knowledge checklist 2
knowledge checklist 2 80486 - PSYC 2010 - 003
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80486 - PSYC 2010 - 003
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Sullivan on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 80486 - PSYC 2010 - 003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G Brainerd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
Test Two Knowledge Check List Psychology 201 Chapter 6 Learning: any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience. Realize the importance of learning for humans since, unlike many animals (spiders & fruit flies), we have few instincts and even important behaviors (such as sex) must be learned. Spiders born knowing everything they need to know, humans aren’t. Don’t need to acquire any additional knowledge Humans need to constantly learn how to do things (school, parents, language, communication) don’t have basic knowledge Fruit flies know everything they need to know about reproductive behavior. Humans need to learn this response too. Be able to define and differentiate between habituation and adaptation. Both: are the first & most basic type of learning involve learning to ignore & not to respond to all the UNIMPORTANT STIMULATION; sights/sounds/odors that assault our senses continuously (most doesn’t affect our lives at all; someone’s water bottle..) w/out them other learning wouldn’t have occurred. Habituation involves a decrease and cessation of behavior learning to ignore repetitive stimulus (loud sounds ie. Slamming door) w/out this: first repetitive behavior will over take over our attention forever (ie: focus on clock ticking till we die) (those who don’t habituate well = most likely ADHD) Orienting Response turn & look at source of stimulation; diminishing giving attention to stimulation. Startle Response a response to sudden, startling stimuli, such as sudden noise or sharp movement. Some stimuli are too much for habituation: (ie. Barking dogs are all 3) 1 Intense (i.e. loud) Unpredictable Occur at night Adaptation involves a decrease in sensitivity of sense organ (not able to smell aftershave after 10 minutes). change in the sense organs themselves become less sensitive to a repeated stimulus (ie. Old homes odor, after being there a little, don’t notice smells as much bc adapted to the smell; ie2.: don’t feel weight of clothes/tightness/shoes until mentioned & then aware of feelings, body adapted to clothing; ie3.: few min after putting on perfume, adapted to smell & barely smell it –usually put on more, end up having way too much) Realize why any other learning would be impossible without these basic types of learning. ????? Understand, be able to identify examples of, and be able to diagram classical conditioning: a previously neutral stimulus develops the ability to produce an automatic/reflexive response. (Edwin Twitmyer 1 to discover CC) aka “Pavlovian conditioning” ie. Ivan Pavlov’s dogs: Food produces response of salivation in mammals, he gave a warning stimulus w/ food ringing a bell. After gave them food & mouths would water, the bell produced it by itself bc paired w/ idea of food even if food wasn’t present (bell becomes effective conditioned stimulus, began as neutral) no new behavior occurs usually with behaviors not under direct control (respondent behaviors, controlled by autonomic nervous system) emotional reactions also controlled by CC: Negative When kids flinch while being yelled at by parents; previous hit causes fear response in child & parents voice becomes conditioned stimulus & it alone causes ducking response from child) *Hit Fear Voice^ Dentist office pain from some procedure, the smell of the office alone can produce fear sensation of that pain again, same with sound of drill. 2 *Pain Fear Smell/Drill ^ Positive sees a very attractive lifeguard & “fall in love”, he has specific lotion & becomes “paired” with him because they always smell like it when you’re around them. Smells lotion somewhere else & produces same “in love” reaction, ASO (sexual object) love Lotion^ used a lot for sexual arousal. [Fetishes intense reaction to something that wouldn’t normally be sexually stimulating.] Know the names and the function of the: Neutral Stimulus neutral; needs to be trained/conditioned to produce response. (Bell perceives food & then they’re paired = conditioned stimulus) Unconditioned stimulus always works, no conditioning/training necessary. Always there to produce response. (food, always creates salvation) Conditioned stimulus previously neutral stimulus that eventually comes to evoke a conditioned response. Unconditioned response unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditioned stimulus (Dog salivating to sight of food.) Conditioned response learned response to the previously neutral stimulus (salivation) Be able to define and recognize examples of the following classical conditioning phenomena: Extinction the gradual weakening & disappearance of a conditioned response tendency. The Conditioned Stimulus is repeatedly presented w/out the Unconditioned stimulus. Only way to UNDO CC. Can happen to both neg&pos CC. bell w/out food, then bell loses ability to produce conditioned response. ASO is gone after distance comes b/w you & lover, smell lotion you get “love” response again, but more you smell lotion w/out being on lifeguard, it loses it’s CC. You smell lotion again after a long period of time, & you smell the lotion & reaction comes back. (Spontaneous Recovery) 3 Spontaneous recovery reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus; occurs when an extinguished response develops the ability to produce a response again w/out any further training; only