Chapter 10 Study Guide
Chapter 10 Study Guide PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
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Date Created: 11/03/15
Study Guide for Chapter 10: Helping Others 0LEARNING OBJECTIVES: GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 10.0 00. Discuss how evolutionary theory accounts for helping behavior. Explain kin selection and reciprocal altruism. (pp. 394402) The behavior of helping others could have served the function of preserving individual’s genes by promoting the survival of those who share their genetic makeup. The tendency to help genetic relatives is called kin selection. Also, through reciprocal altruism, helping someone else can be in your best interest because it increases the likelihood that you will be helped in return, which would increase your chances of survival and passing on your genes. 00. Compare and contrast egoistic and altruistic motives for helping. Explain the empathy altruism hypothesis, and identify why a distinction between these two types of motives is important. (pp. 402406) Egoistic motives are driven by the desire to improve one’s own welfare compared to altruistic motives which are the desire to improve the welfare of another. The empathy-altruism hypothesis says that if you perceive someone in need and imagine how that person feels, you are likely to experience other- oriented feelings of empathic concern, which in turn produce the altruistic motive to reduce the other person’s distress. The difference between egoistic and altruistic motives in this hypothesis depends on whether one can obtain the relevant self-benefits without relieving the other’s need (when the motives are altruistic, the person will help regardless of the ease of escape of the person in need). 00. Explain the bystander effect. Identify and explain the five steps in the helping process, discussing obstacles to each step. Consider how each of these obstacles contributes to the bystander effect. (pp. 406412) Participants’ responses to an emergency are strongly influenced by the size of the group; the presence of others inhibits helping since the responsibility gets diffused. Five steps: (1) Notice that something is happening. If you are distracted (looking at your phone for instance or being in a rush because you’re running late) (2) Interpret the event as an emergency. If there is ambiguity in the situation people might be hesitant to act because it might not be an emergency. Ambiguity can come from not knowing the relationship between the attacker and the victim. People also might not interpret a situation as an emergency because of pluralistic ignorance (nobody else seems worried). (3) Take responsibility for providing help, diffusion of responsibility can hinder this. (4) Decide how to help. Lack of competence may keep someone from helping because they don’t feel qualified to help (like if someone is choking and you don’t know the Heimlich). (5) Provide help. Audience inhibition (I’ll look like a fool in front of everybody) or if the costs exceed the reward (what if I get beat up by trying to help someone from getting beat up?) can inhibit this. 00. Describe the influence of other situational factors on helping behavior, such as time pressure, location, culture, mood, role models, and social norms. (pp. 412420) Time pressure, like when we are in a hurry to get somewhere, can sometimes cause people to be so distracted that they don’t even notice others need help, become less likely to accept responsibility, or make us decide that the cost of being late is greater than the reward of helping someone. In general, people are less likely to help strangers in urban areas compared to in rural areas. The bystander effect is at work because the more people that there are around, the less likely it was for someone to help a stranger. Cultures vary on a spectrum from individualistic (valuing independence) and collectivist (valuing working together). The more individualistic a country was rated, there were found to be lower levels of helping were found. A good mood, whether it’s caused by a sunny day or a tasty aroma of cooking baking, can increase helping while a bad mood can decrease it but not always. If someone’s bad mood is that they feel guilty, for example, they might be more likely to help someone. Observing helpful models often increases helping. On the other hand, if we see models that aren’t helpful (like in the bystander effect or pluralistic ignorance) we may be less likely to help. These models help create social norms for us to follow. The social norm of fairness may make us less likely to help someone if we think they might have deserved the situation that they are in. 00. Explain how individual differences such as personality, moral reasoning, and family background may affect a person’s likelihood of helping others. (pp. 420422) Genetics seem to play into the individual differences in people which cause them to be generally more or less helpful than others (based on twin studies). Research has also found that people who tend to be very