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UA / food and nutrition / NHM 372 / A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people via what?

A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people via what?

A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people via what?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: food and nutrition
Course: Intro to Food Service Management
Professor: Denise desalvo
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: ServSafeStudyGuide.pdf
Description: ServSafe study guide. All of the information from this study guide comes directly from the ServSafe book. It is extremely thorough and include ALL critical information
Uploaded: 11/03/2015
40 Pages 337 Views 3 Unlocks

Teresa (Rating: )

Exam Date: 11/11/15

A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people via what?

ServSafe Study Guide

- Chapter 1: Providing Safe Food

• Foodborne Illnesses

- Challenges to Food Safety

• A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people by food.

- An illness is considered an outbreak when:

• two or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food. • an investigation is conducted by state and local regulatory authorities. • the outbreak is confirmed by a laboratory analysis.

• Time

• Language and Culture

- staff may speak different language.

How foodborne illnesses occur?

- cultural differences in handling food safely

• Literacy and Education

• Pathogens

• Unapproved Suppliers

- not practicing food safety

• High-Risk Customers

- ex. elderly people

• Staff Turnover

- Training new staff leaves less time for food safety training.

- The Cost of Foodborne Illnesses

• loss of customers and sales

• negative media exposure


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• lawsuits and legal fees

• increased insurance premiums

How food becomes unsafe?

• loss of reputation

• lowered staff morale

• staff missing work

• staff retraining

• MOST IMPORTANT: victim costs We also discuss several other topics like It is one of the most famous zen gardens, what is it?

- lost work

- medical costs and long-term disability

- death

• How Foodborne Illnesses Occur

- Contamination - the presence of harmful substances in food

• Three Categories of Contaminants:

- Biological

• pathogens (viruses, parasites, fungi, bacteria)

- also includes some plants, mushrooms, and seafood that carry harmful  toxins

- Chemical

• foodservice chemicals (cleaners, sanitizers, polishes) are used incorrectly - Physical We also discuss several other topics like Who brought the tea ceremony into common life in the 16th century?

• foreign objects (metal shavings, staples, bandages) get into foods - How Food Becomes Unsafe

• purchasing food from unsafe sources

• failing to cook food correctly

• holding food at incorrect temperatures

• using contaminated equipment


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• practicing poor personal hygiene

- Time-Temperature Abuse - food has stayed too long at at temperatures that are  good for the growth of pathogens

- Cross-Contamination - pathogens are transferred from one surface or food to  another

- Poor Personal Hygiene

• failure to wash hands correctly after using the restroom

• coughing or sneezing on food

• touching or scratching wounds and then touching food

• working while sick

- Poor Cleaning and Sanitizing

• equipment/utensils are not washed, rinsed, and sanitized between uses

• food-contact surfaces are wiped clean rather than being washed, rinsed, and  sanitized

• wiping cloths are not stored in a sanitizer solution between uses

• sanitizing solutions are not at the required levels to sanitize objects - Food Most Likely to Become Unsafe We also discuss several other topics like Who provided evidence which showed that genes were located on the chromosome?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the four types of sensory axons?

• TCS Food (food requiring time and temperature control for safety) - milk/dairy products, meat, fish, basked potatoes, tofu/other soy protein,  sliced melons, cut tomatoes, cut leafy greens, shell eggs, poultry, shellfish  and crustaceans, heat-treated plant food (cooked rice, beans, vegetables),  sprouts and sprout seeds, untreated garlic and oil mixtures If you want to learn more check out What are the protein subunits are needed for g protein activation?

• Ready-to-Eat Food

- cooked food, washed fruit and vegetables (whole and cut), deli meat, bakery  items, sugar, spices, seasonings

- Populations at High Risk for Foodborne Illnesses

• Elderly Don't forget about the age old question of What are the criteria for being considered a neurotransmitter?

- weakened immune system


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• Preschool-age

- not built strong immune system

• People with compromised immune systems

- cancer/chemotherapy, HIV/AIDS, transplant recipients, people taking certain  medications

• Keeping Food Safe

- controlling time and temperature, preventing cross-contamination, practicing  personal hygiene, purchasing from approved, reputable suppliers, cleaning and  sanitizing

- Training and Monitoring

• Staff should be trained when they are first hired and on an ongoing basis.

• The entire staff needs general food safety knowledge in addition to knowledge  specific to tasks performed on the job.

• document training and monitor staff

- Government Agencies Responsible for the Prevention of Foodborne Illness

• FDA (Food and Drug Administration): inspects all food except meat, poultry  and eggs, regulates food transported across state lines, Food Code (safety  regulations, to required), provides technical support and training

• USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture): regulates and inspects meat, poultry,  and egg, regulates food that crosses state boundaries/involves more than one  state

• State and local regulatory authorities create regulations and inspect  operations.

- inspect, enforce, investigate, issue licenses and permits, approve  construction, review/approve HACCP plans

• CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and PHS (U.S. Public  Health Service): assist FDA, USDA, and state/local health departments,  research causes and investigate outbreaks

- Chapter 2: Forms of Contamination

• Biological, Chemical, and Physical Contaminants


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- How Contamination Happens

• Food can be contaminated on purpose, but most contamination happens  accidentally.

• Contamination usually results from improper handling of food.

