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UA / History / HIST 101 / poli 339 study guide

poli 339 study guide

poli 339 study guide

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: History
Course: Western Civ to 1648
Professor: Daniel riches
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Exam II
Description: This study guide is a compilation of notes and review from our discussion class.
Uploaded: 03/27/2016
21 Pages 10 Views 25 Unlocks
Reviews

Reginald Klein (Rating: )

Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!



History Exam II Study Guide  Notes from class:  


how many centuries did roman empire endured?



The Fall of the Roman Empire  

Roman Empire, c. 100 BC

∙ Endured for 4 centuries  

Crisis in the Roman Empire  

∙ Moral crisis  

o Cato the Elder 234-149 BC  

∙ Social crisis  

o Optimates and equites  

∙ Political crisis  

o Tiberius (c. 163-133 BC) and Gaius (153-121 BC) Gracchus  (the Gracchi)  

o Marius and army reform 107 BC  

 Wanted the poor to become long-term professional  soldiers  

 Flaws in the plan:  

∙ No longer felt collective sacrifice  

∙ Became dependent on grants and state  

∙ Generals were supporting their troops because

the Senate couldn’t; lead to the generals  

having a ton of support and power  

Civil war in the Roman Republic  

∙ Civil Wars  

o Rapid territorial expansion because army is powerful and  generals were becoming very ambitious  


who stay in Italy and start running the homeland/goverment?



 The personal goals of the generals would push this  expansion  

o Marius, 157-86 BC  If you want to learn more check out according to graeber, the usual explanation - the standard line - for why technological advances did not deliver the promised utopia of the 15-hour work week is that keynes did not factor in:
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 Elected himself multiple times  

 Uses army to extort payment from Senate  

o Lucius Cornelius Sulla, 138-78 BC  

 General, had great success  

 Reformer, appealed to common people  

o Generals would have big parade and celebration once they  returned from victories

 Would had out treasures  

o These civil wars created massive death tolls and mass  execution, extremely violent  

o Sulla defeated Marius, and names himself temporary tyrant  Conservative backlash to restore the Republic  

o Relinquished tyrant  

 His rule calmed everything down but not for long;  actually made things worse  

∙ First Triumvirate

o Pompey, 106-48 BC  

 Successful general in East  


who is the leader of roman empire that becomes very powerful leader for 900 years?



o Marcus Crassus, 115-63 BC

 Defeated Spartacus  

o Julius Cesar, 100-44 BC  

 No military reputation but very crafty and slick  

o Each promised to support each other, 60 BC  

 Negative integration  

 Senate was their common enemy  

o Civil war of 49-45 BC  

 Caesar’s military activities  

∙ As his military reputation grew, he valued  

public opinion  

o Wrote up himself stories about himself to  

share with the public, made him very  If you want to learn more check out minerals in geodes (see below) form spectacular euhedral crystals because

popular  

 Pompey stays in Italy  

∙ Starts running the homeland/ government  

 Crassus  

∙ 53 BC, dies in combat  

 Caesar gets restless, invades Italy and gets rid of  Pompey  

∙ Major inter-continental struggle  

∙ Pompey killed around 41 BC  

∙ 45 BC, Caesar is triumphant  

o Ended in Spain  

 After Civil War  

∙ Caesar is nice to enemies, gains popularity  

∙ Attacks social issues  

∙ Added more government jobs  

∙ Established colonies  

∙ Had himself declared dictator for life  

o Caesar assassinated 44 BC  

 Intended to be a public act to protect the Republic

 Cassius Longinus (d. 42BC), Marcus Julius Brutus  (c.85-42 BC), Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC)  ∙ Thought they were saving the republic  ∙ Each person stabbed Caesar once  

∙ Smeared his blood on their hands, no shame  ∙ Cicero wrote the reasoning for the public

Imperial Rome  

Civil War  

∙ Second Triumvirate  

o Mark Antony, ca. 81-30 BC  

 Right hand man of Caesar, controlled the East after  Caesar’s death

o Octavian/Augustus, 63 BC-14 AD  

 Adapted son of Caesar  

 Stayed in Italy  

o Marcus Lepidus, d. 12 BC  

 General, controlled the West  

o Won against the enemies of Caesar after his assignation  o 31 BC, Antony defeated and fled; Octavian left in charge;  Actium battle  If you want to learn more check out wake forest university psychology