agreeable, and people who are relatively humble, are more likely to be helpful. The more empathy and the more advanced a person’s moral reasoning is, the more helpful they tend to be. These individual differences tend to be fairly stable over an individual’s lifetime. Morals that were taught to people as children or using a helpful parent as a role model can make a child more helpful as well. 00. Describe how characteristics of people in need (e.g., attractiveness, perceived responsibility, gender) influence the likelihood that others will help them. Consider the role of fit between the characteristics of the help giver and receiver (i.e., similarity and closeness). (pp. 422 428) Attractive people are more likely to be offered help and cooperation across a number of different settings. People are also more likely to help someone in need if they think the person shouldn’t be held responsible for his or her predicament. The evidence of gender difference is not strong or reliable but men ask for help less frequently than women do, which in turn means that they are less likely to receive help since they don’t ask. People are prone to help their kin, in-group members, and people with whom they have a close or reciprocal relationship. Perceived similarity between the helper and the person in need increases helping. Key Terms altruistic (p. 402) : Motivated by the desire to improve another’s welfare. arousal: costreward model (p. 400) : The proposition that people react to emergency situations by acting in the most cost-effective way to reduce the arousal of shock and alarm. audience inhibition (p. 410) : Reluctance to help for fear of making a bad impression on observers. bystander effect (p. 407) : The effect whereby the presence of others inhibits helping. diffusion of responsibility (p. 409) : The belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing assistance to a person in need. egoistic (p. 402) : Motivated by the desire to increase one’s own welfare. empathyaltruism hypothesis (p. 403) : The proposition that empathic concern for a person in need produces an altruistic motive for helping. empathy (p. 398) : Understanding or vicariously experiencing another individual’s perspective and feeling sympathy and compassion for that individual. kin selection (p. 394) : Preferential helping of genetic relatives, which results in the greater likelihood that genes held in common will survive. negative state relief model (p. 400) : The proposition that people help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness. pluralistic ignorance (p. 409) : The state in which people in a group mistakenly think that their own individual thoughts, feelings, or behaviors are different from those of the others in the group. prosocial behaviors (p. 394) : Actions intended to benefit others. social norm (p. 419) : A general rule of conduct reflective standards of social approval and disapproval. Sample Multiple Choice Questions 1. The evolutionary principle of kin selection dictates that we are more likely to help someone who is a. a potential mate. b. likely to return the favor. c. physically attractive. d. genetically similar to us. ANS: D REF: Evolutionary and Motivational Factors: Why Do People Help? OBJ: 1 KEY: Conceptual 2. Kelli always tries to be very helpful because she believes it increases her chances of receiving help at a future time. Kelli’s thinking most closely reflects the concept of a. reciprocal altruism. b. empathy. c. egoism. d. audience exhibition. ANS: A REF: Evolutionary and Motivational Factors: Why Do People Help? OBJ: 1 KEY: Applied 3. When Jo witnessed a serious plane crash, she felt compassion, sympathy, and tenderness for the victims. Her feelings are indicative of a. anxious introspection. b. perspective taking. c. personal distress. d. empathic concern. ANS: D REF: Evolutionary and Motivational Factors: Why Do People Help? OBJ: 2 KEY: Applied 4. Which hormone has been implicated by neuroscientists in empathy and prosocial behaviors? a. Oxytocin b. Cortisol c. Estrogen d. Testosterone ANS: A REF: Evolutionary and Motivational Factors: Why Do People Help? OBJ: 2 KEY: Factual 5. The negative state relief model of helping behavior a. supports the existence of altruism in the real world. b. applies more to emergencies than to nonemergency situations. c. identifies yet another way in which helping can be egoistic. d. All of these ANS: C REF: Evolutionary and Motivational Factors: Why Do People Help? OBJ: 2 KEY: Conceptual 6. Research by Rilling et al. (2002) suggests that ________ behavior is linked to activation of the brain in areas associated with processing rewards. a. selfish b. dangerous c. evolutionarily adaptive d. mutually cooperative ANS: D REF: Evolutionary and Motivational Factors: Why Do People Help? OBJ: 2 KEY: Factual 7. “Good Samaritan” laws a. encourage bystanders to intervene in emergencies. b. increase the cost of failing to help. c. are fairly rare in the United States. d. All of these ANS: D REF: Evolutionary and Motivational Factors: Why Do People Help? OBJ: 2 KEY: Factual 8. According