• person to person, sneezing/vomiting into food/onto food-contact surfaces,  touching dirty food-contact surfaces and equipment and then touching food

• incorrect storage or cleaning

• failure to sort signs of pests

- Biological Contamination

• pathogens - harmful microorganisms

- come make you sick when you eat them and some produce poisons or  toxins

- 4 types of pathogens: bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi

- Big Six (highly contagious and cause severe illness)

• Shigella spp. (bacteria)

• Salmonella Typhi (bacteria)

• Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) (bacteria)

• Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (bacteria)

- aka E.coli

• Hepatitis A (virus)

• Norovirus (virus)

- Symptoms of Foodborne Illness

• diarrhea

• vomiting

• fever

• nausea

• abdominal cramps


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• jaundice (yellowing of the skin/eyes)

- Bacteria

• Location: can be found almost anywhere

- live in and on our bodies

- some types keep us healthy

• Detection: cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted

• Growth: if FAT TOM conditions are correct, bacteria will grow rapidly - Food, Acidity, Temperature, Time, Oxygen, Moisture

• Prevention: control time and temperature

• What Bacteria Need to Grow

- nutrients

- neutral to slightly acidic food

- between temps of 41F and 135F

• temperature danger zone

• 70F to 125F is facilitates even more rapid growth

- high levels if moisture  

• water activity (scale of 0.0 to 1.0; the higher the value, the more available  moisture)

- Viruses

• Location: carried by humans and animals  

- require a living host to grow

- can be transferred and remain infectious in food

• Sources: food, water, contaminated surfaces

• Destruction: not destroyed by normal cooking temperatures

- good personal hygiene, quick removal/clean up of vomit

- Parasites


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• Location: require a host to live and reproduce

• Sources: seafood, wild game, food processed with contaminated water (ex.  produce)

• Prevention: purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers; cooking food to  required internal temperatures; ensure that fish served raw has been correctly  frozen by the manufacturer  

- Fungi

• include yeasts, molds, and mushrooms

• Some molds and mushrooms produce toxins.

• Throw out all moldy food (unless it is a natural part of the food).

• All mushrooms must be purchased from an approved, reputable buyer. - Biological Toxins

• Origins: certain plants, mushrooms, and seafood

- Toxins are a natural part of some fish; other toxins are made by pathogens  on the fish.

- Some fish become contaminated when they eat a smaller fish that has eaten  a toxin.

• Symptoms: most people experience illness within minutes of eating the toxin - diarrhea, vomiting, neurological symptoms, flushing of the face, difficulty  breathing, burning in the mouth, heart palpitations, hives

• Prevention: cannot be destroyed by cooking/freezing

- purchase plants, mushrooms, and seafood from approved, reputable  suppliers

- control time and temperature when handling raw fish

- Chemical Contaminants

• Sources: chemicals used/stored in the wrong way

- chemicals and not food grade kitchenware/equipment (ex. copper, pottery) • Symptoms: vary depending on chemical


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Most illnesses occur within minutes.

- vomiting/diarrhea

- If illness is suspected, call 911 and poison control. Consult MSDS - Physical Contaminants

• Sources: common objects (metal shavings, fingernails, staples, fruit pits,  bones)  

• Symptoms: cuts, dental damage, choking

• Prevention: purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers; closely inspect  the food you purchase; make sure food handlers practice good hygiene

• Deliberate Contamination of Food

- terrorists/activists, disgruntled current/former staff, vendors, competitors - The best way to protect food is to make it as difficult as possible for someone to  tamper with it.

- ALERT (tool created by the FDA that can be used to help identify points in the  operation where food is a risk)

• Assure - make sure products you receive are from safe sources (supervise,  deliveries, use approved suppliers, request that delivery vehicles are locked/ sealed)

• Look - monitor security of products in the facility (limit access, create a system  for handling damaged products, store chemicals in a secure location, train staff  to spot food defense threats)

• Employees - know who is in your facility (limit access, identify visitors/verify  credentials, background checks on staff)

• Reports - keep info related to food defense accessible (receiving logs, office  files/documents, staff files, random food defense self-inspections)

• Threat - identify what you will do/who you will contact if there is suspicious  activity/a threat (hold any product you suspect to be contaminated, contact  authority immediately, maintain emergency contact list)

• Responding to a Foodborne-Illness Outbreak

- Gather Information (from person making complaint)


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Notify Authorities

- Segregate Product (be sure to label it)

- Document Information (about suspected product)

- Identify Staff (interview/investigate)

- Cooperate with Authorities

- Review (food handling) Procedures

• Food Allergens

- A food allergen is a protein in a food/ingredient that some people are sensitive to. - occur naturally in food

- If too much of the allergen is consumed, the immune system attacks the protein  (resulting in an allergic reaction)

- Allergy Symptoms

• reaction could happen just after consumption or several hours later

• nausea, wheezing/shortness of breath, hives/itchy rashes, swelling, vomiting/ diarrhea, abdominal pain

• anaphylaxis - severe allergic reaction leading to death

- Common Food Allergens

• Big Eight

- milk

- eggs

- fish

- wheat

- soy

- peanuts

- crustacean shell fish

- tree nuts


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Preventing Allergic Reactions

• Food Labels

• Service Staff

- must be able to: describe dishes, identify ingredients, suggest items, identify  the allergen special order (inform kitchen staff of guest’s food allergy),  confirm allergen special order with kitchen staff when picking up food

• Kitchen Staff

- prevent cross-contact

• how cross-contact could occur: cooking different types of food in the same  fryer oil, letting food touch surfaces, equipment, or utensils that have  touched allergens

• How to Avoid Cross-Contact

- check recipes/ingredient labels to confirm that the allergen is not present - wash, rinse, and sanitize cookware, utensils, and equipment

- make sure allergen does not touch anything for customers with food  allergies

- wash hands/change gloves before prepping food

- use separate fryers and cooking oils

- label food packaged on-site for retail sale/name all major allergens on label - Chapter 3: The Safe Food Handler

• How Food Handlers Can Contaminate Food

- Situations That Can Lead to Contaminating Food

• Food handlers:

- have a foodborne illness.