Augustus, r. 27 BC-14 AD  

∙ First emperor  

∙ Lots of challenges and opportunities  

∙ Need for gigantic expenditures for army and government  ∙ Roman Empire ready for control  

Augustus and Pax Romana  

∙ Augustus reigned 27 BC- 14 AD  

o 27 BC, gave all of his power back to the Senate as a sign of good faith; it was a sham, he still had a ton of power  

∙ 23 BC, became head of all armies  

∙ 12 BC, pontifex maximus  

o Highest religious position  

o Created the Roman Imperial Cult; after an emperor dies  they become a god

∙ Princeips  

o He was never called an emperor but he was the “First  Citizen”  

∙ He was rich enough to rule without the Senate’s help  ∙ Pax Romana  

o Internal peace, Rome’s survival was never at risk during  this time  

o Virgil (70-19 BC), and Horace (65-8 BC)  

 Poets who believed that Rome was there for peace  ∙ Conservative tendancies  

∙ After death of Augustus, …  

o Conquering and integrations of territories  

o Extreme instability in imperial succession, but the stability  of Rome in general was strong  

o Over time, republic faded away, the definition of the  emperor increased and became clearer  

∙ Flairon and Antonine Emperor, 69-192 AD  

Early Christianity  

∙ Popular religious cults in the Empire  If you want to learn more check out anth 1001

o Isis (Egypt)  

 Something similar to baptism and judgment after  

death

o Mithras (Persia)  

 Moral highs if you were to join  

∙ Israel was conquered in 63 BC

o Jewish lands become a spirirtual mecca  

∙ Jesus Christ, c. 6 BC -30 AD  

o He came to usher in a final judgment  

o His expectations for people were to be charitable and  humble  

∙ Spreading the religion  

o St. Paul and St. Peter  

 Paul travelled around to spread Christianity and built  communities  

 Paul was a Roman citizen and his letter to the  

communities that he set up became apart of the new

testament  

The Spread of Christianity  

∙ Connected with the Roman Empire and the Pax Romana  ∙ Technology and travel; common language  

Conversion of the Empire  

∙ Foreign threats  

∙ Military  

∙ Officers are becoming more corrupt  If you want to learn more check out what term do psychologists use to designate our personal awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts?

∙ Sponsored Emperors in exchange for grand promises  ∙ Between 235-284 AD

∙ 20 different emperors, 17 of which were killed either in civil war  or assassinated  

Diocletian, 284-305 AD  

∙ Brutal  

∙ Tetrarchy  

∙ The empire is too big to be governed by one person in one place  ∙ Unclear rules of succession  

o A root of a majority of the problems and fighting  

∙ Tetrarchy  

o The rule of four  

o For administrative purposes, the split of the empire in half,  East and West; would be governed by an Augustus, and a  vice emperor, Caesar  

o The Caesar was the successor and would marry the  daughter of the Augustus  

∙ Revival of Roman religion  

o Clashing with the growing Christian culture  

o Christians refuse to give up there religion although they  were peaceful

∙ Great Persecution, 303-313 AD  

o First systematic persecution ever  

o What Diocletian is known for  

∙ In 305, he voluntarily retires to test the succession rules he put  in place; they do not work and Rome falls into a civil war  

Constantine the Great, r. 306-337 AD

∙ Wins the civil war  

∙ Grew up in Diocletian’s court  

∙ Had a vision that promised him victory under the Cross  ∙ Battle of Milvain Bridge, 312 AD  

o Won the battle even though he was greatly outnumbers,  claimed it was because he put crosses on their shields  ∙ Edict of Milan, 313 AD  

o Ended the persecution of the Christians  

o Gives priests legal equality  

o Massive building for the Church and gives tons of donations ∙ Wants to get all Christians on the same pages  

∙ First to show favor for Christianity  

∙ No a conversion of the empire, just more like an integration  ∙ Foundation of Constantinople, 324 AD  

o Frist city to be defined as a Christian city  

o Become the capital of the Eastern Empire, now is Istanbul.  ∙ Repression of the Pagans started after his death  

Important Figures in the Early Church

∙ St. Ambrose of Milan, 339-397 AD  

o Conflict with Emperor Theodosius I, 347-395 AD  

 He massacred multiple villages

 He was the excommunicated from the church until  he repented  

 First real example of how the powerful the control of  religion is/was  

∙ St. Augustine of Hippo, 354-430 AD  

o Trained by Ambrose  

o Wrote a tone  

o From North Africa  

o Confessiones (Confessions)

 Autobiography of his spiritual conversion  

o De Ciritate Dio (The City of God)

 If we are so focused on the afterlife, then why are  

we here on Earth?  

