Test 2 Study Guide
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Date Created: 11/03/15
COMM 1025 Review Sheet for Exam #2 Exam: Monday, November 9 Format: 40 multiple choice, some will be true/false Ch. 5: Nonverbal Codes • Definition: Nonverbal language has multiple codes (a language that means something like facial expressions and gesturing); there is a continuous flow of nonverbal cues; they are more natural and spontaneous; we usually do not think about them as we do them; they aren't arbitrary like words are; they are culturally specific rules about space or body language. Some examples of nonverbal cues are human actions (intentional or unintentional) that affect interpretations within an interaction • Types of messages conveyed in every encounter - How much you like the person, your status, how responsive you are, your emotional expression o All based on facial expression, eye contact, proximity, touching, volume of speech, gesturing • There are 6 ways nonverbal cues relate to verbal messages 1. Repeat - reinforce the message (holding up 3 fingers if you are giving the person 3 minutes to do something) 2. Complement – complements the message (someone is moping and they are speaking softly) 3. Contradict – undermine the verbal cues (child says they aren’t scared but they are hiding behind their mom) 4. Substitute – replaces verbal cues (someone is grieving so you give them a hug rather than tell them you’re sorry) 5. Accent / Emphasize – makes your verbal message even stronger (vocally emphasizes certain words in an exciting story) 6. Regulate – regulating the verbal conversation (looking at your watch while talking to someone indicates you need to go) • Kinesics – the study of body movement; the basic code of body and movement; how do we use our bodies to send messages; how do the use of our bodies affect the way we send messages o Emblems – gestures that have symbolic meaning (thumbs up means you did a good job) o Illustrators – shows what you’re talking about (I caught a fish THIS big *holds up hands to demonstrate size*) o Affect displays – has to do with demeanor or emotion; your feelings; gestures that display emotions (posture) o Regulators – gestures that try to regulate interaction (packing up at the end of class) o Adaptors – a way to release energy / adapt to the situation (tapping during test taking; putting your hand to your ear if you can’t here someone talking) o Facial expressions – partially innate and partially learned; smiling and frowning is biological; we regulate or emotions based on culture (smiling when you receive a gift even when you don’t like it) o Paralinguistic – characteristics that define how something is said rather than what is said; the study of sounds that accompany words; includes voice pitch, filler words (uh / uhm / like), when we use silence in speaking o Cronemics and time orientations – the study of time and how it affects human behavior; we have: ▯ Biological time orientation (eg built in biological clocks) ▯ Cultural time orientation (words / time concepts differ across cultures and languages) ▯ Psychological time orientation (how we ourselves experience time; are we always late, are we planning for the future) o Proxemics and territoriality – the study of how we use space and what space means to us ▯ Territoriality – the need to create boundaries • Public territory – territory we share with others • Home territory – areas owned and controlled by individuals • Body territories – our own personal space and we ourselves decide who gets close ▯ Spatial arrangement – the ways we arrange home and public territories (how we set up our furniture; how kids are seated in a classroom; where you sit at a conference table); these arrangements define our roles and influence our comfort Ch. 6: Interpersonal Communication – communication between people • Dyadic Communication o More personal and immediate form of communication; direct; very spontaneous; between two people so you know how to read / respond to social cues; it isn’t rehearsed; it is informal; (two people conversing is dyadic communication but one person speaking in front of a crowd isn’t) o Developmental approach – those who believe that dyadic and interpersonal communication is NOT the same thing; something special must occur to turn ordinary, impersonal, dyadic interaction into interpersonal communication (eg: dyadic communication can occur between two people emailing each other but it isn’t face to face or “special” interpersonal communication); when the rules governing the relationship, the amount of data communicators have about one another, and the communicators’ level of knowledge change, THEN dyadic becomes interpersonal • Rules and “ways of knowing” of how we communicate with each other o Cultural-level rules – are general and apply to all members of a particular culture; we follow rules when we meet someone (like being polite and shaking their hand, talking about the weather or light topics) o Sociological-level rules – rules that are ted to group membership; when we interact with people who belong to specific groups within our culture (like we talk about school and homework with kids in our class) o Psychological level rules – when we interact with