- have wounds that contain a pathogen.

- sneeze or cough.

- touch anything that may contaminate their hands and then don't wash them. 10

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- have symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, or jaundice.

• A person may infect other people before showing any symptoms. • A person may infect other people for days or months after symptoms are gone.

• Carriers carry pathogens and infect other people without ever getting sick  themselves.

- Actions That Can Contaminate Food

• scratching the scalp

• running fingers through hair

• wiping/touching nose

• rubbing an ear

• touching a pimple/infected wound

• coughing/sneezing into the hand

• spitting

• A Good Personal Hygiene Program

- Hand practices: handwashing, hand care, glove use, preventing bare-hand  contact with ready-to-eat food

- Personal cleanliness

- Clothing, hair restraints, and jewelry

- Managing a Personal Hygiene Program

• create policies, train/retrain employees regularly, model correct behavior at all  times, supervise food safety practices at all times, revise policies when laws/ science change

- Handwashing  

• most important part of personal hygiene

• Where to Wash Hands

- in a sink designated for hand washing (NEVER in sinks designated for food  prep/dishwashing/utility services


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• How to Wash Hands

- Wet hands and arms (use water as hot as possible)

- Apply soap

- Scrub hands and arms vigorously

- Rinse thoroughly

- Dry with a single-use paper towel or a hand dryer

• When to Wash Hands

- before work

- after: using the restroom, handling raw meat (before and after), touching  hair/face/body, sneezing/coughing/using a tissue, eating/drinking/smoking/ chewing gum or tobacco, handling chemicals that might affect food safety,  taking out garbage, clearing tables/busing dirty dishes, touching clothing/ aprons, handling money, leaving and returning to the kitchen/prep area,  handling animals, touching anything else that may contaminate the hands

• Hand Antiseptics  

- only use after hand washing (NEVER in place of it)

- wait for antiseptic to dry before touching food/equipment

- Hand Care

• keep fingernails short

• do not wear false nails or nail polish  

• cover infected wounds or cuts

- Single-Use Gloves

• make sure gloves are approved for foodservice

• buy only single-use gloves (NEVER reuse gloves)

• provide different sizes

• provide latex alternatives (for the benefit of employees and customers) • How to Use Gloves


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Wash your hands before putting on gloves when starting a new task. - Select the correct glove size.

- Hold gloves by the edge when putting them on.

- Check the gloves for rip/tears (once you’ve put them on).

- NEVER: blow into gloves, roll gloves to make them easier to put on • When to Change Gloves

- when dirty or torn, before beginning a different task, after an interruption,  after handling raw meat/seafood/poultry, before handling ready-to-eat food

- Bare-Hand Contact with Ready-To-Eat Food

• DO NOT handle ready to eat food with bare hands

- exceptions:

• the food will be added as an ingredient to a dish that does not contain raw  meat, seafood, or poultry, but will be cooked to at least 145F (ex. adding  cheese to pizza dough)

• the food will be added as an ingredient to a dish containing raw meat,  seafood, or poultry, and the dish will be cooked to the required minimum  temperature of the raw item(s) (ex. adding vegetables to beef stew)

- Personal Cleanliness

• shower/bathe before work to reduce the risk of transferring pathogens  - Work Attire Guidelines

• Hair Restraints

- and do not wear false eyelashes

- beard restraints are also required if applicable

• Clean Clothing

• Aprons

- remove aprons when leaving prep areas

- NEVER wipe your hands on your apron


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• Jewelry

- remove from hands and arms before prepping food

- some companies require all jewelry to be removed

- Eating, Drinking, Smoking, and Chewing Gum or Tobacco

• DO NOT do any of the above when: prepping/serving food, working in prep  areas, working in areas used to clean utensils and equipment

- Policies for Reporting Health Issues

• staff are required to let you know when they are sick

- Handling Staff Illnesses

• If the food handler has a sore throat: restrict from working around food;  exclude worker from operation if you serve a high risk population.

- The worker may return when they have a written release from a doctor.

• If the food handler is vomiting/has diarrhea/ has jaundice (these are symptoms  of an infection; only one symptom needs to be evident): exclude the worker  from the operation.

- If the worker was vomiting/had diarrhea, they may return to work after 24  hours without symptoms or with a written release from a doctor.

- If the worker has jaundice, they must be reported to the local regulatory  authority. They must have a written release from a doctor and approval from  the regulatory authority before returning to work.

• If the food handler is vomiting/has diarrhea and is infected by Norovirus,  Shigella sp., Nontyphoidal Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) or  the food handler has been diagnosed with Hepatitis A or Salmonella Typhi:  exclude the worker from the operation.

- Work with a doctor and the regulatory authority to determine when they can  return to work.

- Chapter 4: The Flow of Food: An Introduction

• Hazards in the Flow of Food

- Pathway: purchasing —> receiving —> storing —> preparation —> cooking —>  holding —> cooling —> reheating —> serving


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Cross-Contamination

• The most basic way to prevent cross-contamination is to keep raw and ready to-eat food away from each other.

• Other ways to prevent cross-contamination:

- Use separate equipment.

- Cleaning and Sanitizing

- Prepping Food at Different Times

• Clean/sanitize between each type of food.

• Prep ready-to-eat food before raw food.

