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What is a conformity?

What is a conformity?

Description

School: Arizona State University
Department: College of Liberal Arts & Sciences
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: Robert short
Term: Fall 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3
Description: Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 6-10 1
Uploaded: 11/04/2015
7 Pages 9 Views 14 Unlocks
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Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 6-10  


What is a conformity?



1.

Conformity – going along with a group in actions or beliefs  The study was designed to pit individuals against a unanimous  group, to see whether people would go along with the group or  stick with what their eyes were telling them was right. One third of  judgements made by participants went along with the majority  opinion. A quarter of the participants never went along with the  majority.  

Old  

The Line Test – confederates would say a different line matched  the original given line and this would influence the actual  participant to change their answer  

New  

Six people looking at shapes to see if they match. Most of the time  people were influenced by the confederates wrong answers, even if  they got them right on the test before this.  

2.

Experimenter asked to test “the effects of punishment on memory”  and asked the participants to deliver painful electric shocks to  fellow participants who knew they weren’t getting shocked. Tested  to see how far people would go if an authoritative figure kept  giving them the okay.  


What is peripheral route to persuasion?



3.

Peripheral Route to Persuasion – when people are less motivated or  do not have the time/energy to process a message, they use this  route. Individuals use other cues to process the message such as  number of arguments, credibility, how many others seem  persuaded, ect. E.g. deciding which toothpaste to buy Central Route to Persuasion – they are high on the spectrum of  being willing and able to process a message. They process the  message deeply and evaluate the strength of the persuasive  arguments. E.g. deciding which college you should attend 4.If you want to learn more check out sananderas

Cognitive Dissonance Theory - unpleasant state of psychological  arousal resulting from an inconsistency within one’s important  attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors E.g. When there are two groups in  study and the group getting paid a dollar, try to find a reason in  why they are doing the study and those who are getting paid 20  dollars, don’t need a reason since they are getting paid 20 dollars.  Heider’s Balance Theory – we want to agree with people we like  disagree with people we don’t like, associate good things with  good people and ad things with bad people; if cognitive system is  out of balance it, then it creates an uncomfortable tension, to  remove this tension, we will have to change something in the  system. E.g. Rhoda considers Mary her best friend. Rhoda is pro choice and Mary is pro-life. Rhoda can restore balance by  changing her feelings about abortion, she could change her feelings  about her friend, or change Mary’s feelings about abortion. 5.


Wha is the cognitive dissonance theory?



Prejudice – generalized attitude toward members of a social  category, it can be either positive or negative. People with low  self-esteem affect prejudice; when people are feeling bad about  themselves, they are more likely to show bias against people who  are different in order to make themselves feel better and heighten  their self-perception. People with high-esteem prejudice; when an  individual with high self-esteem is threatened with failure, they  may become prejudice towards someone. If you want to learn more check out ubaraj katawal

6.

Student first performed a boring task (turning pegs in holes). They  were then asked to tell another student it was interesting and they  were either paid a dollar or twenty dollars. Then they were asked  about their attitudes toward the boring task; those who got paid a  dollar had come to realize it was enjoyable since the dollar was  insufficient justification, thus arousing dissonance and those paid  twenty dollars didn’t change their attitudes at all because the  twenty dollars provide adequate justification for misleading  another student. By changing beliefs about the task it reduced the  cognitive discomfort.

7.

8.

You would be more likely to obey an authority figure.  9.

When we are distracted, we don’t have the focus needed to  evaluate the message so we might ignore the message and the  persuasion will not get through to us.  We also discuss several other topics like ventral mesentery derivatives

10.

Sub-grouping under a main group. Maintaining your views on a  group even when you meet someone outside of those views who  belongs to the group, making them a subtype and outside the norm.  E.g. A sexist ale thinks that all females are stupid, but when he  meets a well-educated female, he subtypes her as an abnormal  academic female so he is able to maintain his sexist values,  thinking and believing she is an exception.  Don't forget about the age old question of abnormal psychology rutgers

11.

Is connected to minimizing factors that interfere with group  experiments; the minimal conditions required for discrimination to  occur between groups. Experimental procedure in which short term, arbitrary, and artificial groups are created to explore  foundations of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination.  12.

13.

It is a way to make someone essentially feel committed on  action or a behavior. E.g. If you label someone as being a  generous giver or an altruistic person, they feel a need to  execute behaviors associated with generous or altruistic.  14. We also discuss several other topics like mat e 273 iowa state

Prejudice- generalized attitude toward members of a social  category, can be positive or negative. (Attitude that judges a  person on his or her group’s real or imagined characteristic) Discrimination – behaviors directed toward people on basis of  their group membership, can be positive or negative. (Unfair treatment of people because of their group membership) 15.

Dr. Short’s was about the relationship between racial prejudice  and perception of justice toward immigration.  

Justice Hypothesis – participants will voice stronger  immigration attitudes toward a legal immigrant irrespective of  national/ethnic background  

Prejudice Hypothesis – participants will voice stronger anti immigration attitudes toward a legal outgroup immigrant than a  legal in-group immigrant especially when the immigrant is  representative to an ethnic group  We also discuss several other topics like ymaim

Findings- both issues of justice and prejudice influence attitudes  toward immigration & individuals are more likely to voice anti immigration sentiments when the principle of immigration is  violated.  