 2 cities theory  

“Barbarians” and the Dissolution of the Empire in the West  ∙ The barbarians were illiterate  

∙ Cornelius Tacitus, c. 56- c.120 AD

o Germania  

 Book about the barbarians  

 Noble savage writing was created in this book  

∙ They were never integrated properly with the Roman culture  ∙ Small groups living less-advanced lives

∙ St. Jerome, c. 347-420 AD  

o Vulgate  

 Used in Europe for over 1,000 years  

 Translation of the Bible from Greek to Latin  

Early Medieval Europe  

“Barbarians” and the Dissolution of the Empire in the West  ∙ Scared and desperate Romans; power-dynamic has changed  ∙ 410 AD: Visigoths sack Rome  

o Were able to send a small military group to cause havoc o Psychological defeat; first time in hundred o f years an  enemy has been able to attack the heart of the Empire  ∙ 455 AD: Vandals sack Rome  

∙ 484 AD: Ostrogoth’s conquer Italy  

∙ Empire in the East survives; become Byzantine Empire  

Germanic Kingdoms  

∙ Germanic Kingdoms in the former Roman Empire

o Built on the cultural ruins of the Roman Empire  

o Ostrogoths – ruled over Italy  

o Visigoths- ruled over Spain and France  

o Vandals – ruled over North Africa  

o Franks – ruled over Western Germany and France  

∙ Romans did see defeat: held onto the whole of the empire;  Western Roman Empire was just being temporarily occupied  

Kingdoms of Europe, c. 526  

∙ Rise in conversion of Christianity, Arians  

o Denies the Holy Trinity  

o Spreads through the Germanic people  

∙ Anglos and Saxons  

∙ Danes and Juts  

o Both did not have any contact with Romans; led to stark  cultural differences  

Beowulf  

∙ C. 425-500 AD, Saxons migrate to England  

∙ C. 520 AD, The ‘historical’ events of Beowulf occur  o Hygelac’s raid recorded by Gregory of Towes  

∙ C. 560-616 AD, Anglo-Saxons convert to Christianity  ∙ C. 789 AD, Viking attacks on Britain  

∙ C. 750-900, Beowulf written down  

∙ C. 1000-1010 oldest surviving Beowulf manuscript  ∙ Fictional dramatization  

Monasticism and the Spread of Christianity  

∙ Anthony of Egypt, c. 250-335  

o Individual goes off into the desert to become more spiritual and powerful and pure  

∙ 2 different forms:  

o Communal: gives away possessions to live in a certain  community, monks  

 Led by abbot

 Lived of charity  

 Lived according to a very strict set of rules  

∙ St. Baul the Great, c. 329-379

o Very influential  

o Established a monetary in Pontus, in present-day Turkey  o Less extreme; focused on communal prayer and helping  the poor and the old  

o In the East  

∙ St. Benedict of Nursia, c. 480-547

o Came from a wealthy Roman Family  

o When in his late teens, he became religious  

o He established Monte Cassino  

 Not far from Rome  

o Created 530 rules that were written down  

The Franks  

Salian and Merovingian Franks  

∙ Salian Franks  

o Northwestern corner of Europe  

o Been around Romans for a long time; learned from them  o Clovis over throws the Roman rule to create:  

∙ Merovingian Franks  

o Merovech  

 Was a famous warrior that the kingdom was named  after  

o Clovis created this kingdom, r. 486-511

 Converts to Christianity in 496, to ease the  

combination of the cultures  

∙ Catholic  

∙ Recognized as a leader by religious power  

∙ Christianity worked like glue  

o Territorial expansion during this time  

o Lasted for 2 centuries

o New model of aristocrat  

 Be a warrior and a land owner  

o “Mayor of the Palace”  