- Buy food that doesn't require much prepping/handling (ex. precooked  chicken, chopped lettuce).

- Time-Temperature Control

• temperature danger zone: 41F - 135F

• Most pathogens grow much faster between 70F and 125F.

• Temperature abuse occurs when:

- food is cooked to the wrong internal temperature.

- food is held at the wrong temperature.

- food is cooled or reheated incorrectly..

• If food is held in the temperature danger zone for more than 4 hours, it must be  thrown out.

• Avoiding Time-Temperature Abuse

- Monitoring

- Tools

- Recording: Have food handlers record temperatures regularly.

- Time and temperature control

- Corrective actions

• Monitoring Time and Temperature


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometer

• can check temperatures from 0F to 220F

• Measures temperature through metal stem:

- Insert stem into the food up to the dimple (this type of thermometer is not  practical for thin food).

• includes: calibration nut, easy-to-read-markings, dimple

- Thermocouples and Thermistors

• measure temperature through a metal probe (sensing area is on the tip of the  probe)

• temperatures are displayed digitally

• Immersion Probes - temperature of liquids

• Surface Probes - temperature of flat cooking equipment

• Penetration Probes - internal temperature of food (especially useful for thin  foods)

• Air Probes - temperature inside coolers and ovens

- Infrared Thermometers - measure temperature of food and equipment surfaces

• do not need to touch the surface to check the temperature (less chance for  cross-contamination)

• cannot measure air temperature or internal temperature of food

• Hold the thermometer as close to the food/equipment as possible without  touching it.

• Remove any barriers between the thermometer and what it being measured. - Other Temperature-Recording Devices

• maximum registering thermometer - indicates highest temperature reached  during use (used when temperatures cannot be continuously observed)

• time temperature indicator (TTI) - tags attached to packaging by supplier; a  color change appears if the food has been time-temperature abused

- color change is not reversible


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• temperature recording devices inside delivery trucks

- General Thermometer Guidelines

• wash/rinse/sanitize/air dry before and after using

- also keep storage cases clean

• calibrate thermometers regularly

• thermometers used to measure food must be accurate to +/- 2F and  thermometers used to measure air must be accurate to +/- 3F

• glass thermometers can only be used when enclosed in a shatter-proof casing  (shattered glass is a physical contaminant)

• probe should be inserted into the thickest part of the food

- take another reading in a different spot

• allow 15 seconds after you insert the thermometer to get a temperature  reading  

- Chapter 5: The Flow of Food: Purchasing, Receiving, and Storage • General Purchasing and Receiving Principles

- Purchasing

• Approved, reputable suppliers

- should be able to provide an inspection report

• Deliveries

- schedule deliveries at a time when staff has enough time to do inspections - Receiving and Inspecting

• visually inspect trucks and food

• check to make sure the food items have been received at the correct  temperature

• quickly store food items after receiving

• Key Drop Deliveries (an operation receives food after-hours when they are  closed for business)


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- supplier is given access to the operation to make the delivery

- delivery must be inspected once the manager arrives at the operation - must meet the following conditions:

• from an approved source

• placed in the correct storage location to maintain required temperature • protected from contamination in storage

• has not been contaminated

• honestly presented

• Rejecting Items

- tell the delivery person what’s wrong with the item

- Occasionally, you may be able to recondition and use items that would have  been rejected.

• Recalls

- Food may be recalled by the manufacturer if food contamination is  confirmed/suspected or if items have been mislabeled/misbranded or if food  allergens have not been identified on the label.

• Temperature

- Use a thermometer to check food temperatures during receiving. - Cold Food - 41F or lower, unless otherwise specified

- Live Shellfish - air temperature of 45F and internal temperature no greater  than 50F

• once received, must be cooled to 41F or lower in 4 hours

- Shucked Shellfish - 45F or lower, cool to 41F or lower in 4 hours - Milk - 45F or lower, cool to 41F or lower in 4 hours

- Shell Eggs - 45F or lower

- Hot Food - 135F or higher

- Frozen Food - should be frozen solid


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• reject if: fluids/water stains appear in case bottoms/on packaging or if  there are ice crystals/frozen liquids on the food/packaging

• Packaging

- Reject if:

• Damage (tears, holes, or punctures)

- cans with labels that are not intact, have bulging/swollen ends, rust,  dents

- vacuum packed foods that are bloated/leaking

• Liquid

• Pests

• Dates (missing expiration date or expiration date has passed)

• Documents

- food items must be delivered with correct documents

• Food Quality

- Reject if:

• Appearance (moldy or abnormal color)

- moist when it should be dry

• Texture

- Reject meat, fish, or poultry that is slimy, sticky, or dry or if it has soft  flesh.

• Odor (abnormal/unpleasant)

• Storing

- Labeling

• Labeling Food for Use On-site

- all items not in their original containers (unless easily identifiable by sight  and will not be mistaken)

• Labeling Food That is Packaged for On-site Retail Sale


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- must include: common name of food; quantity of the food; list of ingredients/ sub ingredients in order by weight; list of artificial colors, flavors, and  chemical preservatives; name/place of business of the manufacturer, packer,  or distributor; source of each major food allergen (unless source is already  part of the common name of the ingredient)

• Date Marking

- Ready-to-eat TCS food can be stored for only 7 days if it is held at 41F or  lower.

• Temperatures

- Store TCS food at an internal temperature of 41F or lower or 135F or higher. - Store frozen food at temperatures that keep it frozen.

- Make sure storage units have at least one air temperature measuring device  (must be accurate to +/- 3F).

