GSS50A Midterm Study Guide 2
GSS50A Midterm Study Guide 2 Gen & Sex 50A
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joyce Nguy on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Gen & Sex 50A at University of California - Irvine taught by STAFF in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 216 views. For similar materials see Gender and Feminism in Women and Gender studies at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
GSS 50A Gender and Feminism in Everyday Life Fall 2015 Midterm Exam Study Guide (300 points possible on exam) The midterm exam on Tuesday, November 3, provides an opportunity for you to demonstrate your ability to think critically about a number of issues we have covered in the course so far. During the exam, you will be asked to provide responses to four prompts (each worth 75 points a piece). The suggested length for each response is n o less than 200 words (approximately one singlespaced page of a large bluebook) per response. The exam will require that, in making your responses, you to refer to relevant information in the course textbook and lectures. You will be expected to specify the authors and their ideas that are relevant for answering the prompt. For your convenience, a table of contents of the readings will be provided to you during the exam. Review all your lecture notes and the assigned readings. Use office hours of the instructors if you need help. Study in groups if you find that helpful. Leave your notes, books, and computers at home the day of the exam; you will not be allowed to use them during the exam. Bring a large blank blue exam book to class and a couple of reliable writing implements. The exam will take the entire hour and 20 minutes, and will require that you write legibly. To help you prepare effectively for the exam, we highly recommend that you have command of the following key concepts, and are prepared to write intelligently about how particular authors have used these terms. Onesex model and its distinction from the twosex model 1. onesex model (four humors) a. vagina as inverted penis b. male and female bodies differ in degree of heat c. genitals of males are external version of female genitals d. conception required mutual arousal of male and female partner e. male is the more perfect form than female f. no distinct words given for female organs 2. Two sex model (modernity) a. binary opposition scheme i. categorical exclusivity 1. either/or logic 2. intolerant of ambiguity or hybridity ii. hierarchical ordering 1. not just benign difference but inequality Social construction theory and its relationship to gender, race, and sexuality 1) Social Construction Theory (Carole Vance) a) social constructionists argue that differences between men and women are not products of biology or nature, but of culture and society 2) feminism social constructionist analysis traces how ideas of inequality/equality acknowledges produced by particular people; traces how ideas of what counts as normal “women” and “men vary across culture + history Science as culture paradigm 1) Constructionist paradigm a. focus is on the interrogation of what we mean by “nature” and “natural” b. insists that what we know of the human body is an interpretation, subject to change Motherhood and nationalism; motherhood and imperialism 1) Motherhood and Imperialism (Anna Davin) a. mother’s duty to the nation to produce new citizens/workers/soldiers b. mother’s duty to the empire: to be a symbol of “civilzation” c. poor mothers regarded as deficient and drain on the society d. nationalism, too, is most often patriarchal and exclusionary while claiming to be inclusionary 2. Key arguments for review a. modern european imperialism mobilized a sex/gender/race system that categorized people into separate groups as a method of conquering and managing them b. gender is central to the symbolism and activities of nationalism and imperialism c. to make sense of imperialism, we must see the connections between racial and sexual formations d. racial formations are intimately entangled in the policing of sexual reproduction (eugenics) happens both institutionally and within intimate life 3. Nationalism aspires to horizontalism i. community ii. democratic iii. equality b. seeks unity over divisions i. shared past ii. shared future c. nationalist feminists asked to choose “nation” over “particular” group issues d. Nationalism is always a gendered project i. relies on gendered forms of participation and exclusion ii. mobilizes gendered images iii. produces new gendered subjects 4. Two dimensions in nationalist project a. woman symbol i. valued commodity ii. mother iii. womb iv. vulnerability 1. nationalism can be seen as “protecting” women v. susceptibility 1. women are more susceptible to foreign influence b. woman as historical actor and agent c. might even draw on claims made about her to make her own claims i. you want us to be mothers of the nation? Then we will use that to ask for: rights, certain resources/privileges 5. modern european imperialism mobilized a sex/gender/race system that categorized people into separate groups as a method of conquering and managing them The professionalization of medicine and its relationship to gender, race, and sexual politics 1. Exorcising the Midwives (Ehrenreich and English) a. campaigns against midwives during 19th and 20th century U.S. linked to racism b. the “modernization” of medicine related to the process of “professionalization” of medicine c. gendering of the medical profession midwives marginalized; women excluded from medical education d. gendered notions of scientific/medical authority e. is the professionalization of medicine a sign of progress? 