speciation Allopatry different fatherland 0 Non overlapping distributions By vicariance By dispersal Sypatry same fatherland o Overlapping distributions Paraptry through fartherland o Geographically contiguous 0 Isolation by distance Allopatric Speciation A population is subdivided during the separation mutations arise in each subset such that each subset changes from the original in terms of morphology behavior etc Disperal Alloparty that arises because a subset of the population disperse to a new isolated place 0 Peripatric speciation or founder effect Subsets differentiate while separated 0 Small size of founding population spurs change genetic drift Parapatric speciation o Speciation that occurs when the groups that evolve to be separate species are geographic neibors they are in diffent areas but the areas are next to each other and individuals can move between the areas Gene ow Sympatric Speciation speciation without physical or spatial barrier Sexual Selection arises from difference in mating success A component of natural selection 2 basic models Copulation and Spawning Copulation Requiers individuals to recognize and encounter conspeci cs of the appropriate sex Transmitting gametes Spawning Coordination of members of a population with respect to timing of spawning
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