 Being a king become more a symbolic figure; this  

position is like a Prime Minister, as all the real power  

Carolingian Franks  

∙ Charles Martel, c. 688-741  

o Great warrior  

∙ Pepin (Pippen) the Short, 714-768  

o Wanted to make himself king because he had all the  power anyways  

o How? Cut a deal with the Pope  

 Rome under threat from the Lombard’s to the North  and the Byzantines to the South  

 Pope got military protection; Pepin gets confirmation for his actions from a trusted source  

o “Patrician of the Romans”

 Pope basically says that Pepin is a Roman  

∙ Charlemagne, r. 768-814  

o Most famous  

o Huge expansion during his rule  

o By his death, no Germanic people who hasn’t converted to Christianity  

o 800 AD, Christmas Day: Pope crowns him Emperor   Stakes a claim that he is a Roman  

o Carolingian Renaissance during his reign  

 Growth of culture and learning  

 Claim to the Roman Empire  

o Not literate  

o Relied on churchmen to fill political gaps in his  

government  

 They were educated and trusted  

Frankish Succession  

∙ Combination of land owning and warrior skills to be considered  an aristocrat  

∙ Conversion to Christianity  

∙ Renaissance  

∙ Support from the Church  

∙ Charlemagne considered to be one of the “Fathers of Europe”;  founder of western culture  

o Exaggeration  

Medieval Society and the Medieval Church

The Carolingian Empire  

∙ Charlemagne, r. 768-814

o Dukes came about during this time; military leaders during  this time  

o Local sense of self grows and becomes stronger  

∙ Local elite had great military, legal and agricultural strength in  their community but connected to a higher power  

∙ Louis the Pious, r. 814-840  

o Very religious

o 3 sons  

o Last time Western Europe was under one ruler  

∙ Treaty of Verdun, 843 CE  

o East Frankish Kingdom (Louis The German)  

o West Frankish Kingdom (Charles the Bald)  

o Lotharingia Kingdom, Lothar  

∙ Treaty of Mersen, 870

o Lotharingia cut in half after the brother’s death  

The Frankish Empire Divided  

∙ Holy Roman Empire  

o Otto the Great, r. 936-973  

 Great military leader  

 Crowned Emperor by Pope John XII in 962 CE  

 Leader of unified Christian West  

 Ottomans  

o Leader of this empire becomes very powerful leader for  900 years  

o Emperor is elective position  

∙ Kingdom of France  

o Hugh Capet, r. 987-996 CE  

o Capetians  

o Paris comes into power during this time  

Medieval Society  

∙ Liege lords and vassals  

o Many vassals would pledge allegiance to a lord in order to  get a piece of land  

o Complicated network  

o Hierarchical

∙ Georges Darby – the “three orders”  

o Those who work, peasants  

 Needed the lord’s permission to do anything  

o Those you fight, nobles  

 Protected the people, assist them

o Those who pray, clergy  

∙ Family lineage becomes very important  

o Younger sons are driven to find their fortune elsewhere;  many join the clergy

∙ The Church  

o Took a 10% tax  

o The Bishops were the religious leader during the early  Christian years  

o Large scales economic force  

o The Church created huge hierarchy  

 Cathedral – “Church of a Bishop”  

The Rise of the Papacy  

∙ Who is the Pope?  

o Technically, the Pope is the Bishop of Rome  

∙ The Bishops of Rome wanted to set themselves apart from others ∙ Justification for Papal supremacy over the Church  

o There is a Doctrine says these certain bishops are  

decedents of the apostles  

o St. Peter  

o Matthew 16:18-19 “Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will  build my Church…”  

 Peter is the gatekeeper and is to develop the Church  from Christ in Rome  

o John 21:17 “Feed my sheep”  

 Christ tells Peter to look after all of the Flock  

 Doctrine of Patrine Supremacy  

o The city of Rome was unique  

 People looked to Rome for unified leadership  

o When the Roman Empire started to fall, the Pope and the  Church stay strong  

∙ Pope Leo I 490-461  

o Convinced Attila Hun to leave Rome instead of committing  violence  

∙ Pope Gregory the Great, 590-604  

∙ The formation of the Papal States  

o Donation of Pepin, 756  

 Lands granted by Pepin  

 Is now decreased down to just the Vatican City

∙ College of Cardinals, 1059

o Electing the pope  

o Clergymen got tired of people getting in their affairs  o Cardinals are from all over the world