2. Midwifery model of care a. monitoring the wellbeing of the mother b. providing education c. minimizing technological interventions d. identifying and referring women who require obstetrical attention 3. Women and Medicine in Colonial India (David Arnold) a. why did Brits get concerned about the health of women in India in the 1860s and 1870s? i. it’s part of the domain they’re excluded from they want access to indian women as consumers b. Goals of contagious diseases act of 1868 i. concerned about health of British male soldiers, not prostitutes or soldiers’ wives c. British colonial medicine and political economy d. what happened to the dais (midwives) under British colonial medicine? i. devaluing and marginalization e. the significance of state medicine and lack of success in drawing a majority of Indians to hospitals i. colonial hospitals seen as impure ii. rise of anticolonial nationalism 4. Intersectionality a. Significance of embodiment i. why is the body of such great concern to GSS studies? 1. scientists determine inequality ii. who has authority over bodies? 1. medicine and science 5. Sexology a. “the study and classification of sexual behaviors, identities, and relations” (Bland and Doan 1998 1) b. Scientific discipline emerging in later 19th century along with new sciences like anthropology, sociology, and psychology c. emerge as part of growing attempt to classify bodies d. at first seen as radical and not widely recognized as a legitimate branch of science until 1920s and 30s e. discipline itself developed in Britain, Europe, North America from as early at 1870s 6. Radical? or Regressive? a. most scholars see as a mixed phenomenon b. replaces old view of sex as sinful (managed by church) with new view of sexual “perversions” as diseases and/or signs of “degeneracy” (managed by medicine and psychology) c. curious about sex and sexual acts, as well as bodies d. brings discussion of sex and sexuality from shroud of shame to public discourse seeks to understand and acknowledge importance in lives on individuals and society Malthusianism and neoMalthusianism 1. Malthusianism and Population Control a. ideas proposed by Thomas Matlhus in the late 18th century in England b. central beliefes: i. population control needed ii. increases in population are caused by defective individuals 2. Malthusianism and Sexual Sublimation a. Malthus was a liberal (in these days, conservative) and thus was attacked by both radicals and conservatives in his day b. by today’s standards, malthus would e a conservative since he believed that the poor are so becuause of their own faults and cannot be helped c. failed to see class interests and predominantly the interests of the bourgeoisie as leading to poverty d. promoted theories of “sublimation” since his religious beliefs led him to oppose contraception, Malthus believed that sexual energies need to be directed towards work and not sex 3. Social Engineering a. Main tenets of Mathusianism i. overpopulation causes poverty ii. individual failings cause overpopulations 1. solution: sexual restraint and selfhelp, acceptance of poverty as natural fat b. main tenets of NeoMalthusianism (new) i. control of population ii. leads to perfect society 1. society: contraception and eugenics 4. A few Problems with the Overpopulation Thesis a. population of “developed” world is aging b. next generation needed to pay taxes, serve in military, participate in economy, care for the elderly c. members of affluent societies consume much more of the world’s resources and energy than do the poor d. firstworld capitalism depends on a surplus labor force exploited from among those from impoverished part of the world (global south) 5. Diff between pop control and fertility control a. pop control malthusianism eugenics trying to control and manage human populations for the betterment of the species not sexual control of body. Margaret Sanger. FORM OF BIOPOWER comes out of certain ideas and discourses of who should be having children and who shouldn’t be, eugenics b. fertility control women’s autonomy: their choice to space out births, to have children, not have children. historic relationship that women have had to their own bodies and their own decision making Population control 1. Malthusianism and Population Control a. ideas proposed by Thomas Matlhus in the late 18th century in England b. central beliefes: i. population control needed ii. increases in population are caused by defective individuals 2. Debunking myths about population control and fertility a. world is approaching replacementlevel fertility b. economics of family size changes as income increases (children become consumers rather than producers) c. industrialized nations have lower birth rates but consume many more resources 3. Why some families have more children a. agricultural economies labor b. security when there is no welfare state c. son preference education and activism to challenge this i. also must look at the role of desires for certain genders in middleclass families ii. infant mortality iii. women’s subordination 4. Infant