Chapter 11 Study Guide
Chapter 11 Study Guide PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Monday November 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/02/15
Study Guide for Chapter 11: Aggression LEARNING OBJECTIVES: GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 11. 1. Define aggression as well as related con cepts, such as anger, hostility, and violence. Distinguish between instrumental aggression and emotional aggression. ( pp. 435-436) Aggression is behavior that is intended to harm someone else. Even if someone in not successful in harming another (throws a punch an misses) it’s still aggression. However, if someone does something that harms another by accident, it is not. Anger consists of strong feelings of displeasure in response to a perceived injury; the exact nature of these feelings depends on the situ ation. Hostility is a negative, antagonistic attitude toward another person or group. Instrumental aggression, also called proactive aggression, is when someone aggresses for personal gain, attention, or even self -defense. On the other hand, emotional aggression, or reactive aggression, is harm inflicted for its own sake. It’s often impulsive and carried out in the heat of the moment. 2. Discuss the role of culture in aggression and attitudes toward aggression. Considerious explanations for differences in aggression across cultures and across groups within cultures. (pp. 436-441) Cultures vary dramatically in how - and how much- their members aggress against each other. Factors that contribute are poverty, drug trafficki ng, availability of guns, and political and social unrest. Countries with wide disparities of income have higher rates of murder. 3. Identify individual differences that have been found to predict aggression, paying particul ar attention to gender. In doing so, explain the different types of aggression (overt and relational) for which gender differences have been observed. ( pp. 441-444) Across all cultures men are more violent than women. Boys tend to be more overtly aggressive while women show higher rates of indirect or relational aggression. Aggression in childhood also predicts aggression in adolescence and adulthood. Five dimensions of individual differences are (1) agreeableness, (2) conscientiousness, (3) openness to experience, (4) extraversion, and (5) neuroticism. Low agreeableness, low openness, and high neuroticism are associated with higher levels of aggression. People with high self-esteem, especially when they are high in narcissism are also more likely to aggres s. 4. Consider whether aggression is innate by reviewing the evolutionary perspective and the role of biological and brain factors. Discuss how these different explanations account for gender differences in aggression. ( pp. 444-449) Evolutionary psychological accounts of aggression use principles of evolution to understand the roots of human aggression. Some argue that the people who could and would fight had greater chances of reproducing and passing their genes down to their offspring. We also know that higher levels of testosterone are associated with aggression while higher levels of sero tonin work to restrain impulsive, reactive acts of aggression. Impaired prefrontal processing can disrupt executive functioning (the cognitive abilities and processes that allow humans to plan or inhibit their actions). 5. Consider whether aggression is learned by reviewing the concepts of reinforcement, punishment, and the social learning theory of aggressi on. Discuss how socialization accounts for gender and cultural variations in aggression. ( pp. 449-456) Rewards obtained by aggression will increase its frequency. Positive reinforcement is when aggression produces desired outcomes and negative reinforcemen t is when aggression prevents undesirable outcomes. As we talked about in class, children crave attention so you could be unintentionally rewarding aggressive behavior by reprimanding them, because it’s still a form of attention that they might not have been getting otherwise. Social learning approaches emphasize that males and females are taught different lessons about aggression because they are rewarded and punished differently for aggression. Boys and girls learn what aggressive behavior is acceptable. The same is true for differences in social learning in differ ent cultures; some have a culture of honor in which social status and protecting that honor is done with aggressive behavior. 6. Explain the original version of t he frustration-aggression hypothesis, including discussion of the concepts of displacement and catharsis. Identify problems with this hypothesis and summarize its subsequent reformulation. ( pp. 456-457) Remember, the hypothesis says that (1) frustration always elicits the motive to aggress and (2) all aggression is caused by aggression. It originated in John Dallard’s book Frustration and Aggression which him and his colleagues published during WWII. Displacement refers to aggression that is deflected from the real target to a substitute. Catharsis is similar to displacement because it describes aggression that is displaced into something effective and social acceptable (such as sports) and it can reduce the urge to act out in aggressive ways. One flaw with this hypothesis is that frustration is just one of the negative emotions that can lead to aggression. Other factors such as noise, crowding, threats to self - esteem, feelings of jealousy, and bad odors can trigger aggression. Instead, this theory has been revised to say that arousal can trigger aggression. 