Exam 2 (Units 5-9) Study Guide
Exam 2 (Units 5-9) Study Guide HIST 101 001
Popular in European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century
Popular in History
This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Margot Clary on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Schor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 188 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
Terms 11/3/15 2:14 PM à Unit 5 (Roman-Era Religion, Judaism and the Origins of Christianity) • Magic & Holy Men in the Early Roman Empire o Interest in magic spread; black magic was illegal and considered witchcraft o Holy Men were thought to have special connections to the gods because of ancestry/special powers o Apollonius – most popular early Roman “Holy Man” • Universalizing Mystery Cults (ex. Cult of Isis) o UMC were new religious cults, organized to attract followers across the Med. o These cults were semi-secret religious organizations that had a “secret wisdom” only available to the initiated o Cult of Isis was popular & widespread; believed Isis & Serapis were male & female aspects of one divine force running the universe • Jewish Community During Roman Conquest: Divisions in Judaea o Divisions over how to deal with Roman rule o 2 Sides: § Sadducees: Jews who followed rules of certain group of temple priests & collaborated with Rome/”pro-Roman collaborators” § Pharisees: group of religious teachers/followers who favored social separation from Romans to keep Jewish morals/purity ‘ • Jewish Messianic Movements and Revolts Against Roman Rule o “Messianic” people looked through Hebrew Bible for predictions of messiah o Who or what sort of person the new Messiah was, however, was much debated o Messianic Jewish movement: Zealot’s revolt resulted in destruction of Jewish temple & 1-2 million Jews killed or enslaved & banned from S. Judaea • Roman-era “Rabbis” and Basic Teachings of Rabbinic Judaism o Failed revolts caused Jewish community to lose prestige; priesthood was dissolved, temple was gone, Jews charged extra tax o Many Some surviving Jews chose to abandon separate community & blend in with others o Rabbis had most influence; claimed to treasure the old Torah, urged Jewish unity • Jesus’ Crucifixion and After: Jesus’ Jewish Following o Jesus’ movement was probably non-violent, but treated by Roman leaders as rebellion and crucifixion was the punishment for rebels o Jesus’ followers (apostles) refused to accept his death and claimed the messiah would return o Most followers (a few thousand) were Jews • “Cult of Christ”: Spreading Stories of Jesus as Holy Man/”Son of God” o “Cult of Christ” was a widely scattered group who told stories of Jesus as a Holy Man o Often spoke Greek o Mixed Jews with “Godfearers” and non-Jews; asserted Jesus was (partly) divine • Paul of Tarsus, Missions & Teachings o Played key role in the movement towards a whole Christian community o Teachings were preserved into 7 authentic letters about uniting different groups by faith in Jesus as savior o Preached synagogues for 20 yrs. to convert Jews to Jesus’ following until Romans executed him • Early Christian Writers’ Hostility to Jews o Earliest Christians did not originally “hate Jews” o However, early Gospel writers showed hostility towards some Jewish leaders for not accepting Jesus as Messiah o The destruction of the Jewish temple, Christian writers said, was God’s punishment • Early Christian Writers’ Hostility to “Heretics” o Precise belief mattered to Christians more than Jews or others; salvation required believing correctly o Christians claimed their views were “correct thinking” (orthodoxy) o Traditional tale: apostles had right faith then heretics “chose” different teachings • Status of Jews and of Christians in Roman Empire, 200 CE o Most Romans were polytheists o Christians were a secretive, illegal movement in hiding o Local persecutions, but not empire-wide persecutions à Unit 6 – The Christian Roman Empire • The 3 rdc. Roman Imperial Crisis: New Foes in Europe and Persia o Germanic warriors raided Roman provinces o New dynasty “Sassanids” formed new Persian Empire o Zoroastrian teachings as official Persian faith • Internal 3rdc. Roman Crises: defeats, plagues, and “usurpers” o New Roman defeats led to question: did Roman rulers have backing of Gods? o New epidemic diseases due to more trade contact severely damaged population and state’s ability to fund wars o Usurpers were would-be emperors challenging existing emperors causing civil wars • Roman Imperial Response to Crisis: Diocletian and his Reforms o D. was biggest and most successful