Exam 4 biology 1305
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Date Created: 11/03/15
Biology 1305 EXAM 4 TEST CONCEPTS KNOW THE DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS FOR THE FOLLOWING 1 Asexual reproduction generates offspring that are genetically identical to a single parent 2 Sexual reproduction two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together 3 Clone A cell group of cells or organism that is produced asexually from and is genetically identical to a single ancestor 4 Gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote 5 Mitosis a part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes each in its own nucleus 6 Meiosis Male and female gametes fuse during fertilization creating a diploid cell with a complete set of paired chromosomes 7 Chromosome threadlike structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells 8 Homologous chromosome are similiar but not identical Each carries the same genes in the same order but the alleles for each trait may not be the same 9 Somatic cells any cell of the body except sperm and egg cells 10 Zygote genome is a combination of the DNA in each gamete 11 Fertilization the action or process of fertilizing an egg female animal or plant involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote 12 Diploid containing two complete sets of chromosomes one from each parent 13 Haploid having a single set of unpaired chromosomes 14 DNA replication the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule 15 DNA segregation the process in eukaryotes by which two sister chromatids formed as a consequence of DNA replication or paired homologous chromosomes separate from each other and migrate to opposite poles of the nucleus 16 Cytokinesis the physical process of cell division which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells 17 Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction and cell division used by all prokaryotes 18 Cell cycle is a series of events that takes place in a cell as it grows and divides 19 lnterphase the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell or between the first and second divisions of meiosis 20 G1S and G2 phases L r3939tquot39 Hquot 2 7quot H J Mitosis H I P M 62 A T aaacnubdy o quot quot 39 con pannt ior aAslon vrovuw S 61 g chromosomes q u m Hunk Mumquot 39u0 i 3 quot lquot 21 Chromatin a complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells 22 Sister chromatids may also be said as 39onehalf39 of the duplicated chromosome 23 Centromere is the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids 24 Centrosome an organelle that is the main place where cell microtubules get organized 25 Karyotype the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell 26 Kinetochore the protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart 27 Spindle composed of microtubules that forms near the cell nucleus during mitosis or meiosis and as it divides draws the chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell 12 28 Prophase the first phase of mitosis the process that separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells 29 Prometaphase the second phase of mitosis the process that separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells 30 Metaphase a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their most condensed and coiled stage 31 Anaphase is the stage of mitosis when chromosomes are split and the sister chromatids move to opposite poles of the cell 32 Telophase technically the final stage of mitosis Its name derives from the latin word telos which means end 33 Cyclindependent kinase A protein responsible for advancing a cell through the phases of the cell cycle Its function is dependent on the binding of a cyclin 34 Synapsis the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis 35 Crossing over the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction 36 Chiasmata in genetics is thought to be the point where two homologous nonsister chromatids exchange genetic material 37 Aneuploidy the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell such as having 45 or 47 chromosomes when 46 is expected 38 Necrosis the death of most or all of the cells in an organ or tissue due to disease injury or failure of the blood supply 39 Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms 40 Monohybrid cross a mating between two individuals with different alleles at one genetic locus ofinterest 41 Dominant recessive trait A dominant trait is opposed to a recessive trait which is expressed only when two copies of the gene are present In genetic terms a recessive trait is one that is phenotypically expressed only in homozygotes 42 Homozygous you39ve got a pair of matching alleles which are the two genes that control a particular trait 43 Heterozygous refers to a pair of genes where one is dominant and one is recessive they39re different Like all words with the prefix hetero this has to do with things that are different specifically genes 44 Phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment 45 Genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organism 46 Law of segregation During gamete formation the alleles for each gene segregate from each other so that each gamete carries only one allele for each gene 47 Dihybrid cross a hybrid that is heterozygous for alleles of two different genes 48 Law of independent assortment the principle originated by Gregor Mendel stating that when two or more characteristics are inherited individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production giving different traits