Study Guide for Chapter 13
Study Guide for Chapter 13 FINE_ART 101
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gisselle Fernandez on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to FINE_ART 101 at Washington State University taught by Timothy Tate in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Fine Arts 101 in Fine arts at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
Fine Arts 101 Stuo Guidefor Second Exam Chapter 13 l November 5 o WhoWhat to know from Chapter 13 The Age of Faith San Miniato al Monte The design of San Miniato in Florence 1334 built between 1060 and 1150 demonstrates the continuity between Italian and classical architecture as compared to the Gothic cathedrals Some architectural historians believe that this style not only in uenced but actually foreshadowed the work of Italian Renaissance architects like Brunelleschi It has been described as one of the nest Romanesque structures in Tuscany and one of the most scenic churches in Italy Sainte Chapelle The idea of transcendence of the earthly realm was expressed in all the visual elements of Gothic architecture the soaring graceful lines of the pointed arches the breathtaking open space above the heads of the worshippers the replacement of heavy stone walls by panels of brilliantly colored glass Here the spirit could y upward toward heaven One of the most glittering examples of the Gothic desire for color space and light is the royal chapel of Sainte Chapelle 1332 in Paris Here the walls are gone the stainedglass windows are interspersed with slim golden ribs that are more like stems than columns At Sainte Chapelle we see the ultimate in jewelboxlike aristocratic elegance Ch artres Cathedral Cathedrals like the one at Chartres cost many fortunes to build Chartres Cathedral 1330 located in a small town outside of Paris was not the rst Gothic cathedral in France but it has been considered the most perfect representative of the Gothic style This style developed as Chartres was being built and the building exhibits the changing taste of several centuries It is tting that we view Chartres within the medieval town from which it grew Gothic churches were most often cathedrals built in towns rather than monasteries out in the countryside San Vitale Brie y successful Justinian reestablished imperial control in Ravenna Though he never set foot in Italy he directed a building program that would symbolize his authority One result of this program was the remarkable church of San Vitale Decorated in 547 about a hundred years after the mausoleum of Galla Placidia San Vitale contains some of the most exquisite and famous mosaics ever created If we compare the interior and exterior views of San Vitale 136 137 to those of the Pantheon 1228 1229 we immediately grasp essential differences between the Roman and Byzantine style of religious architecture between Roman pagan and Byzantine Christian beliefs While San Vitale s basic shape is also round and covered by a dome the exterior is complicated and seems to sprout a variety of differentshaped appendages O Vocabulary from Chapter 13 The Age of Faith Byzimtine The art of the eastern half of the empire continued to develop in this direction and the early ChristianRoman style eventually developed into a new artistic style known as Byzantine Such Byzantine trends came to in uence the west through the actions of Emperor Justinian a remarkable leader and patron of the arts Early Christian The tomb of Empress Galla Placidia is in the Italian coastal city of Ravenna rather than Rome because her brother the emperor had ed there in 410 to escape a series of barbarian attacks Since 376 the western portion of the empire had fallen prey to a continuous process of invasion starting with the outer provinces then Italy and finally even Rome itself By the time the last western emperor was deposed by a Gothic king in 476 the act was simply a recognition that the fall of the Roman Empire had already taken place In the eastern half of the empire however Roman art and culture survived It was richer and better organized than in the west better able to defend its borders or buy off its attackers In Christ as the Good Shepherd we can see signs that the Roman artistic style was changing to become less naturalistic more stylized and symbolic Stained Glass Pointed Arches Ribbed Vaults amp Exterior Buttresses The unique features of Gothic architecture were the pointed arch the ribbed vault exterior buttresses and stainedglass windows The pointed arch made it possible for churches to become much taller than had previously been possible The weight of these dramatically soaring arches was carried not by the walls but by reinforced ribs that created a stone skeleton for the structure To stabilize this skeleton and keep the building from collapsing outward supports called buttresses were constructed outside of the cathedrals a decorative exterior scaffolding This elaborate support system made it possible to replace large expanses of stone walls with brilliant stainedglass windows In contrast to Greek temples which are usually horizontal or Romanesque churches which often appear to be based on a square the lines of Gothic arches and spires seem to soar toward the heavens This is true of both the exteriors as in Chartres and Reims 1330 1331 and interiors as in Notre Dame 114 Amiens 1022 and Sainte Chapelle 1332
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