reformer o Ended period of crisis by completely rearranging Roman state; doubled size of army o Ideology: one empire, like one universe run by gods • Constantine’s Pro-Christian Policies (and his personal religion) o Edict declaring toleration for all religious groups o Church legalized, Christians can reclaim property taken in persecution o Gave favors to Christians such as donations, legal privileges & church buildings • Constantinople: a New Christian Roman Capital o “New Rome” o Second capital for the empire o Location access to troops, churches in center • Julian’s Attempt to “Restore Paganism” and the Christian Response o Julian – Constantine’s nephew who supported polytheism o Tried to cleverly undercut Christianity (but no persecution) o Julian’s death in battle vs. Persia • Theodosius I and his successors: “Orthodox Christian Empire” o Favors solely for Christian religion o Jews allowed, Jewish converts forbidden; pagan belief was ok but pagan public ritual was illegal o Christianity as “official Roman religion” • New Influence of Bishops in a Christian Empire o Rising influence of church leaders with official backing from bishops o All bishops gained power locally & had independent base of authority o Bishops could lobby emperors and officials • Bishops and Emperors: Disputes over Heresy and Orthodoxy o Bishops constantly argued over what was “orthodoxy” o Arian = Christ “similar in substance” to God the Father o Nicene = Christ “same substance” as God the Father o Gratian and Theodosius I supported “Nicene” party • “Pagans” and Jews in a Christian Roman Empire o Pagans (polytheists) still continued in Roman Empire o Jews continued, legal but disfavored o Jewish identity solidified by resistance to Christian pressure to convert • Cultural Impact of Christianity: Christian Family Life and Sexuality o Basic structure of Roman family was resistant to change; fathers still held most power, marriages arranged by family, etc. o Some slow changes via Roman laws like child abuse banned o Biggest change was new laws and attitudes about sexuality (celibacy, hostility towards male prostitution and homosexuality) • Hermits and Monasteries in a Christian Roman Empire o New Christian “culture of holiness” centered on Monks and Monasteries o Monk was a Christian who sought to perfect his life & relationship with God o Some Christians leaving to become hermits living in extreme deprivation (fasting, seclusion, self harm) • Cultural Impact of Christianity: Pilgrimage, Saints and Relics o Pilgrimage to holy sites and to visit holy people became common o Christians started praying to dead holy people o Visited tombs & collected remains (relics) to connect with holiness à Unit 7 – The Decline of Roman Power and the Origins of Islam • Germanic Groups, Huns and the “Barbarian Invasions” o Germanic groups long lived in the N of Roman world o Huns expanded W, disrupting Germanic groups o Visi-Goths rebelled, setting an examples for “barbarians” • The Formation of “Barbarian” Kingdoms: Visigoths, Vandals and Franks th o By 5 c., “barbarian” conquests were becoming regional kingdoms o First big barbarian kingdom = Visigoths o Longest lasting kingdom was the Franks, Roman ally until 930 • Italy: From W. Roman Emperors to Ostrogothic Kings o By this time, Roman rule pulled back from most of W. Europe and N. Africa o Rest of empire ruled by 2 co-emperors o Ostro-Gothic king took Italy and ruled a very Roman kingdom • Eastern Christian Roman Empire: political stability o Army and provinces intact, restored authority of city councils o More stable succession of emperors o Thriving E. Med. economy, growing population • Justinian’s Regime: legal reforms and religious polices o Sought Christian Roman power & unity o Legal reform included the codifying and Christianizing of 1000 years of Roman law o Push for religious unity included hunting down pagans, limiting Jews, forcing Christian doctrinal compromises o Backfired – inspired foes to set up permanent alternative churches • Justinian’s Wars with “Barbarian” Kings and Persia o Most famous policy pursued by Justinian was series of war o Wars came with high cost – raised taxes & reduced forces on N and E frontiers o At one point, was fighting a 4-front war • Bubonic Plague of Justinian and its Impact o Wars coincided with Bubonic plague o Killed 1/3 of Roman population; recurred several times o Drop in population & economy (trade, farming, govt. funding) • The Great Roman-Persian War and the Role of the “Allies” o Largest war between Rome and Persia; brutal religious war w/ Arabs caught in middle o Sparked by 3-way Roman civil