requires passage of time w/ exposure to the Conditioned Stimulus. Won’t work long, very weak & disappears in short period of time. Generalization organism has learned a response to a specific stimulus that is similar to the original stimulus; develop New Conditioned Stimuli, which are usually similar to the original Conditioned Stimulus. More similar the stimulus, the more likely it is to generalize Explains how human fears grow & spread. ie. Child that’s hit by father fears his voice & then anyone who calls his name produces the same fear response (ducking) At times w/too much fears becomes too generalized & result in phobias. However, they can be treated. Discrimination organism doesn’t respond to similar stimuli as the original stimulus; only one conditioned stimulus causes the response to occur. All other stimuli, even though similar, fail to produce the response. Dog salivates only when he hears the specific bag being opened, not other bags. Almost opposite of generalization. Father is alcoholic, so boys fear is produced by “drunk” voice, not normal voice. Operant Conditioning is on of the most important sections in the text In order to develop new behaviors, we must go to a new type of learning called Operant or Instrumental Conditioning form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences. (B.F Skinner) Know Thorndike’s Law of Effect Developed in early 1900’s by Edward Lee Throndike Powerful law for controlling behavior; 2 parts: 1. If you do something & it turns out to be good, pleasing or satisfying, you are going to do that thing again. (go to a restaurant with good food, you’ll go back) 2. If you do something & it turns out to be bad, upsetting or unsatisfying, you are not likely to do it again. 4 If you see behavior that doesn’t make sense, look at the first law, what’s good & what they get out of it. Must define “good things” by their effect. TRICK ?: times you see something that looks bad, but increases rate of behavior, & still needs to be a positive reinforcer. Know the changes that Skinner made when he defined reinforcement by its effect on behavior: occurs when an event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response. Put rat in operant chamber “Skinner Box”, main response was pressing a lever on one side. It’s not due to reflexes, but to???? Be able to define and recognize examples of the following types of reinforcement. Positive Reinforcement Anything that occurs as a result of a behavior & increases the rate of behavior. Presentation of a REWARDING stimuli. Primary Reinforcers events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs Associated with basic body needs Powerful reinforcers Work well until satiation (name for something when you have too much of a given reinforcer) Secondary Reinforcer events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers; learned by pairing with primary reinforcers Learned Reinforcer Not born knowing their given value Loss of effectiveness: satiation, unpaired with back up Backup Reinforcers ? Generalized Reinforcer learned reinforcer, paired with many different back ups, result in never satiate to this particular reinforcer. Negative Reinforcement The removal of an aversive stimulus that results in an increase in the rate of that behavior. Rat in Skinner Bot Most human relations, anytime you harass someone & get your way. 5 NOT PUNISHMENT 2 ways it can be used: Escape Conditioning subject can cut short or terminate the aversive stimulus = always get some! Avoidance Conditioning if they respond in time, they can avoid the aversive stimulus completely. Operate Conditioning Box (easy to remember by) Administer Remove Positive Positive Reinforcement = Extinction = increasing rate of behavior Decrease Negative Punishment = Negative Reinforcement Decrease = increase Attach experiences to punishments BF Skinner doesn’t believe in punishment, society uses too much. Be able to define and recognize examples of the following operant conditioning phenomena: Shaping repeatedly reinforcing closer & closer approximations of a desired response until the desired response is achieved. Ie. food released when rat’s near lever, until he realizes he needs to press it to get food. Extinction gradual weakening & disappearance of a response tendency because the response is no longer followed by reinforcers. Ie. food stops being released when rat presses lever. Generalization an organisms responding to stimuli other than the original stimulus used in conditioning; responding increases in the presence of new stimulus that resembles original discriminative stimulus. 6 Discrimination an organism’s lack of response to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus used in conditioning. Punishment when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make the response. Be sure that you know the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment. (Page 249 and Figure 6.18) Negative STRENTHENS a response Punishment WEAKENS a response. Know how people are punished even if their parents are total not punishers. Ie. wear an outfit to school & get made fun of, Natural consequences of your behavior = things you do you’ll just naturally get consequences for (warned not to play w/iron, goes to play w/it, falls on you & hurts head = natural consequence; hangovers) Other punishing agents Know when Dr. B. considers punishment to be appropriate. Stop bad behaviors in the bud Eliminate dangerous behaviors (like aggression to parent or sibling) Punishment appropriate during times of: o DANGER Self mutilating behavior autistic do self destructive things to themselves (10,000 x’s bang heads, scratch themselves…) = before it becomes extinct w/ positive