mortality : cause of high rates of birth a. high infant mortality caused by poverty and malnutrition b. bottlefeeding campaigns contribute to the problem of malnutrition and disease (Nestle company) c. decline of breastfeeding due to women working and lack of access/space/childcare at work 5. Artificially altering the rate of growth of a population. Based on neoMalthusian eugenics a. seeks to reduce poverty through sterilization and increased selective use of birth control (page 103) b. sterilization vs birth control c. mainly imposed on women Reproductive rights 1. what are rights? a. claims that we make in relation to a government “the state” that has the power to “recognize” us grant us rights or not recognize us refuse us rights b. reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms related to reproduction and reproductive health 2. World Health Org definition of reproductive rights a. google it b. there are certain material possessions women need in order to make decisions about reproductive rights 3. Reproduction as a feminist issue a. feminist movements mobilized: 1) the sexual revolution 2) struggle for reproductive rights, freedom, and justice 3) the struggle for health care equality b. control over reproduction as key to political, social, and economic power and freedom c. feminist health movements emphasize patients’ needs, informed consent, and selfcare 4. The family limitation movement a. socialfeminist movement (1890 to 1920) arguing for women’s right to have control over her reproduction (birth control) in order to have equality between the sexes b. Comstock Law used against them (can’t circulate anything or publish things about sexuality) c. moderate wing sought support of doctors and industrialists; joined eugenics movement (Moderate Sangerbelieved in control of reproduction rights from women, but loved eugenics wanted to limit colored reproduction, because she understood that in order to be full participants in society and make informed decisions in their lives, they need to have a say of when to have children) i. example of deeply racist and elitist feminism ii. thin line between “choice” and “coercion” 5. Intersectional Analysis of reproductive rights a. what is the connection between sterilization abuse and eugenics? (sterilization abuse not informed is a form of eugenics) b. which groups of women are more vulnerable to sterilization abuse? why are they targeted? ( poor women, women of colors) c. why is the focus on the sterilization of women and not men? biopower, reinforces the idea of women as childbearing first , control over sexual autonomy 6. Angela Davis on Sterilization abuse a. cases of the Relf sisters b. who authorized the sterilization? c. how was the department of health, education, and welfare involved? d. 1972: 100,000 to 200,000 sterilization of low income women by fed gov 7. Sterilization and Racism a. by 1975 24% of all native american women had been sterilized b. between 19391970 over ⅓ of all women in Puerto Rico sterilized c. 196473, 65% of women in NC sterilized were black, 35% white d. 1970 43% of women sterilized through federally subsidized programs were black 8. California’s sterilization history a. increased rates of sterilization in California than in any other state ( 20,000 between 19091960) i. sterilized under the premise that the “unfit” should be removed from gene pool ii. targeter poor white people as well as Mexican and Asian immigrants, prisoners, delinquents, “sexually active” women Eugenics 1. Eugenics a. the “science” based on Darwinian ideas of selecting the most superior races to reproduce (“positive eugenics”) 2. Race Culture (Frank Dikotter) a. eugenics is a modern way of talking about social problems in biologizing terms b. gives scientific authority to social fears and moral panics and lends respect to racial ideologies and racist practices like sterilization and immigration laws c. grounds racist ideas and hierarchies in “laws of nature” 3. Eugenics and the duty of mothers a. health and survival of infants and children are responsibility of mother b. nation needs healthy future citizens, workers, soldiers c. mothers need to get better at mothering d. rise of public health programs and welfare intervention e. policies aimed at the private sphere i. targeting the role of the mother and the social institution of the family f. middleclass morality, manliness, and motherhood see to be endangered by constant threat of “degeneracy” g. constructs racialized others as threats to social order h. degeneracy understand poverty, illness, and sexual transgression as racialized i. mobilizes a discourse of eugenics j. mobile discourse: in colonies and in cities of Europe and US k. applied to people of color, as well as poor whites and those of mixed race l. discourse links race, class and sexuality: those seen to veer off the middleclass course in their choice of language, in their domestic arrangements, in their cultural affiliations characterized as degenerate m. racial body constructed as always a threat is constructed through sexual discourses i. “savage” ii. “licentious” n. this is a discourse of class, as workingclass white women sees as racialized insofar as they are cast as “promiscuous” “wild” “dirty” o. middleclass white women’s role is to protect middleclass white men from both “native” women and workingclass and poor white women in colonies and European