war; Persian King invaded o Both Roman and Persians bribed tribal leaders to join the fight o Impact was immense; Arab feuds (resulting from bribes taken by Arab kings) spiraled out of control tearing Arab society apart • Beginnings of Islam: Scholarly Debates About the Historical Muhammad o Hard to study historical Muhammad; most stories written down 100-150 yrs. after his death & don’t line up o His prophecies won small following in Mecca but was harassed by Quraysh leaders o By 622, forced to flee from Quraysh lands • Muhammad in Medina: An Islamic State and its First “Jihad” o Medina’s tribes were divided (Jewish/Polytheist) and feuding, asked Muhammad to mediate o Muhammad allied Jewish tribes, converted polytheists & created Islamic state o Muhammad called for “jihad” (“struggle” for pure thoughts, justice and against foes) • Earliest Islamic Relations with Jews and Christians o Muhammad started off seeking alliance w/ Jews and Christians, saying they shared the same ancestor (Abraham) o He then distanced Islam from Jews & Christians because they challenged Muhammad’s authenticity o Jews and Christians were then tolerated, but seen as second- class citizens; Islam was its own community (the “original religion of Abraham”) • After Muhammad: the early caliphs and their conquests o Muhammad left no plan for heir; council chose Abu Bakr as first caliph o Caliphs continued to expand and recruit Arabs to join struggle o Muslims had managed to shrink Roman Empire by more than half and completely wipe out Persian empire • The New Empire of Islam: Conquest agreements and garrison cities o Arabs were separate warrior class settled in garrison cities (new cities) o Muslims agreed to protect the freedom of local Christian, Zoroastrian and Jewish communities that surrendered if they would pay respect and taxes to the caliph and abided by certain restrictions o Agreements came to be basis of Muslim/non-Muslim relations à Unit 8 – Early Medieval Christian and Islamic Societies • Rivals for the Office of Caliph: the Umayyads vs. Ali (and his “Shiites”) o Umayyads were an old leading family in Quraysh o Ali was Muhammad’s cousin & son-in-law, thus knowledgable of Muhham. prophesy o Civil war erupted and Ali was murdered; Umayyads take over o “Shia” (Ali’s followers) starte Shiite sect of Islam • The Umayyad Dynasty in Damascus and its Policies o Umayyad Dynasty moved capital from Medina to Damascus o Set up 2 systems of government (one for Arab Muslims, one for the rest) o Edited and standardized the Qur’an; also built big mosques and shrines (Grand Umayyad Mosque) • The Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad and its Policies o Revolt against Umayyad dynasty led to the beginning of a new regime, the Abbasid family led revolt o Abbasids were Arabs of the Quraysh tribe o Overthrew Umayyads o Built new capital in Baghdad; Islam was now open to all; did away with 2 separate governments (everyone under amirs) • Decline of Abbasid Caliph’s Authority: Amirs, Turkish generals, and scholars o Amirs gained more power until most had formed their own dynasty, running their own business o Lost religious authority to the Sages; set up own schools of Islamic law o Lost military authority; bought thousands of non-Muslim Turkish slaves to train, convert, and free • Life in Early Medieval Islam: economic life and social class o New crops = more stable food supply o Because Muhammad was a merchant, merchants & trading was now honored instead of looked down upon (capitalism) o Middle class was broader, with various ranks of craftsmen and merchants; social mobility was now possible • Gender, family and slavery in the early medieval Islamic world o More rigidly patriarchal than Roman world o Polygamous society; limited female role in public o Muslims owned slaves nearly as often as Romans; however the slaves were non-Muslim • Culture and learning in early medieval Islamic society o Islamic culture was much wider than sharia; was a cultural melting pot o Arabic traditions, Persian, Turkish and Indian culture and learning was brought with the converts o Elite male members were expected to know Islamic law, Persian history/political ideas, etc. • Christian reactions to the rise of Islam: the Iconoclast controversy o Iconoclasts = “the icon breakers” o Leo III endorsed movement, gave it a big boost o Byzantines eventually chose to keep their icons; the iconoclast controversy showed how much Roman emperors were in charge of both church and state • Medieval Byzantine Expansionism: Byzantium as prime power center o Byzantines had largest army in the region o Basil II had most