people we know quite well, we abandon sociological rules and use psychological rules; we make these rules our self; we are free to break rules in close, personal relationships (using sarcasm around your friends, we do goofy and personal things we wouldn’t do with strangers) • Ways of, or approaches to, defining relationships o Cognitive construct – characteristics or qualities we associate with particular kinds of relationships (think of prototypes); we ask ourselves what does ‘Best Friend” mean; (eg: looking at level of trust; amount of time spent with different actions); o Mini-cultures – shared norms and meanings unique to a particular relationship; (eg: inside jokes, ways of using words, code language) o Dialectic approaches - Collection of contradictory forces; we have an individual identity and a relationship identity and we have internal conflict as to how much of each we should maintain • Primary relational dialects: • Autonomy / togetherness – friends and couples decide how independent they want to be • Expressive / protective – finding a balance between sharing personal information and keeping it a secret • Novelty / predictability – people in relationships fall into habits that can be predictable; here they must choose how predictable they want to be and how autonomous they want to be; keeping it same-old or making it new • We resolve dialectic tensions through: • Balance between the two • Dialectal emphasis – going with one extreme • Cycle – shift over time • Segmentation – divide aspects of life • Interpersonal attraction filtering theory aka Duck’s filtering theory – everyone we encounter is a potential friend but we filter people out; we use a series of filters to judge how close to others we want to become; at each filter, some potential partners are eliminated o First test: sociological or incidental cues: proximity (how close they are to you / in your social circle?); frequency of interaction (do you see them enough?) o Second test: Pre-interaction Cues: are they good-lookin? How is their nonverbal behavior? o Third test: interaction cues: social rewards, conversational management (do you like the way they interact with you? Is it smooth and effortless or awkward?) o Fourth test: cognitive cues: is their attitude similar to yours? Are you compatible and share the same values? • Self-disclosure – when we revel information to others that they are unlikely to discover on their own; when we voluntarily open up to them; you are unlikely to find out through other means; it should be current (it is most explosive when the past event reveals something in current time); it deals with more than facts and involves risk o Rules • Self disclosure is not appropriate in all relationships so it must match the nature of your relationship • Choose the right time and place for your disclosures • Disclosures should be gradual and not sidden • There’s a norm of reciprocity - both sides should be comfortable to disclose • Consider the effect of the disclosure on the other person o Benefits • Establishing deeper, trusting relationships; managing stress; perception checking; increased self understanding o Responding to disclosures • Advising/evaluating – not the best response, not everyone wants advice, most people want listening • Analyzing/interpreting – analyze the cause of the dilemma; offer insight but it might be met with defensiveness • Reassuring/supporting – offering sympathy but may cut the discussion short and not help • Questioning/probing – asking questions to find out more • Paraphrasing/understanding) – one of the best; reflects what they say so they know you understand them • Relational Patterns o Role Relations – partners either show dominance and submissiveness (dominant is one-up role; submissiveness is one down role); confirming and disconfirming responses • In a complimentary pattern, one partner takes the one up position and the other takes the one down (parents and children usually have this sort of relationship) • In a symmetrical pattern, both members fight for the one up position • Spirals – one partner’s behavior serves to intensify the other’s • Progressive spiral – partners behavior goes leads into increasing levels of involvement and satisfaction • Regressive spiral – partners misunderstanding leads to more misunderstanding and a damaging relationship • Paradoxes – when couples fall into the habit of sending one another contradictory messages (I love you and I don’t mind if you go out with your friends but ill be lonely and miserable) • Double bind – a particularly strong and enduring paradoxical communication wherein the receiver is simultaneously given two opposing messages but is prohibited from resolving them (Parent tells child to give them a hug but then frowns in disgust when the kid comes closer) Ch. 7: Small Group • Groups – develop over time; collection of individuals who, as a result over interacting with one another over time, become interdependent, developing shared patterns of behavior and a collective identity; a collection of people develops into a group through interactions; in a true group, any action by one affects all; members develop and share stable and predictable norms, values and role structures; members experience a