an equal opportunity of occurring together 49 Allele is a variant form of a gene Some genes have a variety of different forms which are located at the same position or genetic locus on a chromosome 50 Mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism virus or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements 51 Wild type allele The allele that encodes the phenotype most common in a particular natural population 52 Polymorphic gene the simultaneous occurrence in the same locality of two or more discontinuous forms 53 Codominance a relationship between two versions of a gene 54 Epistasis a phenomenon that consists of the effect of one gene being dependent on the presence of one or more 39modifier genes39 genetic background 55 Hybrid vigor the tendency of a crossbred individual to show qualities superior to those of both parents 56 Locus The location of a gene or of a significant sequence on a chromosome as in genetic locus 57 Recombination frequency a measure of genetic linkage and is used in the creation of a genetic linkage map 58 Plasmid a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently Practice Exam 4 00 C O 1 Binary fission and mitosis are common mechanisms of asexual reproduction False Only binary fission is used in asexual reproduction Only mitosis is used in asexual reproduction None of the above 9909 2 In humans haploid gametes allow the recovery of the diploid genotype after fertilization False Sometimes Only if mutations occur None of the above 9900 3 A forest of aspen trees reproduced by clonal expansion What are some advantages of this form of expansion Rapid repopulation of damaged areas Expansion of disease resistant organisms Resistant to climate changes P PP Dispersion of population 4 Gametes are required for sexual reproduction because b They divide by mitosis to produce the new organisms c Gametes selffertilize to produce clones d Gametes degrade themselves to produce a haploid organism e Gametes are not required in sexual reproduction 5 Gametes a Are produced by mitosis b Contain double chromosome pairs diploid conditions 0 Lack chromosomes e None of the above 6 Define mitosis a Cell division in which the daughter cells contain half of the original chromosome number 0 Cell division that distributes equally the parental cytoplasmic components into two daughter cells d Cell division that results in cell death FD A form of cell division that is specialized for the formation of sex gametes 7 Mitosis is needed for a Replacement of tissues in organisms b Embryonic development c Wound healing d Maintenance of organ size and shape 8 Define meiosis a A single cell division that produces identical daughter cells b A special form of apoptosis d The fertilization of the reproductive egg e A cell division that produces clones 9 A chromosome is composed of a Only nucleic acids b Proteins and lipids c A single carbohydrate molecule and associated proteins d A single molecule of RNA and associated proteins 10 During cell division chromatin is packed into highly condensed chromosomes One purpose of this condensation is a The cytoplasm needs to optimize its internal space during cell division b Chromosomes are more reactive than diffused DNA and RNA c The nuclear envelope is protected from chromosomal attack during cell division e The chromosomes translate important proteins that regulate the cell cycle 11 How many chromosomes are present in a normal human somatic cell b 26 c 15 d 10 e 5 12 Cells in an organisms that are not specialized for reproduction are called a Normatic cells b Gametic cells c Germ cells d Fusion cells 13 Why is DNA replication required as a preliminary step of cell division a DNA is present in trace amounts in cells so the new daughter cells will receive at least a random piece of chromosome b DNA is present in a diffuse state in cells only after replication c Cells are immortalized and create tumors when DNA is replicated d DNA replication is not required in cell division 14 Cytokinesis means the division of the cytoplasm How is this process accomplished in human cells A spindle with microtubules becomes attached to each chromosome The nuclear envelope disappears and as a result the cell divides The pores in the cell membrane cut the cytoplasm in two section The chromosomes act as molecular scissors to divide the cell 999 15 The cell cycle is divided in the following phases Mitosis Intraphase D1 S and D2 and cellular kinesis Kinase activation Growth and Synthesis phase DNA replication DNA condensation and DNA segregation Cytokinesis and Cell Synthesis 9909 16 What are the main events during interphase a The cell is maintained in an inactive frozen stage b Cells die by apoptosis d The nuclear envelope disappears and the chromosomes are segregates e The cell produces cancer by abnormal cell division 17 What is the main event during the S synthesis phase of the cell cycle a The cell synthesizes subatomic particles b Cells experience necrosis c Nothing happens the cell is at rest d New RNA is synthesized 18 Define the spindle A collection of lipids that provide energy to cell division A group of chromosomes that are exempt from cell division The nucleus of a new daughter cell 9909 A cell that never divides 19 Is cell division the same as cell death b No since in cell division life continues in the form of two new cells while in cell death a cell disappears c No from a biological perspective each process is controlled by different molecular mechanisms d Both b an c None of the above FD 20 What are kinetochores Kinases that transfer one phosphate group to proteins