dramatic expansion; took over Balkans o Byzantium was largest state power in the Mediterranean • Gender, class and slavery in early medieval Byzantium o Elites included military leaders, big landowners, bureaucrats o Most Byz. were free peasants with some slaves & large slave trade w/ Islamic world o Women held a more public role in Byz. society than Islamic society • Culture and learning in early medieval Byzantium o Christian religious learning continued o So did Greek/Roman philosophy o Elites expected to be widely learned • The Carolingian Frankish dynasty and the Rise of Charlemagne o Carolingians arose when Umayyad armies were defeated o Charlemagne launched massive wave of conquest o Charl. supported the Church (sponsored buildings & writings, favoring clerics, supported missionaries) & allied with the Pope • Collapse of Charlemagne’s empire: Invaders and warlords o Vikings, Hungarians and new Muslim raiders invaded o Local Christian warlords (Charlemagne’s knights) built forts and castles; offered “protection” for a price o Serious political power arose in Germany and Italy (Emperor dependant on local warlords’ support) • Gender, class and “serfdom/slavery” in early medieval Latin Christendom o Women played key role in public life as social bridges; Elite Christian families relied on marriage links to make alliances o Serfs were peasants seeking protection from warlords for their labor (part-time servants) o Rising # of serfs was tied to the absence of a powerful state (serfs had nowhere else to turn) • Culture and learning in early medieval Latin Christendom o Less to support higher learning in this period o Elite culture focused on war training, basic religious teaching o In the West, however, slowly growing net of bishops and monasteries established more monasteries with learning components Unit 9 – Christian and Islamic Societies in the Era of the Crusades • Roots of Transformation: climate change, farming and population growth th o Climate became warmer and drier (9 c.), making the farming season longer o New mode of farming: 3-field rotation (regionalized crops, forest as animal pasture) o New tools including animal plows, windmills, waterwheels, drainage techniques, crop rotation o More peasants became serfs to fill the need for labor, but more food produced more wealth • Rebuilding Western (Frankish) Christian Kingdoms (making “vassals”) o Kings gained influence and rebuilt kingdoms o Rebuilt kingdoms by 2 processes: § Slow building of small conquests/marriage links to other lordly families § Quick conquests, distribution of lands to favorites • Monasteries, monastic orders, and their growing influence o Monasteries became big landowners via donations, gaining thousands of monks o Monastic orders were a series of monastic houses living by the same rule and headed by a single head abbot o “Peace of God” movement – warlords buying monks’ prayers were asked to follow certain rules (control violence, avoid fighting defenseless people, fight for right reasons, etc.) = beginnings of Chivalry • The Holy Roman Emperor and his new authority o Holy Roman Empire created electoral monarchy o New king was given the title “Holy Roman Emperor” o Less emphasis on collection of taxes, more emphasis on controlling church offices o Point of Holy Roman Empire: to make a claim that challenged Byzantine Roman empire as Christian leaders • The reform popes and their struggles for new authority o German “reform popes” hired secretaries and advisors o Election of new popes by hand-picked cardinal bishops (no longer by kings) o New bishops forbidden to pay favors to kings to be chosen as bishop • Christian Expansionism in the Atlantic, E. Europe and Spain o Christian rulers conquered series of “outsider” lands and colonized (bringing friends, allies, peasants) o Conquests usually led by lesser warlords or their younger sons o Expansionism not centrally planned, but driver by powerful forces • The First Crusade and the crusader kingdoms o Pope Urban II organized expedition to take back the holy land (“crusade” = taking up of the cross) o Armed & (mostly) unarmed crowd move through MidE; very bloody conquest killing hundreds of thousands of Muslim o W. European lords created 4 new feudal kingdoms, forcing locals to convert or leave • Saladin and the Islamic counter-crusade o Saladin (political official) sparked revolt & demanded unified front against the Crusaders o After counter invasions, Saladin took Jerusalem back for Muslims o Saladin was celebrated as a heroin Islam; a single-minded warrior • Crusades and the Byzantine Empire: the “Fourth Crusade” o Erupted