Chapter 12 Study Guide.
Chapter 12 Study Guide. FINE_ART 101
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gisselle Fernandez on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to FINE_ART 101 at Washington State University taught by Timothy Tate in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 213 views. For similar materials see Fine Arts 101 in Fine arts at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
Fine Arts 101 Stua Guidefor Second Exam Chapter 12 November 5 o WhoWhat to know from Chapter 12 Ancient Empires Ancient Gods Mycerinus The Egyptians preference for formality even rigidity in their portraits can be seen in the statue of the King Mycerinus and his wife KhaMererNebty 122 The stiffness of the poses the symmetry of the faces and bodies the staring eyes and the angular outlines of the queen s elbow and the pharaoh s headdress all create a visual impression of solidity and strength Both male and female gures represent not only individuals but also ideal male and female types Akhenat0n The pharaoh Akhenaton 137 9 1362 BCE This revolutionary king attempted to introduce monotheism or the worship of a single god to the formerly polytheistic Egyptians For this purpose he erected an entirely new capital with many altars for the proper worship of Aton the Sun God The sculptural portraits of this period look quite different than what we think of as the classic Egyptian style Instead of the stiff angular outlines of previous Egyptian art the statues of Akhenaton and his family feature long sinuous curving silhouettes Tutankh amen Bestknown example of the celebrity that art can bring to its subject and patron is that of the Egyptian pharaoh known to the contemporary world as King Tut Tutankhamen was a young ruler King Tut won no major battles united no kingdoms and built no cities although during his reign the priestly class demolished Akhenaton s new capitol when a return to polytheism was ordered Tut lives in popular imagination primarily because his was the only pharaoh s tomb to escape grave robbers until the twentieth century Ramses II The great pharaoh Ramses 11 further extended the mighty Egyptian Empire battling to enlarge its borders as far as what is now southern Syria Traditionally identi ed as the pharaoh of the Exodus Ramses demanded an even more powerful formal style of Egyptian sculpture as evidenced by the colossal statues of the pharaoh sixty feet high cut directly out of a hillside of solid rock 125 Dwarfed by Ramses majesty the workers whose labor built this monument must have felt literally crushed by its size and scale Although the Bible tells the story of Jewish slaves modern historians believe these monuments were created through labor and taxation required of the Egyptian people These gigantic statues m ed the entrance to an entire temple carved from the stone cliff including two rows of colossal statuecolumns T he Parthenon Of all the buildings constructed under Pericles the most important was the Parthenon 1011 129 Loosely translated the word Parthenon means to the virgin and this temple was dedicated to the virgin Athena patron goddess of Athens Within its columns the Parthenon housed a magni cent fortyfoot ivoryandgold statue of the goddess 1210 The Parthenon is one of the most famous architectural wonders of the world and has come to symbolize Greek art and culture For instance the view reproduced here is from a painting by the great American nineteenthcentury landscape artist Frederick Edwin Church Church had traveled to Greece to study this monument firsthand and had written back home in a letter The Parthenon is certainly the culmination of the genius of man in architecture Daily 1 study its stones and feel its ineXpressible charm of beauty growing upon my senses The Parthenon represents the ideal Greek temple a religious shrine designed to face outward rather than to draw worshippers inward like a Christian church 1211 oor plan of the Parthenon The interior chamber where the magnificent statue of Athena was re ected in a shallow pool of water was open only to priests and priestesses of the cult Greek worshippers would gaze on the golden marble that rose up against the clear blue sky D0ryph0r0s Great in uence on later Western art is the Doryphoros or Spear Carrier 1217 Again what remains is a much later Roman copy of a bronze original cast by the famous artist Polykleitos The statue has not only lost its spear but supports have also been added in the form of a tree trunk and a brace between the thigh and the wrist Nevertheless we can recognize some essential qualities of Greek sculpture the nude athletic male the graceful natural stance the welldefined muscles and understanding of human anatomy Despite its pose of relaxed movement the figure is shown as balanced and unified This statue is particularly important because it was known as the canon which means measure or model It exemplified according to the Greeks the most perfect and pleasing proportions for representing the human figure Polykleitos was one of the most famous Greek sculptors after his death his name even came to mean sculptor Artists who followed him studied his ideas and abided by his perfect proportions Aphr0dite 0fMelos Greek sculpture became more naturalistic more illusionistic and more human during this period The work of mXiteles 116 and the Aphrodite of Melos known commonly 2g the Venus de Milo 1219 illustrate how Greek sculptors made marble resemble esh Although she is missing her arms the lifesize Venus de Milo still illustrates the voluptuous charms of the Greek goddess Not only are her breasts bare but also her hips and abdomen We can imagine this Venus breathing moving like a real person These sculptures appeal less to the rational mind and more to the senses than the restrained works of the classical period Nike 0fSamothrace amp Laocoon By the second century BCE Greek sculptors had begun to sculpt evermore complex and dramatic gures that made bolder use of space Two examples of this more exciting less classical or restrained sculpture are the Nike of Samothrace 1220 and the Laocoon group 1221 Nike means goddess of winged victory Like so many ancient statues this one no longer has a head but the spirit of the piece is still evident It shows the victory goddess landing on the prow of a ship The detailed rendering of the wet clinging drapery is typical of Hellenistic sculpture where artists attempted to make marble resemble both