7. Discuss the role of affect, arousal, and cognition when it comes to aggression. Consider situational factors that influence these processes. ( pp. 457-463) Negative affect and arousal can increase aggression, especially when they are paired with negative feelings. Higher levels of cognition usually decrease aggression (not always with people with psychosis though) because they can consider the price of the act of aggressing and think about the consequences to their actions. Automatic reactions happen when a person acts without thinking. High arousal can make it difficult to engage in higher -order cognition and self -control mechanisms that can inhibit these reactions. Alcohol is also a situational factor that is notorious for reducing self-regulation and can often lead to aggressive actions that wouldn’t have been taken had the person been sober. 8. Summarize the immediate as well as long -term effects on aggression of exposure to violent forms of media. Explain the concepts of habituation and cultivation. ( pp. 463-471) Numerous studies agree that exposure to violence in media increases aggressive behaviors. Seeing violence in TV shows and oth er media can make people think that the world is a lot more violent than in actually is in addition to desensitizing people to the human suffering that results from aggression in media. Cultivation is the process by which the mass media construct a version of social reality for the public. 9. Discuss the influence of nonviolent and violent forms of pornography on nonsexual and sexual aggression, and consider the factors and psychological processes responsible for these effects. Consider types of interventions or education that might reduce these effects. (pp. 471-472) Positive motions and moderate levels of arousal are unlikely to trigger much aggression. There is little evidence to support a link between nonviolent pornogra phy and aggression. However, not everybody is affected by pornography the same way; there are individual differences from person to person. Men who fit a “rapist’s profile” have relatively high levels of sexual arousal in response to violent pornography and show acceptance of vio lence towards women. Violent pornography is especially dangerous in promoting sexual violence against women if the porn portrays a positive outcome (if the woman resists but eventually enjoys it). 10. Discuss the antecedents, prevalence, and consequences of different forms of violence . Discuss effective ways of reducing violence. ( pp. 472-479) Enhanced education, intelligence, and reasoning are proposed to have helped c ause the decline in violence. Moral reasoning especially has been crucial in reducing violence. People are taught to feel empathy , which makes them less likely to act out aggressively. People who have issues with self -control, social skills, aggressive impulses, and lack empathy might need behavior modification treatments to reduce their violent behavior. Key Terms aggression (p. 435) : Behavior intended to harm another individual. catharsis (p. 456) : A reduction of the motive to aggress that is said to result from any imagines, observed, or actual act of aggression. cultivation (p. 470) : The process by which the mass media (particularly t elevision) construct a version of social reality for the public. cycle of violence (p. 452) : The transmission of domestic violence across generations. desensitization (p. 469) : Reduction in emotion -related physiological reactivity in response to a stimulus. displacement (p. 456) : Aggressing against a substitute target because aggressive acts against the source of the frustration are inhibited by fear or lack of access. frustration-aggression hypothesis (p. 456) : The idea that (1) frustration always e licits the motive to aggress and (2) all aggression is caused by aggression. hostile attribution bias (p. 460) : The tendency to perceive hostile intent in others. pornography (p. 471) : Explicit sexual material. proactive aggression (p. 436) : Aggressive behavior whereby harm is inflicted as a means to a desired end (also called instrumental aggression). reactive aggression (p. 436) : Aggressive behavior where the means and the end coincide; harm is inflicted for its own sake. rumination (p. 461) : In the context of aggression, rumination involves repeatedly thinking about and reliving an anger -inducing event, focusing on angry thoughts and feelings, and perhaps even planning or imagining revenge. social learning theory (p. 451) : The theory that behavior is learned through the observation of others as well as through the direct experience of rewards and punishments. weapons effect (p. 460) : The tendency that the likelihood of aggression will increase by the mere presence of weapons. Sample Multiple Choice Questions 1. The defining characteristic of aggression is that the aggressor a. intends to injure another living being. b. actually causes physical or psychological harm. c. is angry or otherwise emotionally aroused during the aggressive act. d. derives enjoyment from the aggressive act. ANS: A REF: What Is Aggression? OBJ: 1 KEY: Factual 2. Proactive is the same as _____ aggression, while reactive is the same as _____ aggression. a. relational; impersonal b. emotional; instrumental c. instrumental; emotional d. impersonal; relational ANS: C REF: What Is Aggression? OBJ: 1 KEY: Factual 3. When Katie found out that her brother Matt had pulled the heads off all of her Barbie dolls, she threw her Easy Bake oven at him. Katie’s behavior illustrates a. instrumental aggression. b. proactive aggression. c. incompatible responses. d. reactive aggression. ANS: D REF: What Is Aggression? OBJ: 1 KEY: Applied 4. One form of violence that seems to be fairly consistent across cultures is a. violence against young girls. b. gun violence. c. domestic violence. d. bullying. ANS: D REF: Culture, Gender, and Individual Differences OBJ: 2 KEY: Factual 5. Based on Bonta’s (1997) research on nonviolent societies, a powerful way to reduce violence within a society would be to a. emphasize a strict division of labor by gender. b. promote cooperation. c. harshly punish all acts of aggression. d. separate subcultures within the society. ANS: B REF: Culture, Gender, and Individual Differences OBJ: 2 KEY: Conceptual 6. The relatively greater violence rates in the southern United States has been attributed to a. greater variability of temperature in the South than in the North. b. the manner in which residents of the South respond to status threats. c. the ratio of males to females living in the South. d. the age demographics of the South. ANS: B REF: Culture, Gender, and Individual Differences OBJ: 2 KEY: Conceptual 7. Though women are more likely than men to aggress in an intimate relationship, men’s aggression in such relationships differs in that it typically a. emerges in the face of provocation. b. has more severe consequences. c. results from alcohol abuse. d. is sexual in nature. ANS: B REF: Culture, Gender, and Individual Differences OBJ: 3 KEY: Factual 8. Regarding self-esteem and aggression, which of the following is false? a. Narcissism is a good predictor of aggression. b. Low self-esteem is a good predictor of aggression. c. Narcissism is correlated with aggression in response to provocation. d. High self-esteem is predictive of aggression when combined with narcissism and provocation. ANS: B REF: Culture, Gender, and Individual Differences OBJ: 3 KEY: Conceptual 9. The finding that male-to-male violence occurs primarily in response to status challenges, but male-to-female violence occurs primarily in response to sexual jealousy, supports the a. instinct view of aggression. b. evolutionary perspective on aggression. c. learning theory account of aggression. d. sociocultural perspective on aggression. ANS: B REF: Origins of Aggression OBJ: 4 KEY: Conceptual 10. Research concerning the role of testosterone in aggression has demonstrated that a. acts of aggression may increase levels of testosterone. b. testosterone levels drop after successful aggressive episodes. c. the relationship between testosterone and aggression is stronger among fraternity members than college males who do not belong to fraternities. d. individuals with low testosterone levels tend to smile less. ANS: A REF: Origins of Aggression OBJ: 4 KEY: Factual 11. According to research on the role of the brain and executive function in predicting aggressive tendencies, when very aggressive teenagers witnessed a situation in which someone intentionally inflicted pain on another person, they exhibited brain activity associated with a. being part of a group. b. empathy. c. experiencing rewards. d. None of these ANS: C REF: Origins of Aggression OBJ: 4 KEY: Factual 12. Gershoff’s (2002) analysis of studies with over 36,000 participants indicates a positive correlation between corporal punishment and a. aggression as a child. b. aggression as an adult. c. adult criminal behavior. d. All of these ANS: D REF: Origins of Aggression OBJ: 5 KEY: Factual 13. Ira believes that aggression is an acquired tendency picked up by observing others and by experience with rewards and punishments. Ira’s beliefs are most consistent with a. social learning theory. b. the evolutionary perspective. c. instinct theory. d. negative affect escape model. ANS: A REF: Origins of Aggression OBJ: 5 KEY: Applied 14. Aggressive models teach aggressive behavior by all of the following except a. teaching observers how to perform the aggressive act. b. fostering positive attitudes toward aggression. c. allowing observers to construct aggressive scripts. d. increasing the frustration experienced by observers. ANS: D REF: Origins of Aggression OBJ: 5 KEY: Conceptual 15. Ethan has been released from jail in the United States and is applying for jobs in the South and the Northeast. Ethan is probably more likely to land interviews in the South than in the Northeast if he was in jail for a. murdering a person who taunted him in public about an affair with his wife. b. committing fraud on a million-dollar insurance claim. c. illegally importing cocaine across the border. d. robbing a jewelry store owned by a member of a racial minority group. ANS: A REF: Origins of Aggression OBJ: 5 KEY: Applied 16. When his wife tells him that he cannot go out bowling with the guys, Homer gets mad and throttles his son, Bart. Homer’s behavior is an