- Do not overload coolers or freezers.

- Use open shelving. Do not line with foil, sheet pans, or paper.

- Monitor food temperatures regularly.

• Rotation

- Food items must be rotated so that those with the earliest use-by or  expiration dates are used before items with later dates.

- first in, first out (FIFO) method

• Preventing Cross-Contamination

- Supplies

• store all items in designated areas

• store items away from walls and at least 6 inches off the floor

• store single-use items (cups, gloves, etc.) in original packaging

- Containers

• store food in containers intended for food

• use containers that are durable, leakproof, and able to be sealed/covered 20

Exam Date: 11/11/15

• NEVER use empty food containers to store chemicals or vice versa - Cleaning

• clean on a regular basis and after accidents

• clean dollies, carts, transporters, and trays often

• store food in containers that have been cleaned and sanitized

• store dirty linens away from food

- Storage Order

• wrap/cover food

• store raw meat away from ready-to-eat food (if not possible, store raw  food on the bottom shelf)

- raw meat can be stored with/above ready-to-eat food in a freezer if all of  the items have been commercially processed and packaged.

- Store in this order:

• ready-to-eat food

• seafood

• whole cuts of beef/pork

• ground meat/fish

• whole and ground poultry

• Storage Location

- store food in a clean, dry location away from dust and other  


- NEVER store food in:

• locker/dressing rooms

• restrooms/garbage rooms

• mechanical rooms

• under unshielded sewage lines/leaking water lines

• under stairwells


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Chapter 6: The Flow of Food: Preparation

• Preparation

- General Preparation Practices

• Equipment: Make sure equipment is clean and sanitized.  

• Quantity: Only remove as much food from the cooler as you can prep in a short  period of time.

• Storage: Return prepped food to the cooler, or cook it as quickly as possible.

• Additives: Only use additives that have been approved by your local regulatory  authority.

- Do not sell produce that was treated with sulfites before it was received in  the operation. Never add sulfites to produce that will be eaten raw.

• Presentation: Do not use food/color additives, colored overwraps, or lights to  misrepresent the appearance of food.

• Corrective Actions: Food that has become unsafe must be thrown out unless it  can be safely reconditioned.  

- Thawing

• Never thaw food at room temperature.

• Thaw by:

- refrigeration (41F or lower)

- running water (70F or lower, water must be safe to drink)

- microwave (only if food will be cooked immediately after thawing) - cooking

• Thawing ROP (reduced oxygen packaging) Fish

- the fish should be removed from the packaging before thawing under  refrigeration/before or immediately after thawing under running water

- Prepping Specific Food

• Produce


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Cross-Contamination: Make sure produce does not touch surfaces exposed  to raw meats.

- Washing: Wash produce thoroughly under running water.

• The water should be a little warmer than the produce.

• Certain chemicals or water containing ozone may be used to wash  produce.  

- Soaking or Storing: Do not mix different items or multiple batches of the  same item.

- Fresh-Cut Produce: Refrigerate and hold at 41F or lower.

- Raw Seed Sprouts: If your operation primarily serves high-risk populations,  do not serve raw seed sprouts.  

• Eggs and Egg Mixtures

- Pooled Eggs (eggs that are cracked open and combined in a container) • cook promptly after mixing or store them at 41F or lower

• clean and sanitize the containers used to hold them before making a new  batch

- Pasteurized Eggs

• consider using these in products that require little/no cooking

- High-Risk Populations

• use pasteurized eggs unless the product will be cooked all the way  through

• Salads Containing TCS Food

- TCS food can only be used if it has been cooked, held, and cooled correctly. - Throw out food after 7 days of storing.

• check the use-by date

• Ice

- Make ice from water that is safe to drink.

- Never use ice as an ingredient if it was used to keep food cold.


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Use clean and sanitized containers and ice scoops.

• Store ice scoops in the outside of the ice machine in a clean, protected  location.

- Never hold or carry ice in containers that have held raw meat, seafood,  poultry, or chemicals.

- Never touch ice with hands or use glass to scoop ice.

- Preparation Practices That Have Special Requirements

• You will need a variance (document from regulatory authority that allows a  regulatory requirement to be waived/changed) in these situations:

- packaging fresh juice for sale at a later time

- smoking food (for preservation purposes)

- using food additives/adding components to preserve food

- curing food

- custom-processing animals for personal use

- packaging food in ROP (reduced oxygen)

- sprouting seeds/beans

- offering live shellfish from a display tank

• Cooking Food

- How to Check Temperatures

• pick the correct thermometer

• check the temperature in the thickest part of the food

• take at least two readings in different locations

- Cooking Requirements for Specific Food

• Cooking TCS Food in the Microwave Oven

- Meat, seafood, poultry, and eggs must be cooked to 165F.

- cover food

- rotate/stir halfway through


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- let stand for at least two minutes after microwaving

- check the temperature in at least 2 places to make sure that the food is  cooked through

• Partial Cooking During Preparation

- Do not cook food for > 60 minutes during initial cooking.

- Cool the food immediately after initial cooking.

- Freeze/refrigerate food after cooling it.

- Heat food to minimum internal temperature before selling/serving. - Consumer Advisories

• If your menu includes TCS items that are raw/undercooked, you must note it  on the menu.

• You must advise customers who order food that is raw/undercooked of the  increased risk of foodborne illness.

• The FDA advises against offering raw/undercooked meat, poultry, seafood, or  eggs on a children’s menu (especially true for undercooked ground beef).