cloth and the esh beneath it The Nike of Samothrace was carved about 190 BCE the Laocoon group of the first century CE represents the ultimate in Hellenistic theatrics It illustrates the story of a Trojan priest Laocoon who along with his sons was squeezed to death by sea serpents as a punishment for displeasing the gods Column 0f Trajan Another famous victory symbol of imperial Rome is the Column of Trajan 1226 Trajan was a great general who ruled as emperor of Rome during the second century CE and the Roman Empire reached its greatest size during his reign This column commemorates his two campaigns against the Dacians which culminated in the conquest of the area that today still bears the name of Rome Romania At the base 1227 a surprised river god meant to represent the Danube has turned to see the Roman armies crossing his river on a bridge they constructed The sculptor of this immense marble relief must have shared the Roman fascination with building because precise details of constructions are seen throughout Some believe that he was Apollodorus the architect of the bridge over the Danube and other wonders of the ancient world But even though the gures and backgrounds have many naturalistic details real proportions are not used Inside the column a long spiral staircase leads to a balcony at the top In ancient times one could walk up to pay homage to a bronze statue of Trajan and admire a beautiful view of the city he once ruled Centuries later a statue of Saint Peter was put in its place Beneath Saint Peter s feet in the base are Trajan s ashes It is perhaps unintentionally symbolic of the new church supplanting the once allpowerful pagan emperor and how time is the enemy that no one defeats T he Pantheon The Pantheon 1228 was a temple dedicated to the worship of all the Roman gods and goddesses as its name pan means all theos means god suggests This architectural wonder was begun under the emperor Hadrian 117 138 who may well have been its designer Looking at the Pantheon s facade we immediately recognize Greek in uence It resembles the front of a Greek temple Thus the space within the Pantheon is perfectly balanced simply understood and harmonious o Vocabulary from Chapter 12 Ancient Empires Ancient Gods Ancient Roman The city of Rome in Italy was the center of a second and related dynamic civilization that spread throughout the Mediterranean world As early as the third century BCE Rome had expanded and conquered Greek settlements on the boot of Italy and by about 150 BCE Greece had been annexed into the growing Roman Empire In fact the Laocoon was sculpted for Roman patrons after Greece had become a Roman province During this early imperialistic period Rome operated as a republic The government was controlled by a small group of wealthy families by means of a senate and by of cials elected from a small pool of eligible aristocrats and an electoral system heavily weighted toward the nobility Roman culture was modeled on that of the Greeks Their gods were variations on the same theme their literature imitated Greek poetry and drama their art and architecture grew directly from Greek sources Educated Greeks were often brought to Rome as slaves for the wealthy working as clerks and teachers Greek artists ocked to Rome attracted by money and patronage and created many of the surviving Roman copies of Greek statues Although the Romans absorbed their artistic ideals from the Greeks they were more realistic than idealistic more active than philosophical more pragmatic than creative 0culus Thus the space within the Pantheon is perfectly balanced simply understood and harmonious At the very top of the dome is an open oculus or eye that permits a view of the heavens above 1229 R0tunda Looking at the Pantheon s facade we immediately recognize Greek in uence It resembles the front of a Greek temple Behind the rectangular porch however is a completely round building or rotunda The rotunda is topped by half of a sphere that if it were continued would just touch the oor of the building In other words the diameter of the rotunda is exactly equal to the height of the building at the top of its dome D0me In addition to their use of the arch the Romans developed the architectural feature of the dome A dome makes it possible to span a dramatic space without columns or supports but with the dome as with the arch we see a convergence of technical means with aesthetic considerations In other words the dome was not merely a useful feature it was developed to be aesthetically pleasing as well The most beautiful domed monument from ancient times perhaps of any age can also be found in the city of Rome the Pantheon Hellenistic Greece After the classical period Greek history and art entered what is called the Hellenistic Age This period began with the age of Alexander the Great 3 56 323 BCE when not only all of the Greek citystates were conquered and uni ed but also an attempt was made to conquer the rest of the known world Alexander the student of Aristotle reached as far as India and although his empire was divided after his death cultural connections between the subcontinent and the classical world began to ourish Classical Greece Greek and Roman art mark the beginning and set the standard for much of the later art of the West Although ancient civilizations in Egypt Assyria see 9 3 and Asia also produced great art these styles had much less effect on later Western art than did the Mediterranean styles of Greece and its cultural descendant Rome The Golden or Classical Age of Greek culture took place during the fourth and fth centuries BCE All of the arts literary theatrical musical and visual ourished during this period In open air amphitheaters the Greeks enjoyed the plays of great dramatists The Western world would not see such a convergence of genius again until the Renaissance some two thousand years later And just as the citystate of Florence was central to the development of the Italian Renaissance so the citystate of Athens seems to have been most important in formulating what we think of as the ideal Grecian art and architecture The accomplishments of this period are all the more remarkable because the height of Athenian power lasted only seventy ve years from the defeat of the Persian Empire by an alliance of Greeks in 479 BCE to the Athenians own defeat by other Greek states led by the rival city of Sparta in 404 BCE
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