example of a. instrumental aggression. b. catharsis. c. displacement. d. vicarious aggression. ANS: C REF: Situational Influences on Aggression OBJ: 6 KEY: Applied 17. A reduction of the motive to aggress that is said to result from any imagined, observed, or actual act of aggression is called a. rumination. b. displacement. c. catharsis. d. cultivation. ANS: C REF: Situational Influences on Aggression OBJ: 6 KEY: Factual 18. The concept of catharsis has been undermined by findings suggesting that engaging in or witnessing aggression often a. reduces the likelihood of cultivation. b. produces displacement. c. causes habituation. d. increases aggression. ANS: D REF: Situational Influences on Aggression OBJ: 6 KEY: Conceptual 19. According to Berkowitz’s (1989) revision of frustration-aggression theory, aggression is a response to a. only moderate, not extreme or mild, frustrations. b. previously displaced aggression. c. negative emotions. d. catharsis. ANS: C REF: Situational Influences on Aggression OBJ: 6 KEY: Factual 20. According to research on school shooters, which of the following is most likely to increase a person’s aggressive response? a. Embarrassment b. Sexual stimulation c. Social rejection d. Perceiving that an adversary is weak ANS: C REF: Situational Influences on Aggression OBJ: 7 KEY: Applied 21. Who should be least likely to aggress? a. Someone who has just watched a slasher movie b. Someone who has just watched a funny cartoon c. Someone who has just watched a science documentary d. Someone who has just watched the news ANS: B REF: Situational Influences on Aggression OBJ: 7 KEY: Conceptual 22. The idea that arousal created by one stimulus can intensify an individual’s emotional response to another stimulus is called a. social learning theory. b. the negative affect escape model. c. excitation transfer. d. aggression cultivation. ANS: C REF: Situational Influences on Aggression OBJ: 7 KEY: Factual 23. When exposed to situational cues, such as the presence of a gun, people tend to a. demonstrate decreases in aggression. b. feel socially rejected. c. experience a decrease in testosterone. d. have automatic cognitions regarding aggression. ANS: D REF: Situational Influences on Aggression OBJ: 7 KEY: Conceptual 24. When Paulie accidentally bumps into Christopher, causing Christopher to spill his coffee, Christopher assumes that Paulie’s behavior was deliberately intended to make him spill his coffee. He responds by yelling obscenities at Paulie. Christopher could be described as a. having a hostile attribution bias. b. suffering from catharsis. c. displaying instrumental aggression. d. displaying relational aggression. ANS: A REF: Situational Influences on Aggression OBJ: 7 KEY: Applied 25, Research investigating the relationship between alcohol and aggression has shown that a. intoxicated people are likely to base their aggressive responses on initial, salient information about a situation and fail to recognize later, subtle cues. b. small and large amounts of alcohol tend to increase aggression, whereas moderate amounts tend to decrease it. c. alcohol makes men more likely to aggress, but it makes women less likely to aggress. d. intoxicated people are more likely to be influenced by the weapons effect, whereas sober people are more likely to be affected by factors relevant to the cognitive neoassociation analysis. ANS: A REF: Situational Influences on Aggression OBJ: 7 KEY: Conceptual 26. Research on the link between media violence and aggression has demonstrated that a. exposure to violent films increases aggressive behavior in the lab, but decreases aggressive behavior in the field. b. violent films increase aggressiveness, but violent music videos and song lyrics do not increase aggressiveness. c. all media violence ultimately reduces aggression by providing a cathartic outlet. d. all forms of media violence appear to increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior. ANS: D REF: Media Effects OBJ: 8 KEY: Factual 27. When Mina first started playing the new Blood Bath Beach Party video game, the extremely violent images made her cringe. Now she has played the game so many times that she barely even notices such images. This illustrates a. displacement. b. cultivation. c. desensitization. d. catharsis. ANS: C REF: Media Effects OBJ: 8 KEY: Applied 28. Rudolph is viewing some nonviolent pornography. In which of the following conditions is Rudolph most likely to show greater subsequent levels of aggression? a. When he is angry b. When the pornography portrays nude women c. When Rudolph is sexually aroused by the pornography d. When Rudolph has not viewed pornography before ANS: A REF: Media Effects OBJ: 9 KEY: Applied 29. Pinker (2011) studied the prevalence of aggression across centuries. He found that a. aggression has increased over time. b. aggression has decreased over time. c. aggression has remained stable over time. d. aggression is a result of rumination over time. ANS: B REF: Reducing Violence OBJ: 10 KEY: Conceptual 30. One of the most successful treatments for violent juvenile delinquents is called a. bullying prevention. b. aggression replacement training. c. multisystemic therapy. d. sensitization therapy. ANS: C REF: Reducing Violence OBJ: 10 KEY: Factual
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