from distrust among E. and W. Christians o Called upon troops to defend Holy Land; troops ran out of money; cousin of Byzantine Emperor promised funding if they helped him gain the throne; they did but he had no money o Crusaders sacked Constantinople (brutalized Christian city in the name of Christ) • Expansionism, trade growth and the rise of W. Christian cities o By 1200, trade wealth and population growth increased total wealth of society o Crusades & other expansionism enabled wider contact with Byzantine & Islamic societies o New, permanent market towns & new forms of money transfer and credit increased growth steadily in non-farm related economy • Medieval Christian city charters and autonomous city governments o Bishops, warlords, and kings benefited from new trade wealth (supporting the churches, control and safety of economy) o In order to settle feuds for wealth and power, local town leaders struck agreements with lords bishops and kings = charters o Cities promised lords and kings regular tax and tithe money (some loyalty) and in exchange, kings and bishops agreed to respect city autonomy • New Medieval W Christian centers of learning: scholasticism and universities o Expanded schooling followed increase in trade wealth o At first it was largely led by bishops (based in cathedrals); then small circles of teachers began forming to teach higher learning o Teachers’ fees, behaviors and teachings varied widely (few rules) o Latin Christian universities were then established to standardize fees and curriculum • New pious movements in 12-13 thc. Christendom: Mystics, wanders and “heretics” o Mysticism: practices to make believers gain special wisdom and feel direct contact with God (fasting, sleep deprivation, drugs) o Apostolic Wanderers: New Christian Holy Men § Poor, celibate life, traveling the world and preaching § More common along major trade routes/cities § As money became more common sights, these deliberately poor people attracted attention as “holy” • Franciscans and Dominicans: Apostolic wandering priests o 1 order of friars (mendicants) § Francis of Assisi (son of wealthy merchant) ú Gave away ALL wealth to live as beggar ú Blessed by pope in Italy nd o 2 order § The Dominicans ú Stressed learning more than poverty Short Answer 11/3/15 2:14 PM 1. The Origins of Christianity a. Jesus of Nazareth, as a historical person, is difficult to study but is widely agreed upon as the beginnings of Christian origins. Jesus was born and raised a Jew, and later became a Jewish teacher. After his death, his followers (“apostles”) sought to convince other Jews that Jesus was the messiah and would return. Paul of Tarsus then turned this movement into a whole Christian community by trying to unite Jews and non-Jews as one religious community under the name of Jesus. 2. The Christian Roman Empire a. The rise of Christianity was linked to changes in Roman politics and society in the 3rdcentury. 2-3 rdarguments over theology and 3 rdc. persecutions led to tight network of powerful bishops. The Roman state helped make the empire Christian; by the early 4 thcentury, Christians won the full backing of Emperor Constantine. After Constantine, all but one Roman emperor was Christian. Emperors Gratian and Theodosius passed laws to make Empire “officially” Christian. This “Christianizing” of the Roman Empire had strong effects on the government and economy, helping Emperors collect taxes, keep power and control its people under one religion. 3. The Decline of Roman Power and Origins of Islam a. The decline of Roman power was due to many factors, some of which include self interested armies, inequality, high taxes, oppressive laws, and diseases. But all of these factors are mere contributing factors; there was no single reason to blame for the “fall” of the Roman Empire. The Roman state survived the rise of Islam and the Caliphate and continued in Constantinople until 1453. The origins of Islam began with Muhammad’s preachings, later written down in the Qur’an which taught strict, simple monotheism (“Islam”). Islam was deeply influenced by Jews, Christians and other Arab cultural trends, but reacted against Roman power. 4. Early Medieval Christian and Islamic Societies a. Early Medieval Islamic society consisted of a growing economy with a more stable food supply and positive attitude to trade and commerce. It was also generally patriarchal although women were guaranteed some tights like inherited property. Slavery was still common but they were used as domestic servants and soldiers. Similarly, the Byzantine society also experienced a population and trade “boom”, but women played a more public role here than in Islamic society; for example, women were granted property and monogamy rights as well as some being honored as Byzantine rulers. 