cities p. discourse mobile in US at the end of 19th century ise of the cult of true womanhood i. white middleclass American women’s selfhood constructed through their distinction from the racialized bodies of their servants and maids ii. they are to be protected from “dirty” work and labor by services of workingclass white women and women of color, who are seen as “naturally” equipped for dirty work and hard labor q. white women seen as crucial in civil society in Europe, US, and in colonies i. not as equal citizens who could participate in the public sphere ii. rather, as those who insure that marriage, sexual morality and family provide foundations for civil life 4. The family limitation movement a. socialfeminist movement (1890 to 1920) arguing for women’s right to have control over her reproduction (birth control) in order to have equality between the sexes b. Comstock Law used against them (can’t circulate anything or publish things about sexuality) c. moderate wing sought support of doctors and industrialists; joined eugenics movement (Moderate Sangerbelieved in control of reproduction rights from women, but loved eugenics wanted to limit colored reproduction, because she understood that in order to be full participants in society and make informed decisions in their lives, they need to have a say of when to have children) i. example of deeply racist and elitist feminism ii. thin line between “choice” and “coercion” 5. Intersectional Analysis of reproductive rights a. what is the connection between sterilization abuse and eugenics? (sterilization abuse not informed is a form of eugenics) 6. Diff between pop control and fertility control a. pop control malthusianism eugenics trying to control and manage human populations for the betterment of the species not sexual control of body. Margaret Sanger. FORM OF BIOPOWER comes out of certain ideas and discourses of who should be having children and who shouldn’t be, eugenics Biopower 1. Biopower a. “forms of power exercised over persons specifically in so far as they are thought of as living beings: a politics concerned with subjects as members of a population, in which issues of individual sexual and reproductive conduct interconnect with issues of national policy and power” b. management, classification, ordering, sustenance of bodies and population i. prison, mental institution, family/reproduction/sexuality c. new theory of power i. productive instead of repressive ii. from violence (death) to power (life) 2. Biopower a. forms of power exercised over persons thought of human beings. a politics concerned with subjects as members of a population, in which issues of individuals sexual and reproductive conduct interconnect with issues of national policy and power b. managing life and populations through institutional forms mental institutions, family, medicine 3. Biopower and birth control a. first oral contraceptive approved by the FDA in 1960 for use by women b. in 1965, the U.S Supreme Court (in Griswold v Connecticut) gave married couples the right to use birth control, ruling that it was protected in the Constitution as a right to privacy. However, millions of unmarried women in 26 states were still denied birth control c. in 1972, the Court (in Baird v Eisenstadt) legalized birth control for all citizens of the U.S, irrespective of marital status 4. Biopower and abortion a. Hyde Amendment (1976) fed funds (medicaid) for abortions eliminated in all cases but those involving rape and the risk of death or severe illness of pregnant women b. but medicaid covers birth control products and sterilization procedures c. CARASA argues for abortion and against sterilization from rights to freedom 5. Diff between pop control and fertility control a. pop control malthusianism eugenics trying to control and manage human populations for the betterment of the species not sexual control of body. Margaret Sanger. FORM OF BIOPOWER comes out of certain ideas and discourses of who should be having children and who shouldn’t be, eugenics 6. Formal equality/routine inequality a. militarization of citizenship women excluded from military service, positions as helpless dependents to be protected b. domestic violence, police brutality, workplace/housing/educational discrimination c. policing of women’s bodies through biopower and restrictions of reproductive rights Gender, state, and nation Colonial hegemony Review : Colonial Hegemony/Hegemony 1) hegemony a) dominant set of views/assumption that are deeply embedded and come to be seen as truth b) so much so that even people who are exploited and oppressed by those ideas believe in them 2) colonial hegemony a) british science is superior to Indian, we are superior. Everything emerging from colonial power, the politics, economy, social ideas are superior to those in the colony India, Egypt b) understands certain ideas to be better than other c) those who are superior are those that are where traditionally white men have had the most power d) modern day example : we need to be militarily occupying Afghanistan, Iraq, because our cultures/rights/women are better than these other places, and our role is so civilize The discourse of domesticity and its relationship to the discourse of Manifest Destiny in the antebellum U.S. 1. Feminist critiques of the public/private dichotomy 1. public (masculine)/ private (feminine) a. public sphere the State, the