sense of identity and psychological closeness • Systems Theory – a set of interrelated elements that respond in a predictable manner and maintain a consistent nature of interactions over time o Interdependence – ripple effect; behavior of one effects all o Synergy – the idea that groups are more effective than the best individuals within them • Negative synergy –if one part is failing, the rest can step up or the group can fail o Non summativity – the whole of the group is greater than the sum of the parts; a group is not just parts added but rather a whole new “better” being; (eg in basketball, you can have the 5 most athletic people but they might not work together as a good team) o Variables of input – resources, ideas, influences o Throughput – procedures (like decision making methods, roles, rules, consensus, leadership) that the group uses o Output – decisions, solutions, recommendations, productivity • Group problem solving o Standard agenda/reflective thinking – a rational process for solving problems; a six step guide to solving problems • Problem Identification – clarify the problem; find difference between current state of affairs and desired ones • Problem analysis – assessing the problem and factors of the problem; scope, harm, causes • Criteria selection - decide on the characteristics of a valid solution prior to discussing specific solutions; what are the standards for solution • Solution generation – brainstorming; generate options • Solution evaluation and selection – group members use previously selected criteria to evaluate each solution • Implementation – putting the solution into affect o Brainstorming – when group members are encouraged to generate as many ideas as they can as quickly as possible o Nominal group technique – combines the standard agenda, brainstorming, and the Johnson’s methods for generating ideas; the group cuts interaction to a minimum; members rank their favorite idea and it is chosen; eliminates potential conflict; allows quieter members to be herd • Group rolls o Task rolls – focused on accomplishing specific goal; (solving a problem, making a decision, creating a product); results in productivity; (eg: initiator, contributor, orienter, recorder, opinion giver, devil’s advocate) o Maintenance rolls – focused on maintaining positive social climate / relationships among group members; results in cohesiveness; (eg: encourager, harmonizer, follower, group observer, tension reliever) o Negative / Dysfunctional roles – focused on personal goals that inhibit achievement of group goals (clown, stagehog, blocker • Leadership – how do we select a leader? (trait, style, situational / adaptive, and functional) o Trait approach – chose a leader based on their personality or innate characteristics; idea that people are born with these leadership traits o Styles approach – it is not the personality of the leader but rather how he or she acts; people can learn to run autocratic and democratic processes; leaders need to adapt to the situation or their followers o Functional approach – leader is anyone that serves the group goal • Truckman’s Group Development Model o Forming – the initial stage where the group is forming; they are sizing each other up and being polite o Storming - there was a little tension but now this primary tension becomes more real tension; competition, conflict; vying for leadership positions; usually disagreement o Norming – the group settles into patter interaction; how we behave and how we do things o Preforming – now the group gets on task o Adjourning - If the group by this point have become a true group (have taken on roles, made relationships); there is a now coming apart stage; summing up; talking it over; group identity is being made into the past • Group think – when a group gets too confident and makes poor decisions; the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision making outcome; members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints, by actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences; members believe they can do no wrong; can occur when cohesion is too high and members are too similar o Symptoms • Illusion of invulnerability – group loses all sense of reality • Belief in the groups own mortality – the members believe their actions and beliefs are more valuable than those of people outside the group • Shared stereotypes – members believe that anyone who opposes the group is stupid or wrong • Collective rationalizations – members stick to an ill-advised course of action even in the face of contrary information • Self-censorship – individuals who doubt the group feel that they have to censor themselves because they will be met by disapproval • Illusion of unanimity – a doubting member believes that everyone else agrees with the group’s chosen action • Pressure on dissenters – if a dissenting member speaks up they are severely sanctioned • Mind-guards – people who protect the leaders of the group from outside and negative opinions / information o Ways to prevent groupthink • Members can assign someone to be devil’s advocate; they can take criticisms seriously; shouldn’t brag; hold second-chance meeting to review the flaws of a decision; monitoring behavior Ch. 8: Organizational