5. Islamic and Christian Societies in the Era of the Crusades a. In addition to population expansionism and colonization from Christian warlords, the Crusades were inspired by renewed Islamic power in the Middle East. One of the most influential events of the Crusades was the first crusade. As Seljuk Turkish warriors expanded into Byzantine Christian lands, Byzantine emperors lost their fight against these new expansionists. The Byzantine rallied one hundred thousand followers to revolt against the Seljuk Turks and take back the Holy Land. The result was 4 new W. Christian “Crusader” kingdoms, forcing locals to convert to Christianity or leave. Muslims saw the crusaders as crude barbarians, but noticed that crusaders who stayed in the region adapted and found local allies. This W. Christian expansionism had large impact; one of which being a big power shift toward larger Latin Christian territory and away from Byzantine empire. Source Interpretation 11/3/15 2:14 PM 1. Rabbi’s sayings from the Mishnah, Avot rd a. Published in early 3 c. CE b. Oldest written collection of ethical teachings offered by Jewish Rabbis under Roman rule c. An attempt to summarize ethical guidelines for Jews who wished to live a holy Jewish life under Roman rule 2. New Testament, Acts of the Apostles, selections a. 50’s-110 CE b. Collection of writings penned by different (unknown… called “Luke”) authors at different times, later assembled to form a “canon” of holy books c. Gospel of Mark – written by Jewish follower of Jesus (70’s CE) d. Luke & Acts – follower of Paul of Tarsus (90-110 CE) 3. Eutropius, Brief History of Rome, (on emperors from Diocletian to Constantine) a. 4 thc. CE b. Author = Flavius Eutropius (bureaucrat/official; summarizer of history) c. Compilation of history of Roman leaders, external wars, civil wars, and major political changes in the Roman state d. Diocletian – dramatically reshaped Roman government and persecuted Christians e. Constantine – continued government reforms but supported Christianity 4. Eusebius, Life of Constantine (selections) th a. 4 c. CE (339) b. Author = Eusebius of Caesarea (imperial advisor to Constantine) c. Most detailed (yet biased) narrative of Constantine’s career; key attempt by a bishop to envision what a Christian emperor was supposed to do 5. Select laws from 4th century emperors on religion th a. 4 c. CE (311-395) b. Laws issued by Roman emperors from the reign of Constantine (and his co-emperor Licinius) to the reign of Theodosius I c. Most laws were preserved in the “Theodosian Code”, covering many aspects of Roman life (only 7% about religion) d. Helps understand how the Roman Empire lent support to the “Catholic, Orthodox” Christian church while disfavoring other religious groups 6. Jordanes, Gothic History, selections a. 5 -6 thc. CE b. Author = Jordanes; trying to make sense of the end of direct Roman rule in Western Europe and the rise of Germanic kings c. First self-identified Goth to write a history of his supposedly barbarian people; sought to prove how noble the Goths were; provided an opinionated take on barbarian invasions 7. Procopius, Secret History, selections (on Justinian) a. 6 thc. CE b. Author = Procopius; served as private secretary to Belisarius, Justinian’s most senior general c. “Secret history” privately laid out his criticisms of his imperial employer 8. Constitution of Medina a. 6 -8 thc. CE b. Document that likely comes from the Islamic community when led by Muhammad before its major conquests began c. Saved by Muhammad Ibn Ishaq (8 th c.) d. One of the few documents that gives a glimpse of the shape of the earliest Islamic community in Arabia 9. Al-Shafii, “Pact to be Accorded to Non-Muslim Subjects” a. 8 -9 thc. CE b. Author = Muhammad al-Shafi’i; most influential legal scholar in ealy Islamic society c. Defined the best way for Muslims to live and follow the path of God d. Interpreted passages of the Qur’an and collected sayings that fellow Muslims attributed to the prophet Muhammad e. Sums up what he saw as the proper way for Muslim leaders to deal with “Protected peoples” (Jews, Christians & Zoroastrians who accepted overlordship of the caliph) 10. Ibn Sina, Autobiography a. 1020’s CE b. Authors = Ibn Sina & his student c. Ibn Sina wrote on virtually every topic of elite Islamic learning (philosophy, music, mathematics, etc.) d. Autobiography provides personal window on the culture and values of the Islamic