- Operations That Mainly Serve High-Risk Populations

• Never serve raw seed sprouts or raw/undercooked eggs, meat, or seafood. • Cooling and Reheating Food

- Temperature Requirements for Cooling Food

• Cool TCS food from 135F to 41F within 6 hours.

• If food has not reached 70F within 2 hours, it must be reheated and then  cooled again.

• Methods for Cooling Food

- Factors that affect how quickly food will cool:

• thickness/density, size, storage container

- Never cool large amounts of hot food in a cooler.

- Methods for Cooling Food:


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• ice-water bath, blast chiller (blast cold air across food at high speeds), ice  paddle (stir food with frozen plastic paddle), ice or cold water as an ingredient

- Storing Food for Further Cooling

• loosely cover food containers before storing

• food can be left uncovered if stored in a way that prevents contaminants from  getting into it

- store above other food

• Reheating Food

- for immediate service: you can reheat to any temperature as long as it was  cooked and cooled correctly

- food reheated for hot-holding: heat TCS food to an internal temperature of 165F  for 15 seconds

• make sure food reaches this temperature within 2 hours from start to finish

• reheat commercially processed and packaged ready-to-eat foods to an internal  temperature of at least 135F

- Chapter 7: The Flow of Food: Service

• Holding Food

- Guidelines for Holding Food

• Food covers and sneeze guards

• Temperature - Hold hot food at 135F or higher. Hold cold food at 41F or lower. • Thermometer - use to check food’s internal temperature

- Never use the temperature gauge on a holding unit; this does not check the  internal temperature of food.

• Time - Check food temperatures at least every 4 hours.

- If you check every 2 hours, you will have time for corrective action.

• Hot-holding equipment - Never use hot-holding equipment to reheat food  unless it is built to do so.

- Holding Food without Temperature Control


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• This may happen when: displaying food for a short period of time, electricity is  not available to power holding equipment.

• Cold Food

- Can be held without temperature control for up to 6 hours if:

• the food is held at 41F or lower before removing it from refrigeration.

• the food is labeled with the time it was removed from refrigeration and the  time it must be thrown out.

• the food temperature does not exceed 70F.

- Cold food MUST be discarded after 6 hours.

• Hot Food

- Can be held without temperature control for up to 4 hours if:

• the food is held at 135F or higher before it is removed from temperature  control.

• the food is labeled with the time it was removed from refrigeration and the  time it must be thrown out.

- Hot food MUST be discarded after 4 hours.

• Serving Food

- Kitchen Staff Guidelines

• Bare-hand contact with food

- Food handlers must wear single-use gloves.

- Use spatulas, tongs, etc.

- If food does not contain raw meat but will be cooked to at least 145F, bare  hands are acceptable.

• Clean and sanitized utensils

- Use separate utensils for each food item.

- If utensils are used continuously, clean and sanitize them at least once every  4 hours.

• Serving utensils


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Store serving utensils in the food with the handle extended above the rim of  the container.

- Place serving utensils on a clean and sanitized food-contact surface. - Utensils can be stored under running water or in a container of water at at  least 135F.

• Refilling take-home containers

- Take home containers can be filled if: they were designed to be reused, they  were provided to the customer by the operation, they are cleaned and  sanitized correctly.

- Take-home beverages can be refilled if: the beverage is not a TCS food, it  can be cleaned at home and in the operation, it will be rinsed with fresh, hot  water under pressure before it is refilled.

- Service Staff Guidelines

• Hold dishes by the bottom/edge.

• Hold glasses by the middle/bottom/stem.

• Carry glasses in a rack or on a tray.

- DO NOT stack glasses when carrying them.

• Hold flatware by the handle.

• Avoid bare-hand contact with food that is ready to eat.

• Use ice scoops/tongs to get ice.

• Preset Tableware

- Take steps to prevent it from being contaminated (like wrapping utensils in a  napkin).

• Re-Serving Food

- Menu items

• DO NOT re-serve food returned by one customer to another customer. - Condiments

• Prevent contamination


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Individual packets are helpful

• NEVER re-serve uncovered condiments.

• DO NOT combine leftover condiments with fresh ones.

- Bread or rolls

• DO NOT re-serve uneaten bread to other customers.

• Change linens used in bread baskets after each customer.

- Garnishes

• NEVER re-serve plate garnishes.

- Prepackaged food

• You may re-serve unopened, prepackaged food in good condition. - Self-Service Areas

• Protection

- sneeze guards

• Label the food.

• Temperature

- Keep hot food at 135F or higher. Keep cold food at 41F or lower. • Raw and ready-to-eat food

- Raw meats can typically not be offered for self-service. Exceptions: • sushi/raw shellfish

• ready-to-cook portions that will be cooked/eaten immediately on site • raw, frozen shell-on shrimp or lobster

• Refills

- DO NOT let customers refill dirty plates or use dirty utensils at self-service  areas.

• Utensils

- Make sure the correct utensils are available for dispensing food.


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• Ice used to keep food/beverages cold should NEVER be used as an  ingredient.

• Labeling Bulk Food

- The label must be in plain view of the customer.

- Include manufacturer or processor label provided with the food or you can  provide this information on a card/sign.

- Bulk, unpackaged food does not need to be labeled if:

• the product makes no claim regarding health/nutrient content.

• there are no laws requiring labeling.

• the food is manufactured/prepared on the premises.

• the food is manufactured or prepared at another food operation or  processing plant owned by the same person (the operation must be  regulated).

- Off-Site Service (delivery)

• Food containers

- Package food in insulated food containers.

- Use only food grade containers.

• Clean the inside of delivery vehicles regularly.