The Investiture Controversy

∙ Emperor Heinrich III, R. 1039-1056  

o Personally removed 3 Popes because he didn’t like them  ∙ Emperor Heinrich IV, r. 1056-1106  

∙ Gregorian reform movement  

o Clunian monastery, (Cluny 909)

 Benedictine  

 Becomes the center of reform  

 Simony  

∙ Very disliked  

∙ When you buy your church office  

 Lay investiture  

∙ Coronation  

∙ Symbols that represent their power  

∙ The people who helped in ceremony unless the

are ordained

o Pope Gregory (Hildebrand), 1073-1085  

 Voting in as Pope even though he was a reformer  

 Combative military name  

The Investiture Controversy  

∙ Cont.  

∙ Pope Gregory IVV

o Dictatus Papae 1075  

 The Catholic Church can’t be wrong  

 He is going to be the strong pope for the Church  

against the outsiders  

o Wanted to raise the moral standards  

 Ex. Celibacy  

o Keep outsiders/political leaders away  

o Caused issues with rules  

∙ Showdown between Emperor Heinrich IV (r. 1056-1106) and Pope Gregory IVV and his successors  

o Included physical fighting  

o Lasted for decades  

Papal claims to supremacy in the world  

∙ Matthew 16:18-19  

o Spiritual guidance and following is more important than  military  

o Even the emperors need to go through the Church for  salvation

∙ Two Swords Doctrine  

o Luke 22:38  

o The Pope has the right to use force  

o Two very different summaries from passage  

∙ Donation of Constantine  

o Was a fraud; supposedly written by Constantine when he  was creating Constantinople and gave power to the Bishop  of Rome  

o Proven to be a forgery by Lorenzo Valla, c. 1407-1457  ∙ Concordat of Worms, 1122  

o Representation of each other’s power was respected  o Win for the Church  

Rise of Papal Monarchy  

∙ High-point of papal power  

∙ Pope Innocent III, 1198-1216  

o Routinely played a role in politics  

∙ Fourth Lateran Council, 1215

o Image of absolute control  

o Internal power  

 The Pope is absolute power and leader of the entirety of the Church  

o External power  

 Who deserve what politically  

Kingdom Of England  

∙ Anglo-Saxon heptarchy  

∙ Vikings invasions  

o Establishing their own kingdoms  

∙ King Alfred of Wessex, 870-899  

o Expand territory, and survived the Vikings invasions  ∙ Norman Conquest, 1066  

o Vikings who integrated with French culture  

o King William I, “the Conqueror”, 1066-1087  

 Had familial ties to the throne  

o Battle of Hastings was the deciding factor in King William  success to the throne  

Kingdom Of France  

∙ Capetian Dynasty, 987-1328

o Ile De France, around Paris  

o Produced without interruption a steady line of male hiers

∙ King Philip II (Augustus), 1180-1223  

o very important  

o Normandy no longer apart of the English rule  

o Grew territory  

∙ King (St.) Louis IX, 1228-1270

o Charitable  

o Crusades  

o Permanent law court in Paris for appeals  

Medieval Monarchies: The Crusades  

Clash between Papal and Secular Monarchies  

∙ England  

o Fight over who would be the Arch-Bishop of Canterbury  o King John, rule 1199-1207

o Papal Interdict 1207

 Suspense of all sacraments preformed in an area   Huge deal for local society because they were life  and death matters  

 English people rise up and demand a change  

o Magna Carta 1215  

 One of founding documents creating democracy  

 The law is stronger that the monarchy  

 List of promises to the people  

∙ Holy Roman Empire  

o Emperor Friedrich II, rule 1211/1212-1250  

 After his death, his empire never really recovers  

because of the damage done by clashes with the  

Pope

∙ France  

o King Philip IV (1285-1314) vs. Pope Boniface VIII (1294- 1303)

 Pope says that people don’t have to pay taxes  

because they are really under his pyramid, not the  

kings  

 Pope dies of the wound received from the beating  ordered by the king  

The Fall of Papal Monarchy  

∙ The “Babylonian Captivity” 1305-1378  

o Avignon

 Papacy moved to Avignon because the King  

convinced the new French Pope that Rome was  

dangerous  

 Already Church property  

 Very scandalous  

o St. Catherine of Siena 1347-1386  

 Protested the move and agued for the Papacy to  

move back to Rome  

o Pope John XXII (1316-1334)