Communication • Definition - communication that takes place within an organization; how different elements of an organization come together to determining how it functions; what makes an organization is communication practices; exploring organizations through communication; We need to understand things like gender, ideology, ethnicity, etc. to have good organizational communication • Systems Theory - characteristic of an organization; there are different elements that are independent from each other and they function differently than when they are together v when they are not (parts of a car - useless when they are not together); this theory can apply to people and roles within an organization • Hierarchy – a system that is divided into orders and ranks; status and power are not distributed equally • Bureaucracy - a key concept in organizational communication; a clear chain of command; the lines of authority; the structure of the organization would be very clear; everyone has clear tasks; (there is an formal chart: CEO at the top, etc.) and organizational communication flows through this chart; But not all organizations function in this "clear cut" way! • Structuration Theory - we are constantly creating and recreating social structures through our interactions; says that organizational theory structures society; we create norms and rules of society and such based on our interactions; there is a reciprocal relationship between organizational strictures and organizational communication • Organizational Culture o Defined - a system of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs, which governs how people behave in organizations. These shared values have a strong influence on the people in the organization and dictate how they dress, act, and perform their jobs. o Organizational rituals / rites - a public, dramatic set of planned activities that consolidate various forms of the company's culture; exemplifies the organizational culture and therefore reinforces it (CI, the Dundies) • 6 different types of rites 1. Passage - celebrates new role (CI) 2. Degradation - strips away power (impeachment) 3. Enhancement - rewards (Dundies) 4. Renewal - improve functioning (corporate retreat) 5. Conflict resolution - reduce conflict (grievance procedures) 6. Integration - create common identity (end of semester party) o Organizational stories - help us make sense of organizational culture by reflecting company values; narrative examples or anecdotes (GW snow days, law students sued GW for lost time due to unnecessary weather closures, this organizational story has a stigma about GW) o Organizational metaphor - linguistic expressions that allow us to experience one thing in terms of another; see something in terms of something else; (colonial inauguration); embody aspects of organizational culture • Information flow of organizations o Formal Structure – when information flows through a structured chain of command officially recognized by the organization (worker goes to the manager who sends it to their supervisor) o Informal structure – when information takes a more personal and less structured path (gossip in the lunchroom); “heard it on the grapevine;” more often face to face; at least as accurate as formal channels o Downward flow – when someone near the top of the organization sends a message to someone near the bottom (instructions, appraisal, orientation) • Problems: not enough information (inadequate info on how to do their jobs); or information overload (with junk emails and memos); inappropriate channels; filtering through serial transmission; pervasive climate of dominance and submission • Fixes: target to proper audience; build in redundancy; use multiple channels; encourage questions o Upward flow – when a message travels from the bottom to the top (progress reports, problems, suggestions) • Problems: often neglected, no follow-up, distorted to avoid negative info • Fixes: Ombudsman (watchdog!); follow up; encourage and reward criticism o Horizontal flow - when communication occurs with people at the same level (cross-department teams and meetings; problem-solving; info sharing) • Problems: clash of interests and perspectives; jargon/vocabulary; competition/territoriality • Fixes: Build cooperative climate; paraphrasing and clarifying • Network Analysis – a method of mapping informal communication patterns o The structures: loose coupling and tight coupling • Loose coupling – autonomous units; when relations between subunits in an organization is relatively weak; information flow is gradual • Tight Coupling - subunits within an organization that are closely connected and highly interdependent o Roles Clique – a group of people who communicate more with each other than • they do with others in their organization; members of cliques may have similar jobs or share a common status • Liaison – someone who connects the two cliques without being a member of either one; may help info spread between people who would not normally communicate • Bridge – a member of a clique that has connections with another clique • Isolate – someone who is outside the informal network; an isolate that has no links to any clique
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