Exam 3 Study Guide (Learning, Memory, Cognitive Development )
Exam 3 Study Guide (Learning, Memory, Cognitive Development ) Psych 210
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Ann Carter Herbert
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ann Carter Herbert on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 210 at Clemson University taught by Professor Chris Pagano, PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
Exam 3 Study Guide on Learning Memory Cognitive Development Learning any process through which experience at one time can alter and individual s behavior at a future time 0 Classical Conditioning 0 Fundamentals of Classical Conditioning Re ex simple relatively automatic stimulus response sequence mediated by the nervous system Stimulusa well de ned event in an environment which triggers a Response Habituationa decline in the magnitude of re ex response when the stimulus is repeated several times in succession Pavlov s initial discovery of classical conditioning Pavlovian Conditioning Salivary glands in dogs Conditioned stimulusthe bell sound Conditioned responsesalivation Unconditioned stimulusfood placed in the mouth Unconditioned responsesalivation Extinction without food less salivation although animal is not returned to a completely unconditioned state Spontaneous recoverythe pairing of food with stimulus again Generalizationdepends on the similarity of the new stimulus and the original stimulus o What is learned in Classical Conditioning A connection between two stimuli o Conditioned Fear Liking Hunger and Sexual Arousal Watson s Demonstration of Fear Conditioning Read page 110 in text Liking Evaluative Conditioning changes in the strength of liking for disliking a stimulus as a result of being paired with another positive or negative stimulus Conditioned Hunger Appetizers can trigger the desire for other foods Conditioned Sexual Arousal o Conditioned Drug reactions 0 Operant Conditioning 0 Operant responses some actions operate on the world to produce some effect 0 Operant conditioning the process by which people and animals learn to make operant responses or instrumental conditioning 0 From the Law of Effect to Operant Conditioning From Thorndike to Skinner Thorndike s puzzle box with the cat Thorndike s Law of effect 0 quotResponses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situationquot Skinner 0 Preferred the term reinforcement instead of Thorndike s satisfaction because it made no assumptions to anything happening in the mind Skinner s box rat and food 0 Principles of Reinforcement Shapingsuccessively closer approximations to the desired response are reinforced until the desired response nally occurs and can be reinforced Particular Reinforcement A particular response only sometimes produces a reinforce Continuous reinforcement response is always reinforced Partial Reinforcement See notes and page 120 in text Difference between Positive and Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement o Increases a behavior 0 Increases desired behaviors o Punishment 0 Decreases a behavior 0 Decreases undesired behaviors Positive 0 Add a reinforcement or punishment 0 Negative 0 Remove a reinforcement or punishment Punishment produces negative emotions which through classical conditioning become paired with anything present during the punishment ex The parent 0 The child learns that punishment is a way to control others Punishment does not produce the desired response 0 Discrimination Training in Operant Conditioning 0 When Rewards Back re The Overjusti cation Effect in Humans If a child is always given a treat he will expect the treat When the treat is taken away the child will not perform this causes the child to never learn to perform without expectation 0 Behavior Analysis 0 Beyond Classical and Operant Theories of Learning Play Exploration and Observation 0 Play How the Young Learn How 0 Exploration How Animals Learn What and Where 0 Social Learning Learning by Watching and Interacting with Others 0 Specialized Learning Abilities Filling the Blanks in SpeciesTypical Behavior Patterns 0 Special Abilities for Learning What to Eat o Other Examples of Special Learning Abilities for additional info see previous notes posted on topics Memory and Attention 0 An InformationProcessing Model of the Mind 0 Sensory Memory The Brief Prolongation of Sensory Expedence o The ShortTerm Store Conscious Perception and Thought 0 LongTerm Memory The Minds Library of Information 0 Control Processes The Mind s Information Transportation Systems 0 Attention The Portal to Consciousness o The Ability to Focus Attention and Ignore the Irrelevant o The Ability to Shift Attention to Signi cant Stimuli o Unconscious Automatic Processing of Stimulus Input 0 Brain Mechanisms of Preattentive Processing and Attention Working Memory The Active Conscious Mind o Verbal Working Memory The Phonological Loop 0 WorkingMemory Span Executive Functions 0 Four General Conclusions about Executive Functions 0 Neurological Basis of Executive Functions Memory as the Representation of Knowledge 0 Explicit and Implicit Memory 0 Neuropsychological Evidence for Separate Memory Systems Memory as the Process of Remembering o Encoding Information into LongTerm Memory 0 Memory Consolidation Retrieving Information from LongTerm Memory 0 Mental Associations as Foundations for Retrieval 0 Memory Construction as a Source of Distortion o Prospective Memory and Mental Time Travel
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