The bottom part of a chromosome A structure that moves chromosomes toward the nuclear envelope 9906 Special lipids that dissolve the chromosomes during cell division 21 Mitosis is divided in the following subphases a Mitosis1 mitosis 2 mitosis 3 and mitosis 4 c Interphase G1 S and G2 Mitosis M and Cytokinesis d Interphase mitosis and apoptosis e Growth 1 DNA synthesis growth 2 and segregation 22 Define synapsis a The process of DNA duplication before meiosis b The interchange of genetic material in chromosomes during meiosis d The transition of anaphase I to anaphase 11 during meiosis e The segregation of homologous chromosomes during mitosis 23 One of the consequences of crossing over is a Chromosome degradation and gamete formation b Alignment of homologous chromosomes during meiosis c The cell proceeds from interphase into mitosis directly e Selective phosphorylation of cyclin dependent kinases 24 Define aneuploidy a A condition in which chromosomes are absent in cells c A step in the cell cycle d A condition in which new chromosomes evolve and adapt organisms e None of the above 25 Define apoptosis a A form of cell division b Cell death after acute toxic insult c Genetically programmed cell proliferation d Cell division during embryonic development 26 Mendel started his experiments by performing monohybrid cross in pea plants A possible reason for this is that a Pea plants were fashionable and any experiment using a monohybrid approach would receive generous funding b A monohybrid cross was supposed to support the blending theory while a dihybrid cross was supposed to support the particulate theory d Before the first experiment Mendel knew that pea plants contained dominant and recessive traits and that these traits were easy to study e Mendel was a private man and never disclosed his research methods 27 A trait that masks the expression of the recessive trait in the first filial F1 generation is called Political trait Recessive trait Mutated trait Meiotic trait 9906 28 In the monohybrid cross what was the main characteristic of the recessive trait a The recessive trait was transmitted only through maternal inheritance b The recessive trait masked the expression of the dominant trait in the F2 generation c The recessive trait supported the blending theory d The recessive trait was absent in all plants and was spontaneously created during Mendel s experiments 29 A certain plant is homozygous for seed color A possible genotype for this plant is a YY b W C Yy d yY 30 The dominant trait is always expressed in the phenotype when the genotype is heterozygous No Sometimes Only if the recessive trait is absent 9909 None of the above 31 What is a genotype 9909 A genetic analysis to detect mutations The process of genetic recombination The genetic makeup of an organism A gene that is sometimes mutated in pea plants 32 What was the purpose of Mendel s dihybrid cross experiments a b To study crossing over To link synapsis with crossing over and genetics d e To find if two or more traits segregate independently during gamete formation To improve agricultural production during Mendel s time 33 The rst law of Mendel is known as the Law of segregation This law states that a The gametes produce recombinant inheritance units genes that are maintained during meiosis Pd FD During gamete formation the cell experiences mitosis to create new gametes Alleles of different genes inheritance units assort independently of one another during gamete formation When an organisms produces gametes the two copies of an inheritance unit gene separate so that each gamete receives only one copy 34 The second law of Mendel is known as the Law of independent assortment This law states that a P 0 The gametes produce recombinant inheritance units genes that are maintained during meiosis When an organisms produces gametes the two copies of an inheritance unit gene blend so that the final phenotype is a mix of the paternal phenotypes During gamete formation the cell experiences mitosis to create new gametes C When an organisms produces gametes the two copies of an inheritance unit gene separate so that each gamete receives only one copy 35 What is an allele a A recombinant chromosome b A trait that disappeared during the mitosis c A trait that supported the blending theory e None of the above 36 Define codominance a The presence of a dominant and a recessive gene in the phenotype b The absence of a recessive trait in the phenotype d A condition in which the recessive trait is expressed in the first filial generation e A condition in which the presence of one allele determines the expression of a third allele 37 Define epistasis a The presence of a dominant and a recessive gene in the phenotype b The absence of a recessive trait in the phenotype c A condition in which two alleles at a locus produce different phenotypic effects d A condition in which the recessive trait is expressed in the first filial generation 38 What is a wild type allele a A special variant of a recessive gene b The allele that is absent in most individuals in nature c The allele that was produced by artificial cloning e None of the above 39 What is incomplete dominance a The offspring of the first filial generation b The dominance of the dominant gene over the recessive d A condition in which the recessive gene is present in the second filial generation e A condition in which two alleles are present in the genotype 40 The location of a gene in the chromosome is called a Placus b Ori place c Ter place 1 Restriction site
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