Findings when it came to all ethnicities – based in legal-illegal  distinction participants voiced anti-immigration sentiments  regardless of ethnic/national background  

Findings when it came to white participants – if an individual  was already more prejudice, their views and immigration  attitudes were much harsher

16.

Categorization happens naturally and is a helpful tool. Sorting  people into categories has long been related to stereotyping and  prejudice. Categories are helpful to human beings; they allow us  to deal with large amounts of information and allow us to  reduce mental efforts.

17.

Revealing only a small piece of information initially and then  large piece of information later. E.g. A good deal ($200) for a  computer is given to you for a new laptop. You purchase the  computer, but with the software, a mouse, and charging cable,  warranty, insurance, and screen protector the price ends up  being about $600.

18.

States that whenever there are two or more groups that are  seeking the same limited resources, this will lead to conflict,

negative stereotypes and beliefs and discrimination between the  groups. The conflict ca lead to increasing animosity toward the  groups and can cause an ongoing feud to develop. 19.

Members of outgroups, groups an individual is not a part of, are  viewed as more similar, or homogeneous. Individuals tend to  view members of their own group as more varied. E.g. all football players are tall and big. People might use the Out-group  Homogeneity Effect, when asked to describe an out-group,  we’re likely to access information at the group level and what  we know about the primary tendencies about the group. When  asking to describe our in-groups, we believe that we’re more  diverse because we know more people from the in-group,  therefore, we know more information.  

20.

Refers to the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about  one’s group. The stereotype predicts poor performance, so the  person has to deal with possibility of confirming that stereotype.  The anxiety distracts people from doing as well as the have the  potential to do.  

E.g. Researchers told a group of African American and White  participants that a test was going to be a diagnostic of the  intellectual ability, tapping into the African American  stereotype that African Americans weren’t as intellectual as  those from other racial groups. African Americans didn’t do  well as they were placed under pressure from the stereotype.  21.

People may be prejudice toward a group in order to vent their  anger. In essence, they use the group they dislike as their target  for all the anger. E.g. The Germans used the Jew as scapegoats  for all of their country’s problems and focused their anger on  them.

22.

The Hidden Bias Test (Implicit Association Test) which is a  measure of unconscious, or automatic biases.

Measures unconscious attitudes associations, which could  reflect cultural stereotypes or social reality and can lead to  different attitudes. (Sympathy, indifference hostility)  

In-group favoritism – tendency to show preferential treatment  toward members of one’s own group  

Outgroup homogeneity – beyond viewing one’s own group as  deserving more positive things than another group, individuals  with a group tend to view their own group as more varied than  someone outside the group views the group  

Superordinate goals – goals held by both groups in a conflict  that transcend the conflict and provide a common aim  Credibility – has two aspects: expertise and trustworthiness  

Expertise – one who appears to have knowledge and is able  to communicate it.  

Trustworthy – communicator is one we believe is giving us  accurate information.

Gain framed – message that focuses on benefits E.g. If you were  buying a vehicle, the message that buying this car, with all of its  safety features, will keep you safe in a crash emphasizes the  things you would gain.  

Transportation – joining of feelings, attention, and thoughts in  the context of a story, involves getting lost in a story  Elaboration likelihood model – one model that brings together  persuader message, and audience variable.  

Need for cognition – term researchers use to describe an  individual difference in how much people enjoy thinking.  Foot- in – the- door technique – a small request is made and  agreed to, followed by a larger request. E.g. People say yes to  the first request (test drive), they are more likely to say yes to  the second request (buying the car), and the second request is  really the main target for the salesperson.  

Legitimization-of-paltry-favors technique – catches us by  making a very small contribution acceptable. It is difficult to not  give when even a very small amount is described as legitimate.

Reciprocity – a request is made after a gift has been given. E.g.  After receiving a cookie you are asked if you would be willing  to donate blood.  

That’s-not-all – a large request is made, but before the  individual can refuse additional offers are added. E.g. you are  asked to donate blood, but before you say no you are told you  will get a cookie and a sticker and your name will published in  the paper.  

Scarcity – potential customer is told an item will be at a certain  price for limited time or that there is a limited supply.  Injunctive norms – norms for what is approved or dis-approved  Descriptive norms- norms describing what most people do  Information influence – we conform because we believe the  crowd knows something. E.g. crowd knows something you do  not know; where the lion is and by following the crowd you are  more likely to see the lion.  

Normative influence - we conform because we want to be liked  and accepted by the crowd. E.g. In high school, you might have  worn a certain style of clothing or acted in a particular way and  not because you believed it was the right thing to do but because  

you wanted to be liked and accepted.  

Transactional leadership – leader that lead by offering an  exchange of rewards for effort from followers.  

Transformation leadership – leadership where the leader offers  followers a common purpose and asks that individual interests b  put aside so the group can work together toward that goal. Laissez-faire leadership – the leader simply allowing the  followers to do what they would like without substantial input  from the leader.

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