elite in the 10th& early 11 thc. 11. Michael Psellos, Chronography (on his relationship to Emperor Constantine IX) th a. 11 c. CE b. Author = Psellos; named by Emperor Constantine IX as head professor of philosophy & served as advisor; repeatedly fell from favor and exiled himself to a monastery c. Chronographia was series of biographies of Byzantine rulers known by Psellos; spoke highly of rulers that treated him well & poorly of those who did not 12. Dhuoda, Advice to Her Son William th a. 9 c. CE b. Author = Dhuoda c. Wrote her guide to proper behavior for her son William while he was taken to serve as a hostage d. Her advice provides a window into Carolingian elite culture and values 13. Fulcher, Chronicle of the First Crusade, selections a. 12 thc. CE b. Author = Fulcher; traveled with crusader army during capture of Jerusalem & stayed in Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem as royal chaplain, later abbot c. Written chronicle that Fulcher wrote to summarize the first crusade; provides the most direct account of the new ideology of Crusade in Western Christendom 14. Baha ad-Din, Biography of Saladin, selections th a. 12 c. CE b. Author: Baha ad-Din c. Biography of Saladin marks the most detailed source we have on Saladin; work aimed to make the successful king and “Holy warrior” into a model of piety d. Source is useful for understanding the ideology of the Islamic counter-crusade 15. Peter Abelard, Story of His Misfortunes, selections th a. 12 c. CE b. Author = Peter Abelard c. Brilliant scholar and prolific writer of philosophy; attempted to solve inconsistencies in church law by using Aristotle’s methods of reasoning d. Selections from Abelard’s autobiography (written prematurely) Map Interpretation 11/3/15 2:14 PM - Roman religious ideology: “All gods support Roman power” - Roman “imperial cult”: requirement to venerate past “good” emperors and Guardian spirit of current ruler - Everyone told to sacrifice in name of emperor and Rome - Mystery cult (secrets for initiates, “salvation” here and in afterlife) - “Universalizing” (seeking widespread followers; claiming links to supreme divine force) - Cult of Isis (and Serapis/Osiris) popular, organized across empire - Elaborate expensive rituals, temples - “2 sides of supreme god” (thousands of divine names) - Jews and other worshippers of Yahweh made up 8-9% of the empire - Paid money to support priests in jerusalem and refusing to follow imperial cult (worshiping many gods) - Spread of radical movements (seeing God as the only rightful emperor) within the Jewish community - Some Jewish movements’ violent resistence (Zealot’s revolt 66 BC) - Revolt crushed, Romans’ destruction of Jewish temple, 70 CE - New revolts lef by “messiahs”: 115-117 CE, 132-135 CE, crushed - 1-2 million Jews killed or enslaved. Jews banned from S Judaea - Paul of Tarsus played key role in turning movement into a whole Christian community - Began preaching to win Jews over to Jesus’ following - Did this for 20 years until he annoyed Roman authorities and was executed in 62 AD - In 200 CE, most Romans were polytheists - 1-2 million Jews as a public, permitted religious minority - Christians a secretive illegal movement - Hostility to Christians as “new” “pro-rebel” “atheist” - No empire-wide persecution (yet) but some lynchings - Local persecutions; most Christians in hiding - Impact of crisis varied - More rulers made more “debased” coins (inflation) - Some raids, loss of life - But large areas (esp. Rome) were largely untouched - Roman state responses to crisis: new rituals of loyalty; new military methods - Reforms esp. by Diocletian increased size of Imperial government - Expanded army to 450,000 soldiers - Hired 20,000 bureaucrats, spie - Now 100 governors and new regional supervisors - Raised taxes “fairly”, price control - Diocletian sought stable succession, 1 co-emperor, 2 “Caesars” (tetrarchy) - Constantine favored Christianity (esp. Bishops): donations, legal privileges, access - Large public church buildings in Rome and Jerusalem - Constantinople: “New Rome”, a second capital for the empire (location, access to troops, churches in center, self- glorification) th - Some 4 c. monks practiced: (fasting, vigils, seclusion, self-harm, or life on a 60-ft column) th - By late 4 c., most monks were living in communities (monasteries) - Living by strict (though less dramatic) rules, headed by abbots - People sought contact also with dead holy people - Christians started praying to dead holy people, to help intercede with God (saints) - Christians also visited tombs, and collected relics (remains) to connect