reinforcement, but negative = 3 or 4 x’s o STOP PROBLEM BEHAVIORS something that may become a potentially well established habit later on. Be able to define and recognize examples Intermittent Schedules of reinforcement (Fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval & variable interval). FixedRatio (FR) reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses. Ie. Rat reinforced every tenth lever press. VariableRatio (VR) reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses; number of nonreinforced responses 7 varies around a predetermined average. Ie rat reinforced for every tenth lever press on average. FixedInterval (FI) reinforce is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed. Ie. rat reinforced for first lever press after a 2 min interval has elapsed & must wait another 2 min before be able to earn next reinforcement. VariableInterval (VI) reinforce is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed; interval length varies around a predetermined average. Ie. rat reinforced for the first lever press after a 1 min interval has elapsed, but following intervals are 3min, 2 min, 4 min..ect w/ a 2 min average length. For example, a fixed ratio5; Lisa is paid a set amount of money when she completes sewing five shirts. Know their rate and pattern of response (Summarized in Figure 6.17) Ratio schedules produce more rapid responding bc w/ faster responding = sooner reinforcement. Variable= more steady responses and greater resistance to extinction. Be able to define and recognize examples of situation that suggest evolutionary influence on conditioning. Preparedness and Phobias involves species specific predispostions to be conditioned in certain ways & not others; organisms programmed to acquire certain fears more readily than others. Ie. phobias to snakes, spiders.. ect are more common than others bc most likely were generally threats to our ancestors & fear respose most likely has a survival value for species. Prepared phobic stimuli produce more rapid conditioning, stronger fear responses, & greater resistance to extinction. Conditioned Taste Aversion “SauseBearnaise Syndrome” occurs when a subject associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance; ie. avoiding certain foods after getting sick from them. Latent learning learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs; rats learned the maze, but no motivation to demonstrate this learning until reward was introduced; learning CAN take place in absence of reinforcement. Rats who displayed latent learning had formed a Cognitive map (mental representation of the spatial layout) of the maze. 8 Understand the concept of Observational Learning when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others (who are called models); being conditioned indirectly by virtue of observing anothers conditioned. ie. new drivers knowing where to put the key & somewhat how to drive from observing others do it. Know Bandura’s 4 basic processes in observational learning. Attention to learn through observation, you must pay attention to another person’s behavior & its consequences. (highlight importance of cognition) Retention must store mental representations of what you have witnessed in your memory if occasion to use observed response doesn’t occur for a period of time. (highlights importance of cognition) Reproduction enacting a modeled response depends on your ability to reproduce the response by converting your stored mental images into overt behavior. Ie. most people can’t remake an amazing dunk after a pro bball player does it. Motivation unlikely to reproduce an observed response unless you are motivated to do so. Motivation depends on whether you cross a situation that you believe response is likely to pay off. Skip the Featured Study on the power of modeling. Know and understand The Illustrated Overview of the Three Types of Learning on pages 264265. Know the Personal Application “Achieving SelfControl Through Behavior Modification. 5 Steps in process of selfmodification: 1. Specify the target behavior(s) that you want to change. 2. Gather baseline data; 3 things: determine the initial response level of your target behavior, monitor the antecedents of your target behavior, response may not be reinforced every time. 3. Design your program; either to increase (positive reinforcement) or decrease the frequency of a target response. 4. Put program to work by enforcing the contingencies you have carefully planned. 5. Spell out the conditions in which you will bring the program to an end. Omit Critical Thinking Application 9 Know the practice questions and the end of the chapter. Chapter 7 Human Memory Be able to define and recognize examples of the four memory steps as outlined in class: Perception, encoding, storage and retrieval. 1. Perception: attend, pay attention to material. (don’t pay attention=can’t remember; ie. Penny drawing that has correct location of everything) 2. Encoding: forming a memory code; get material ready to store in brain; usually requires attention (usually verbal encoding=descriptions to describe something new) 3. Storage: maintaining encoded information in memory over time; neural circuitry in brain. (series of neurons that fire as they cluster) 4. Retrieval: recovering info from memory states; get it back out of the brain. (retrieval failure = “going blank” on a test. Know the levels of processing as summarized by Figure 7.5 Shallow structural encoding: emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus. (ie. Only remember that meiosis was written in capital letters in a textbook, or a short word..) Intermediate Phonemic encoding: emphasizes what a word sounds like. (ie. Remember name