∙ Great Schism, 1378-1417  

o Two different Popes argued over who was the “real Pope”  o One moved back to Avignon, one stayed in Rome

o Excommunicated each other  

o 3rd Pope elected in Piza, 1409

o Council of Constance 1414-1418  

 Dismisses the 3 other Popes, elects a new Pope and  moves back to Rome

The Crusades  

∙ Crusades: Military campaigns against the enemies of the Church  ∙ Pope Urban II, 1088-1099  

o Council of Clermont 1095  

 Urges people to put down their arms against each  other, and fight to protect Jerusalem  

o First Crusades 1096-1099  

 Re-conquered Jerusalem  

 Crusade Kingdom

∙ Third (King’s Crusade, 1189-1192  

o King of England, King of France, Holy Roman Kingdom all  personally involved  

∙ Non-Middle Eastern Crusades  

o Albigensian (Cather) Crusade  

o Baltic/Northern Crusade  

∙ Reasons to go on crusade  

o Religious devotion, spiritual benefit  

o Social status  

o Money  

o Adventure  

∙ Opening up the West to global perspective

Review of Readings from Discussions:  

∙ St. Paul, “Epistle to the Romans” (Sources of the West, 104-107)  o Basic explanation on why the Romans should believe in  Christianity  

 God can be harsh is you don’t believe, he will give  you bad personality traits if you don’t  

 If you believe, your spirit will live forever  

o The Law of Christianity is more peaceful that the real law o The Spirit tell you what to do

o God’s will can predestine a person

o Brief explanation on how you should act  

 Be compassionate  

 Leave the hatred and revenge to God

 Follow commandments  

∙ St. Augustine, “The City of God” (Sources of the West, 119-123)  o States the theory that people are citizens of two cities and  that we are moving through the human city to get to the  city of God  

∙ Pliny, “a Consultation Concerning the Christians” (electronic  reserve)  

o Letter from Pliny to Emperor Trajan discussing the  punishment and treatment of Christians  

 Used torture as last resort, would much rather see  them convert to worship the “rightful gods”

o Pliny claims not to be an expert in these proceeding  o Trajan encourages Pliny, and gives more advice on how to  handle Christians, not too harshly

∙ Tactitus, “Germania” (Sources of the West, 111-114)  o Tactitus discusses the German cultre  

 How leaders are chosen: Kings by birth, generals by  valor

 Kings don’t have absolute power  

o Woman are almost valued  

 They dress the same as men

 Matrimonial bond is strict

 Adultery extremely shameful

o Omens are a huge part of their culture  

o A man must be armed/knighted in order be involved with  society

∙ Priscus, “History” (electronic reserve)  

o Attila of the Huns receives a description of the Roman  culture

∙ Thomas Aquinas, “summa Theologica” (Sources o the West, 195- 199)  

o War has to meet certain criteria in order to be justified  o Can it be demonstrated that God exists?  

 Would knowledge replace the faith that is expected?  o Internal debate with himself  

o Balance religious commitments with real life situations  ∙ Fulcher of Chartres, “The Fist Crusade and the Siege of  Jerusalem” (Sources of the West. 176-182)  

o Went to the crusade for an eternal-life reward  

o Ultimate goal is peace but need to fight in order to attain it o Martyrdom

o Pope is criticizing other Church leaders  

o Victims of the siege are being dehumanized  

Review Questions 

∙ Reasons for Crusades  

o Stop fighting each other and do something productive  o Eternal rewards  

∙ Pope vs. Emperor  

o Emperor is also divinely appointed  

o Armies are more closely tied to the monarchies  

∙ Fall of Romans  

o West  

 Lacks political leadership and stability for a long time  Charlemagne links together some power but not as  much as before; creates Holy Roman Empire  

 Neither Holy nor Roman nor an empire  

o East  

 Becomes Byzantine Empire  

Format  

∙ Same as before  

∙ Some choices for big essay

o Relationship between religious and political leaders  o Development of Catholic Church and the Papal monarchy  o Influence this essay with earlier material from last test

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