with holiness - By 5 thc., “barbarian” conquests were becoming regional kingdoms - First big barbarian kingdom = Visigoths - Longest lasting kingdom was the Franks, Roman ally until 930 - Germanic groups long lived in the N of Roman world - Huns expanded W, disrupting Germanic groups - Visi-Goths rebelled, setting an examples for “barbarians” - Justinian sought Christian Roman power, unity - Justinian’s building boom (Hagia Sophia) - Legal reform (codifying and Christianizing 1000 years of Roman law) - Justinian’s push for religious unity (hunting down pagans, limiting Jews, etc.) - After Justinian died, N. Frontier weakened - Some reconquests were lost - New “barbarians” took advantage - Muhammad & 100+ followers fled to oasis of Medina to escape persecution - Medina’s tribes were divided & feuding; asked Muhammad to mediate - Muhammad allied with Jewish tribes, converted polytheists, created Islamic state - Muhammad called for “jihad” (struggle for pure thoughts, justice) - After Muhammad died, his successors (3 caliphs) led a quick conquest of the Middle East from the Roman and Persian Empires - Arab warriors were settled in parts of the Middle East, in new separate garrison cities - Standardized Qur’an; building of shrines and mosques - Capital moved to Baghdad - Policy of separation ended under Abbasids; one system of amirs - Stead process of conversion to Islam began; but not all converted th - Islamic power declined then continued in 10-11 c.; caliphate decentralized then split into 3 hostile entities - 3 caliphs, hostile divisions among Islamic states - Sunni vs. Shiite religious rivalry - Islamic culture went beyond religion; converts brought traditions from Rome, Greece, Persia and India - Roman buildings, baths - Persian political stories - Greek philosophy and medicine - Elite Muslim men expected to be widely learned - Christians had to ask: did God support their state? Was God angry? - Byzantines argued over the use of pictures (icons) in worship th - In 8-9 c. Roman emperors banned icons, then restored then banned them. 840’s restored for good. - Econ. growth, diplomacy and Ismic divisions enabled Byzantines to reconquer many regions - Basil II: war with Bulgaria, reconquest of whole Balkans - C-ple Christian center; one of 3 big centers in Med world - Warlords built crude castles, offered “protection” to peasants for a price - In Germany & N Italy, chaos faded by 930’s - A German “empire” was reorganized & partly restored 960’s - In France, chaos lasted longer; warlords became main form of local government - Population grew steadily 900-1300 in France, N Italy, Germany, England (less growth in Balkans, Anatolia, Egypt) (No growth in Syria, N Africa, Iran, Iraq) - During this period of growth in Christendom, leading Christian figures tried to step in to claim resources and influence - Biggest players: political leaders, kings, religious leaders, monastic leaders & bishops - Large scale change; in every part of Western Christendom, government returned - Kings gained new influence & rebuilt kingdoms - Kingdoms built out of hundreds of lords who drew resources from the labor of serfs and promised support to other lords personally - Pope Urban II organized expedition to take back the holy land (“crusade” = taking up of the cross) - Armed & (mostly) unarmed crowd move through MidE; very bloody conquest killing hundreds of thousands of Muslim - W. European lords created 4 new feudal kingdoms, forcing locals to convert or leave - Erupted from distrust among E. and W. Christians - Called upon troops to defend Holy Land; troops ran out of money; cousin of Byzantine Emperor promised funding if they helped him gain the throne; they did but he had no money - Crusaders sacked Constantinople (brutalized Christian city in the name of Christ) - By 1200, trade wealth and population growth increased total wealth of society - Crusades & other expansionism enabled wider contact with Byzantine & Islamic societies - New, permanent market towns & new forms of money transfer and credit increased growth steadily in non-farm related economy - First order of Friars by Francis of Assisi (son of wealthy merchant) - Francis gave away all his wealth to live as a beggar, travel in Italy - Followers called Franciscans th - Muslims had mystics by 10 c., before W Christians - Sufis sought hidden truth in Quran and the natural world - Sufis sought contact with God by meditation, sleep deprivation, drug use, and ecstatic dance - Sufis formed organized groups (orders) in 12 -13 th thc. which sponsored travel, preaching
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