Stanley, because it rhymes with manly; what rhymes with weight?) Deep Processing Semantic Processing: emphasizes the meaning of verbal input. (ie. Would the word fit in the sentence…”He met a … on the street?”) Know how encoding may be enriched including the methods of Elaboration, Visual Imagery, and SelfReferent Encoding. (pp. 279280) 10 Elaboration linking a stimulus to other info at the time of encoding. Ie. read about phobias connected to CC, then relate that to a personal phobia. Visual Imagery creation of visual images to represent words; high imagery words (concrete object, ie. juggler) easier to remember than low imagery words (abstract concept, ie. quality). Provides 2 kind of memory code, “dualcoding theory” that memory is enhanced by forming semantic & visual codes SelfReferent involves deciding how or whether info is personally relevant. Know the names, the components, and the function of the Atkinson and Shiffrin Model as outlined in Figure 7.9. Know the capacity, duration and pertinent facts about each. Sensory Memory preserves into in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second; takes in sensory impressions that go on around us. Could be overloaded if you retained every bit of information you take in. Stuff is tossed out very quickly. Stuff goes into sensory memory, tscope doesn’t give enough time for memory & is gone. Take in stuff for really short period of time. Most likely to remember something/someone that caught your attention, because then it’s passed on to next memory system. ShortTerm Memory “STM” limited capacity store that can maintain info for about 1020 sec (w/out rehearsal); very limited in terms of capacity; “weakness” to human memory stuff you’re holding in your head right now, what’re you’re thinking about now real limit on human memory only deal with so much info at one time reliance on recitation = most likely primarily dependent on pneumonic encoding, but not limited to it. Miller describes STM as 7 items plus or minus 2. o poor memory= about 5 things/good= about 9) Phone companies use this = 7 digit numbers o when filled up & something new wants to come in, either not taken in or something else thrown out. o Retain something for only a short period of time if we don’t use it (about 20sec) o Chunking how to remember more than 7 items; & save spaces in short term memory; treat things in blocks. Ie. Phone numbers, 11 different groups are “chunked” (656) (32) (10) = only 3 blocks of memory Rehearsal repeat things to remember them; helps keep things in STM, BUT disrupted very easily. If you rehearse it long enough = passed on to LTM. LongTerm Memory “LTM” unlimited capacity store that can hold info over lengthy periods of time; lots of info able to be retained. o “marvel” of human memory. o Almost unlimited capacity & almost unlimited duration o Takes info from memories of times since small child & most stay with you all your life. o Once in LTM it never disappears. Know about flashbulb memory (unusually vivid & detailed recollections of the circumstances in which people learned about momentous, newsworthy events.) and the featured study relating to it. People remember where they were, what they were doing & how they felt during crisis times (Kennedy’s shooting) Represent an instance of permanent storage Some “memories” in Penfield’s studies were distorted or factual impossibilities, most likely subjects recollections were hallucinations, dreams, or loose reconstructions of events. Though they are strong, vivid & detailed, most aren’t very accurate or special; become less detailed & complete w/time like other memories. = often inaccurate Not enough evidence to say that memories are stored away permanently & forgetting is all a matter of retrieval failure. Know about the organization and representation of memory. Specifically know and recognize examples of: Clustering tendency to remember similar or related items in groups ie. categories= animals, vegetables, professions.. Conceptual Hierarchies multilevel classification system based on common properties’ among items; factual. Schemas an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event. Ie. remembering things in an office bc of what you know are in most offices= chair, desk, lamp.. OR remembering something out of ordinary= slot machine in teachers office 12 Semantic Networks nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts; shorter pathways = stronger associations Connectionist Network (take their inspiration from how neural networks appear to handle info) & Parallel Processing Models (simultaneously processing of the same info that is spread across networks of neurons) assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks. Be able to define and recognize examples of recall and recognition tests as discussed in class Memory Testing: Very important in controlling how much you remember. How its tested with have a big impact on grade in class. Recall Method must produce the material with a minimum of cues or help. o Most difficult for students o Must come up with correct answer on your own o Essays & fillinthe blank questions o 2 types: 1. Free Recall present material in any order. 