• Check internal food temperatures.

• Labels

- Indicate use-by date and time.

- Indicate heating and service instructions.

• Utilities

- Make sure the service site has safe water for cooking, dishwashing, and  hand washing.

- Make sure garbage containers are stored away from food-prep, storage, and  serving areas.

• Storage


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Store raw meat and ready to eat items separately.  

- Vending Machines

• Check product shelf life daily and throw out food if it has expired. • Throw out refrigerated food prepped on-site after 7 days.

• Keep TCS food at the correct temperature.

- Machines must have controls that prevent TCS food from being dispensed if  the temperature stays in the danger zone for a specified amount of time (this  food must be thrown out).

• Dispense TCS food in its original container.

• Wash and wrap fresh fruit with edible peels.

- Chapter 8: Food Safety Management Systems

• Overview of Food Safety Management Systems

- Ex. personal hygiene, supplier selection/specification, cleaning/sanitation, facility  design/equipment maintenance, food safety training, quality control/assurance,  standard operating procedures (SOPs), and pest control programs

• Active Managerial Control

- It is the manager’s responsibility to control risk factors for foodborne illnesses.

• This can be accomplished through: training programs, manager supervision,  SOPs, HACCP program

- The FDA’s Public Health Interventions

• Demonstration of knowledge

• Staff health controls (personal hygiene practices)

• Controlling hands as a vehicle of contamination

• Time and temperature parameters for controlling pathogens

- limit time food spends in the temperature danger zone

• Consumer advisories

- Notices must be provided to customers if you serve raw or undercooked  menu items,


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)

• The HACCP Approach

- Seven Principles

• Identify and evaluate hazards

- 1. Conduct a hazard analysis.

- 2. Determine critical control points (CCPs).

• CCPs are points in the process where identified hazards can be  prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels.

• Establish ways for controlling hazards

- 3. Establish critical limits.

• ex. minimum or maximum temperature

- 4. Establish monitoring procedures.

• Check critical limits and make sure that they are consistently met. - 5. Identify corrective actions.

• What do you do when a critical limit is not met?

• Maintain the HACCP plan and system, and verify its effectiveness - 6. Verify that the system works.

- 7. Establish procedures for record keeping and documentation.

• Specialized Processing Methods and HACCP

- Some food processes are highly specialized and can be a serious health risk  if specific procedures are not followed.

• ex. smoking food as a method to preserve, using additives/adding  components to preserve/alter, curing food, custom-processing animals,  reduced oxygen packaging, treating juice on site and packaging it for later  sale, sprouting seeds or beans

- A variance is required before processing food in these ways.

- Chapter 9: Safe Facilities and Pest Management


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• Interior Requirements for a Safe Operation

- Floors, Walls, and Ceilings

• should be smooth and durable

• maintain regularly

• Equipment Selection

- must be nonabsorbent, smooth, corrosion resistant, easy to clean, durable,  resistant to damage

• Installing and Maintaining Equipment

- Stationary equipment should be easy to clean and easy to clean around. - Put floor-mounted equipment on legs at least 6” high.

- Put tabletop equipment on legs at least 4” high or seal it to the countertop. • Dishwashing Machines

- Installation

• must keep utensils, equipment, and other food-contact surfaces from  being contaminated

• Always follow manufacturing instructions.

- Use detergents and sanitizers approved by the local regulatory authority. - Purchase dishwashers that have the ability to measure: water temperature,  water pressure, cleaning and sanitizing chemical concentration

- Clean dishwashers as often as necessary.

• Three-Compartment Sinks

- Make sure they can accommodate large equipment/utensils.

• Handwashing Stations

- required in/directly next to restrooms

- required in areas used for food prep, service, and dishwashing

- Handwashing stations may ONLY be used for handwashing.

- Must have:


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• hot and cold running water (water must be drinkable)

• soap

• a way to dry hands

• garbage container (if disposable paper towels are used)

• clearly visible signage telling staff to wash hands before returning to work - should be in all languages used by staff in the operation

- Utilities and Building Systems

• Water and Plumbing

- Only water that is drinkable can be used for the preparation of food and  come in contact with food-contact surfaces.

- If plumbing is not installed/maintained correctly, drinking water may be  contaminated from unsafe water.

- Cross-connection - a physical link between safe water and dirty water

• backflow- reverse flow of contaminants through a cross-connection into a  drinkable water supply

- Prevention:  

• avoid creating cross-connections

• DO NOT attach a hose to a faucet unless a backflow prevention  device is attached.

• create an air gap

• Lighting

- Light intensity is usually measured in foot-candles or lux.

- Light bulbs must be shatter-resistant or have protective covers.

• Ventilation

- removes heat, steam, and smoke from cooking lines

- eliminates fumes and odors

• Garbage


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Garbage can attract pests and contaminate food, equipment, and utensils if  not handled correctly.

- Garbage removal

• Remove from prep areas as quickly as possible.

- Cleaning of containers

• Clean the inside and outside frequently.

• DO NOT clean garbage containers near prep or food storage areas. - Indoor containers

• must be leak proof, waterproof, and pest proof.

• must be covered when not in use.

- Designated storage areas

• Waste and recyclables must be stored separately from food and food contact surfaces.

- Outdoor containers

• Place garbage containers on a surface that is smooth, durable, and  nonabsorbent.

• Make sure the containers have tight-fitting lids and are covered at all  times.

- Maintaining the Facility

• Clean the operation on a regular basis.

• Make sure all building systems work and are checked regularly.