world of commerce, civil society organizations, outside the home, freedom b. private sphere the family, the household, the domestic sphere, subordination c. feminist claims: these sphere are separate but NOT equal and these spheres are intertwined public depends on private 2. modern state a. western construct b. has become compulsory political form for the rest of the world c. based on concept of citizens as individuals, detached from communities d. individual is a contract making citizen e. relies on notion of individual as property owner first and foremost an owner of himself f. meant to be universal, but in fact the Western liberal notion of citizen implies a masculine subject g. males were property owners h. Carole Pateman argues that modern nationstate is a “fraternal patriarchy” i. dominant idiom is brothers j. free men enter into the social contract that creates an association of autonomous, individualized, contractmaking people k. only possible for property owners, who are largely white men 3. modern state as masculine construct a. institutionalized the public/private dividetransferred power to the state by some men in return for men’s increased control over families b. but state also… c. intervenes in the private realm to police women’s sexuality and reproduction d. from the beginning, Western liberal construct of the nationstate excludes women and minorities e. nationstate is already gendered concept f. gets imposed on gendered systems of social stratification g. nationstate building project, too, is patriarchal and exclusionary while claiming to be inclusionary 4. Concluding thoughts i. the public/private divide takes different forms in different societies and at different times 1. aren’t equal spheres, more power to public sphere 2. aren’t separate sphere, what goes on in home is necessary for there to even be a public sphere ii. modern states have transferred aspects of private patriarchy to public patriarchy iii. therefore the state is a terrain of struggle for feminists 5. socialist states (china, soviet union, cuba, vietnam) a. officially committed to equality between men and women b. more women in public office and political parties c. but persistence of the public/private division (doubleshift for women women do work at home “out of love”, but also in public) 6. some general observations about women and the state a. state discourse renders women invisible, assuming citizens are genderneutral b. all states rely on women’s unpaid domestic and reproductive labor. Women’s domestic work is “naturalized as a labor of love” c. many laws contribute to women’s inequality through family laws and policies (marriage, divorce, legitimacy of children) Identity politics 1. Identity politics a. “involve claiming one’s identity as a member of an oppressed or marginalized group as a political point of departure” b. identity becomes a major factor in political mobilization (kathryn woodward p 195) 2. Appealing to identity: two distinct ways: a. essentialist position i. claims the group’s uniqueness ii. example: women are more caring and peaceful because of their biological capacity to give birth iii. problem: doesn’t account for women who advocate war or for men who advocate peach 3. Nonessentialist position a. identities seen as i. relational and dynamic, not static ii. multidimensional iii. fluid and evolving (history and context) b. ex: working class feminists of color (chicana feminists, black feminists, asian american feminists; transgender feminists) 4. Crenshaw on Identity Politics a. mainstream liberal discourse regards race, gender, and other identity categories as negative frameworks i. liberal discourse prefers “colorblind” or “genderneutral” b. “can’t we all just be people? Why do you have to focus on being (a woman, a black person, a queer youth, etc)?” c. postracial, postfeminist society 5. identity and social power a. identitybased politics can be a source of strength, community, and solidarity b. delineating difference can be the power of domination but also can be the source of social empowerment and reconstruction 6. Crenshaw’s critique a. identity politics “frequently conflates or ignores intragroup differences” b. ignoring differences within groups contributes to tension among groups 7. real world consequences a. women who dominated the antiviolence against women movement were not women of color b. their lack of knowledge and respect for the experiences of women of color endangered their clients 8. concluding thoughts a. identity is a major factor in political mobilization b. identity politics can be limiting if they don’t consider identity as multidimensional c. modes of oppression do not act independently of one another, they are interlocking d. intersectional analysis/critique is a method for unpacking the interlocking matrix of oppression faced by women of color. Intersectionality 1. Intersectionality is a term that was coined by American professor Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989. The concept already existed but she put a name to it. The textbook definition states: The view that women experience oppression in varying configurations and in varying degrees of intensity Sample prompt: Why is the issue of reproduction significant to feminists? Please refer to at least 2 articles on the course syllabus in your response.
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