2. Serial Recall top recall test; must remember material in proper order. (History tests) Recognition Method measures of retention requires subject to select previously learned info from an array of options; just have to identify the correct answer. o All choices are in front of you o ie. Multiple Choice Test o Easier to do & preferred by students; 25% for each question. Know Herman Ebbinghaus and his forgetting curve graphs retention & forgetting over time. Regardless of how it’s tested, human memory drops off very quickly Studied only himself & tested on nonsense syllables (constantvowel arrangements that don’t correspond to words) Very steep bc meaningless material, most curves not usually that steep With difficult material, within 20 min of learning something, you have lost 55% of what you knew. 1 hour 42%, & gradually begins to level off. Gets less & less. Sleep helps to protect memories 13 Night before test = study as much material as you can, get a good night sleep, then next day review what you studied because some was lost. = best strategy. Be able to define and recognize examples of the following explanation of human forgetting: Ineffective coding some approaches to encoding lead to more forgetting than others; some info may never be inserted into memory in first place. Decay Theory forgetting occurs because memory trace fades with time. Ie. Like an old color photo, it fades & blurs; cues can bring back so much of our memory, unless they’re very vague & will disappear. Interference Theory people forget info bc of competition from other material; our memories get mixed up & confused with each other; lose them with confusion. ie. Can’t remember what class you met someone. 2 kinds of interference: 1. Proactive Interference Old info/memories interfere with new info/memories; “old pro” 2. Retroactive Interference New info/memories interfere with the old info/memories. Retrieval Failure failure to retrieve info at a given time? 1. Encoding specificity principle the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code. 2. Transfer appropriate processing the initial processing of info is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention. Motivated Forgetting tendency to forget things one doesn’t want to think about; sometimes we don’t want to remember; ie. Go to dentist, clean room, or pick up little brother. 1. Repression keep distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious; is a special case of motivated forgetting (Freudian). Know and understand the processes and structures involved with the Memory Trace. Know the Biochemistry of Memory memory formations results in alterations on synaptic transmission at specific sites; specific memories depend on biochemical changes that occur at specific synapses. 14 Know the role of Neural Circuitry in Memory specific memories may depend on localized neural circuits in the brain; memories may create unique, reusable pathways in the brain along which signals flow. 1. LongTerm Potentiation (LTP) long lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway; involved in changes in both presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons in neural circuits in hippocampus. 2. Neurogenesis formation of new neurons; provide brain with a supply of neurons that vary in age; suppression of these most likely result in memory impairments on learning tasks & increase of them results in enhanced learning on many tasks. 3. Consolidation hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of info into durable memory codes stored in long term memory. Know the brain structures in the Anatomy of Memory figure 7.22 pg. 299 Know and recognize examples of: Amnesia 1. Retrograde: loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia. 2. Anterograde: loss of memories for events that occur after the onset of amnesia. Declarative Memory System handles factual info; ie. words, definitions, names, dates.. Procedural Memory System (Nondeclarative Memory System) houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned & emotional responses; contains procedural memories of how to execute perceptualmotor skills (riding a bike, typing..) & memory base for conditioned reflexes & emotional reactions based on previous learning. Semantic Memory general knowledge that is not tired to the time when the info was learned; general facts. Episodic Memory made up of chronological, or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences; contains personal facts. Retrospective Memory remembering events from the past or previously learned info. Prospective Memory remembering to perform actions in the future; ie. remembering to grab your umbrella, walk the dog.. Know the Personal Application “Improving Everyday Memory.” 15 Omit Critical Thinking Application on Eye Witness Accounts Know the practice questions and the end of the chapter. Chapter 9 Intelligence and Psychological Testing Know the definition of and be able to recognize examples of: Mental ability tests including: Intelligence tests measure general mental ability; assess intellectual potential rather than accumulated knowledge Aptitude tests assess specific types of mental abilities; measure potential more than knowledge Achievement tests gauge a person’s mastery & knowledge of various subjects; measures previous learning instead of potential. Personality tests measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values & attitudes; traits assessed through these tests, called “scales” (bc don’t have right/wrong answers) Understand the following characteristics that make up a successful psychological test (a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior): Standardization the uniform procedures used in the administration & scoring of a test (same instructions, questions, time limits... ect) INCLUDES development of: o Test Norms provide info about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on the test; allow you to convert “raw score” to a percentile (indicates percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained); sample of people the norms are based on is the standardization or norm group. Reliability the measurement consistency of a test; estimated by testretest reliability, requires the computation of correlation coefficients. Validity ability of a test to measure what is was designed to measure; accuracy of the influences/decisions based on a test. Content Validity degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it ‘s supposed to cover; being able to clearly specify the content domain of interest. 