• Make sure the building is sound. There should be no leaks, holes, or cracks in  the floors, foundation, ceilings, or windows.

• Control pests.

• Maintain the outside of the building correctly.

• Emergencies that Affect the Facility

- Temperature control


Exam Date: 11/11/15

• power failures and refrigeration breakdowns

- Physical security

• Unauthorized people inside a facility are a risk to food safety.

- Drinkable water supply

• broken water mains and breakdowns at water treatment facilities • terrorist contamination of the water supply

- If the risk is determined to be significant, service must be stopped and the local  regulatory authority must be notified.

• Pest Management

- Pest Prevention

• Deny pests access to the operation.

- Check all deliveries.

- Make sure all points where pests can access the operation are secure. • Deny pests food, water, and shelter.

- Throw out garbage quickly and correctly.

- Store recyclables in clean, pest-proof containers.

- Store all food and supplies correctly and as quickly as possible.

- Clean up food/beverage spills immediately.

• Work with a licensed pest control operator (PCO).

- Chapter 10: Cleaning and Sanitizing

• Cleaning and Sanitizing

- Cleaners

• Cleaners must be stable, noncorrosive, and safe.

• Follow manufacturer’s instructions.

• DO NOT use one type of cleaner inlace of another unless the intended use is  the same.


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- Sanitizers

• Heat Sanitizing

- The water must be at least 171F.

- Items must be soaked for at least 30 seconds.

- Items may also be sanitized in a high-temperature dishwasher.

• Chemical Sanitizing

- soak, rinse, spray utensils

- Common types: chlorine, iodine, quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) • Sanitizer Effectiveness

- Concentration

• Too little sanitizer may make the solution weak and useless; too much  sanitizer may make the solution too strong and unsafe.

• Check the concentration often.

- Temperature must be correct.

- Contact time

- Water hardness - the amount of minerals in water

• can affect how well a sanitizer works.

- pH

• can affect how well a sanitizer works.

- How and When to Clean and Sanitize

• All surfaces must be cleaned and rinsed; any surfaces that touch food must be  cleaned and sanitized.

• How to clean and sanitize:

- 1. Scrape/remove food bits from the surface.

- 2. Wash the surface.

- 3. Rinse the surface.


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- 4. Sanitize the surface.

- 5. Allow the surface to air dry.

• When to clean and sanitize:

- After food contact surfaces are used.

- Before food handlers start working with a different type of food.

- Any time food handlers are interrupted during a task and the items being  used may have been contaminated.

- After 4 hours if items are in constant use.

• Cleaning and Sanitizing Stationary Equipment

- Unplug.

- Take removable parts off; wash, rinse, and sanitize them (or run them  through a dishwasher if appropriate).

- Scrape/remove food.

- Wash equipment surfaces with cleaning solution and correct cleaning tool. - Rinse with clean water.

- Sanitize.

- Allow all surfaces to air dry and put unit back together.

• Clean-in-Place Equipment

- Some pieces of equipment are meant to have sanitizing solutions pumped  through them. This should be done every day unless otherwise indicated by  the manufacturer.

• Dishwashing

- Machine Dishwashing

• High-Temperature Machines

- use hot water to clean and sanitize.

- The temperature must reach at least 180F.

• 165F for stationary rack, single-temperature machines


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- must have a built-in thermometer.

• Chemical-Sanitizing Machines

- require lower temperatures.

• Dishwasher Operation

- Keep the machine clean.

• Check it at least once per day.

- Prepare items for cleaning by scraping, rinsing, or soaking.

- Use the correct dish racks.

• NEVER overload dish racks.

- Air dry all items; NEVER use a towel to dry items.

- Monitoring

• Check water temperature, pressure, and sanitizer levels.

- Manual Dishwashing

• 3 compartment sink is usually used.

• Before use: clean/sanitize each sink and drain board

- Fill the first sink with detergent and water (at least 110F).

- Fill the second sink with clean water (this is not necessary if items will be  spray-rinsed instead of being dipped).

- Fill the third sink with water and sanitizer to the correct concentration (hot  water can be used as an alternative).

- Provide a clock with a second hand (to let food handlers know how long  items have been in the sanitizer).

- How to Clean and Sanitize in a Three-Compartment Sink

• 1. Rinse, scrape, or soak items.

• 2. Wash items in the first sink.

• 3. Rinse items in the second sink.

• 4. Sanitize items in the third sink.


Exam Date: 11/11/15

- NEVER rinse items after sanitizing them.

• 5. Air dry items on a clean and sanitized surface.

• *If at any point the water looks dirty, replace it with new, clean water. - Storing Tableware and Equipment

• Store tableware and utensils at least 6” off the floor.

• Clean and sanitize drawers and shelves.

• Store glasses and cups upside down on a clean and sanitized shelf or rack. • Store flatware and utensils with handles up.

• Clean and sanitize trays and carts used to carry clean tableware and utensils.

• Keep the food-contact surfaces of stationary equipment covered until ready for  use.

• Cleaning and Sanitizing in the Operation

- Cleaning the Premises

• Premises must be cleaned regularly.

• Cleaning Up After People Who Get Sick

- Vomit and diarrhea can carry Norovirus.

- Cleaning Tools and Supplies

• Storing Cleaning Tools and Supplies

- Store away from food prep areas.

- The storage area should have:

• good lighting.

• hooks for hanging tools.

• a utility sink.

• a floor drain.

- NEVER clean mops, brushes, or other tools in sinks used for handwashing,  food prep, or dishwashing and NEVER dump mop water/other liquid waste  into toilets/urinals.


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