to the empathyaltruism hypothesis, altruistic behavior is primarily the result of a. taking another’s perspective. b. rewards and costs. c. personal distress. d. evolution. ANS: A REF: Evolutionary and Motivational Factors: Why Do People Help? OBJ: 2 KEY: Conceptual 9. The empathyaltruism model suggests that when escape from a situation is easy, people will a. offer help only when they have empathic concern. b. offer help only when they are in a good mood. c. almost always exhibit altruism. d. be likely to experience empathic concern. ANS: A REF: Evolutionary and Motivational Factors: Why Do People Help? OBJ: 2 KEY: Conceptual 10. Research by Omoto and Snyder (1995) found that volunteers who decided to help AIDS victims had _____ service if their motives were _____. a. longer; selforiented b. longer; otheroriented c. shorter; religious d. shorter; egoistic ANS: A REF: Evolutionary and Motivational Factors: Why Do People Help? OBJ: 2 KEY: Conceptual 11. Which of the following is not one of the five steps to helping proposed by Latané and Darley (1970)? a. Interpret the event as an emergency b. Invoke the norm of reciprocity c. Take responsibility for providing help d. Notice that something is happening ANS: B REF: Situational Influences: When Do People Help? OBJ: 3 KEY: Factual 12. Dewanto hears what sounds like gunshots coming from the school parking lot. None of his classmates appears concerned, so Dewanto assumes that they know the sound was only a car backfiring or someone playing with firecrackers. Dewanto’s beliefs illustrate a. diffusion of responsibility. b. empathic concern. c. audience inhibition. d. pluralistic ignorance. ANS: D REF: Situational Influences: When Do People Help? OBJ: 3 KEY: Applied 13. The belief that others will or should take the responsibility for providing assistance to a person in need is called a. the bystander effect. b. diffusion of responsibility. c. pluralistic ignorance. d. audience inhibition. ANS: B REF: Situational Influences: When Do People Help? OBJ: 3 KEY: Factual 14. According to Latané and Darley’s (1970) fivestep model of helping, analysis of costs and rewards occurs at what step? a. Noticing the event b. Interpreting the event as an emergency c. Taking responsibility to help d. Providing help ANS: D REF: Situational Influences: When Do People Help? OBJ: 3 KEY: Factual 15. Darley and Batson (1973) found that the helping behavior of seminary students was best predicted by a. how religious they were. b. the type of speech they were about to give. c. how much time they had. d. the sex of the person being helped. ANS: C REF: Situational Influences: When Do People Help? OBJ: 4 KEY: Factual 16. As she is about to walk into the grocery store, Melissa sees a woman struggling with her groceries. Melissa is most likely to help this woman if a. the woman is obviously drunk. b. the store is located in an urban environment. c. Melissa only has five minutes to purchase her donuts and beer, and get to work on time. d. Melissa feels guilty about having parked in the handicapped space. ANS: D REF: Situational Influences: When Do People Help? OBJ: 4 KEY: Applied 17. Which social norm suggests that people who are fairly welloff in life should use their position to help those who are in need? a. Norm of social responsibility b. Norm of reciprocity c. Norm of equity d. Norm of justice ANS: C REF: Situational Influences: When Do People Help? OBJ: 4 KEY: Conceptual 18. Kevin asks Winnie to drive him to the airport. Though Winnie doesn’t really want to, she agrees because Kevin loaned her money last week. Winnie agreed to help because of the norm of a. equity. b. reciprocity. c. justice. d. cooperation. ANS: B REF: Situational Influences: When Do People Help? OBJ: 4 KEY: Applied 19. Which of the following combinations of traits has been shown to be essential to helping? a. Extroversion and conscientiousness b. Empathy and advanced moral reasoning c. Empathy and introversion d. Independence and conscientiousness ANS: B REF: Personal Influences: Who Is Likely to Help? OBJ: 5 KEY: Factual 20. Manny needs help, and Pedro is capable of giving it. Pedro is more likely to help if he a. perceives Manny as responsible for his predicament. b. is low on agreeability. c. endorses the norm of justice more than the norm of social responsibility. d. has a shared identity with Manny. ANS: D REF: Interpersonal Influences: Whom Do People Help? OBJ: 6 KEY: Applied 21. Some crossracial helping is not truly altruistic because it can be a sign of a. kin selection. b. utility. c. selfsupport. d. feelings of superiority over the person being helped. ANS: D REF: Interpersonal Influences: Whom Do People Help? OBJ: 6 KEY: F 22. Whether or not someone seems responsible for her own predicament is more influential on helping behavior a. in individualistic cultures. b. when the target in need of help is male. c. when the person in need of help is a family member. d. in collectivist cultures. ANS: A REF: Interpersonal Influences: Whom Do People Help? OBJ: 6 KEY: Conceptual
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