16 CriterionRelated Validity estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their scores on another measure of the trait assessed by the test. Construct Validity the extent to which evidence shows that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct (abstract/personal qualities: creativity, intelligence..) Know the basic history of intelligence testing as presented on pages 341343 Be sure that you know the following people by name and their contribution to intelligence. GaltonHereditary Genius; intelligence governed by heredity, success runs in families bc great intelligence is passed from generation to generation, nature vs nurture refers to heredityenvironment issue, bell curve could be applied to psychological characteristics, invented correlation & percentile test scores, BinetMental Age indicates that a child displays the mental performance typical of a child of that chronological age; published first useful test of general mental ability w/ abstract reasoning skills over sensory skills & it was a success. BinetSimon scale expresses a child’s score in terms of “mental level/age” kept revising it till he died. TermanStandfordBinet Scale revision of Binet’s previous scale but incorporates a new scoring scheme of Intelligence Quotient “IQ” (child’s mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100) made it possible to compare children of different ages, all placed on same scale. World’s foremost intelligence test and standard of comparison for almost all intelligence tests that followed. WechslerWAIS first high quality IQ test designed specifically for adults; scales less dependent on subject’s verbal ability & scored based on normal distribution, no longer an actual quotient from IQ Know the various types of questions on the WAIS (Fig 9.6) o Nonverbal reasoning, Know how to compute an IQ score if you are the mental age and chronological age of a child. Table 9.1: Mental Age (MA) / Chronological Age (CA) x 100 Know the importance of the normal distribution and its effect on the classification of intelligence and retardation levels (Figure 9.7) Be able to define Mental retardation and its implications (summarized in Table 9.2) 17 “intellectual disability” subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18. Adaptive Skills = Conceptual, Social, & Practical Skills. Be able to define Giftedness and understand its implications children who have IQ scores of at least about 130; usually above average in social & emotional development too Heredity and Environment in Intelligence Be able to name, explain and recognize examples of Heredity’s contribution to intelligence. Know and understand the following sources of evidence for heredity. Twin Studies studies that compare identical & fraternal twins, identical usually are more similar, but gender & treatment of family can affect that. Adoption Studies if adopted children resemble their biological parents in intelligence even though they weren’t raised by them. Heritability Estimatesparticularly the Heritability Ratio: an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance. Can be estimated for any trait, is a group statistic Be able to name, explain and recognize examples of the environment’s contribution to intelligence. Know and understand the following sources of evidence for environmental contributions Adoption Studies IQ resemblance to foster parents, bc they shape their environment, siblings reared together more similar in IQ than those reared apart. Deprived children raised in deprived enviroments had decline in IQ; and enriched environment improved enriched enviroments lead to increase in IQ Home and schooling effects???? Generational changeknow the Flynn Effect: most like lt bc of environmental factors, IQ performance has rose steadily over the last generations. 18 Understand the nature of the interaction between heredity and the environment. Genetic endowments influence the experiences that people are exposed to & environments influence the degree to which genetic predispositions are realized. Know how the reaction range fits into this explanation refers to the genetically determined limits on IQ (genetic makeup places an upper limit on a person’s IQ that can’t be exceeded even when environment is ideal) Know and understand the following models of human intelligence Know Sternberg’s Three Factors of Intelligence: 1. Practical intelligence involves the ability to deal effectively with the kinds of problems that people encounter everyday in life, like on the job or at home, usually involves acquiring tacit knowledge (what one needs to know to work efficiently in an environment that is not explicitely taught & often is not verbalized) 2. Analytical intelligence involves abstract reasoning, evaluation, and judgement. 3. Creative intelligence involves the ability to generate new ideas & be inventive in dealing with novel problems. Ignore the rest of his theory Know how Howard Gardner tried to expand intelligence into nonacademic areas. Know his 8 types of intelligence: logical mathematical, linguistic, musical, spatial, bodilykinesthic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist. (pg. 377 table 9.3) Know the personal application “Understanding Creativity” Omit the Critical Thinking Application Know the practice questions and the end of the chapter. 19
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