Bio 106 Exam 3 Study Guide
Bio 106 Exam 3 Study Guide Biology 106- Organismal Biology
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by JustAnotherStudent on Tuesday November 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Carloye in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 11/03/15
EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Boldedkey words and DefiniTions This a collecTion of The wordsTerms ThaT she eiTher bolded on The slideshomework OR placed heavy emphasis on during lecTure The majoriTy will have The definiTion aHached EukaryoTe HeTeroTrophic ExTracellular NOT digesTed in The cells buT in a comparTmenT lnTracellular digesTion occurs in The cell cyToplasm Proferia sponge Enzymes Mechanical digesTion via chewing Chemical digesTion via salivary amylase Amylase digesTs sTarch and glycogen Bolus mixTure of chewed up food saliva HCL hydrochloric acid Pepsin Pepsinogen inacTive form of pepsin before iT is acTivaTed by HCL ProTease proTein breakdown enzyme DigesTive juices SphincTer closes off conTainer such as sTomach Very TighT BeTween esophagus and sTomach and sTomach and inTesTine Acid reflux hearTburn BicarbonaTe de acidifies chime Trypsin enzymes break down polypepTides ChemoTrypsin see above PolypepTides proTein fragemenTs Lipases breaks down lipids Lipid faTs Bile aids in lipid absorpTion sTored in gallbladder Jejunum firsT porTion of small inTesTines EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Villi folds of fne infesfinal folds Microvilli individual cells folds Cecum where fne small and large infesfines meef Colon reabsorbs wafer baclt info fne body from infesfine Appendix parf of fne cecum Regions of fhe arqe infesfine o Cecum o Ascending Colon 0 Transverse colon o Descending colon o Sigmoid colon o Recfum o Anus Cellulose planf based maferials Herbivores planf based dief consumed Carnivores meaf based dief consumed Omnivores planf and meaf based dief consumed Hormones Ghrelin sfimulafes appefife PYY opposife of gnrelin Lepfin makes you feel full Insulin secrefed by pancreas Sfrefch Recepfors Hemolymph circulafion fluid Dorsal nearf Describes ocafion buf is fubuIar in shape Spiracles Ief air info fube sysfem opening fo fne oufside Trachea fubes leading from fne spiracle fo fissue Tracheoles branching from fracnea leads fo fnese Arferies lead away from fne hearf foward capillaries EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Capillaries branch inTo a neTworllt The capillary bed Capillaries are Thin walled O2 and CO2 move inTo amp ouT of circulaTory sysTem Through These walls Capillary Beds converge inTo veins Veins reTurn blood To The hearT ATrium receiving parT of The hearT VenTricle larger chamber of The hearT more muscular Red blood cell no nucleus formed from sTem cells AffiniTy Thinlt magneT Cell body nucleus and organelles DendriTes cyToplasmic exTension for inpuTL Receives info from The cell Axon long cyToplasmic exTension for oquuT Passes along signal To receiving cell or Tissue Axon Hillock cone shaped base inTegraTion inpuT lnTegraTe all of The incoming info ElecTrical signals AcTion poTenTials ResTing poTenTial inside of cell more neaaTive Than The ouTside loi aToms w charge Chemical neuroTransmiTTers MovemenTs across membranes are conTrolled by aned channels PosiTive Feed back ExTra negaTive hyperpolarizaTion RefracTory period prevenTs signal from moving baclltwards Synapses juncTions beTween neurons Single TransmiTs To new cell via neuroTransijTers aT synapse AceTylcholine muscles neuroTransmiTTer Dopamine emoTions EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Serolonin sleep sensory perceplion lemp conlrol Synaptic cleft Excild rory posl syndplic polenlidl EPSP lnhibilory posl syndplic polenlidl IPSP Temporal signals Spatial signals Muscles Skeleldl muscle move body when dlldched lo sltelelon Smoolh muscle moves fluid Through ducls Cordidc muscle hedrl bedl Aclin Myosin Sorcopldsmic reliculum endopldsmic reliculum of muscle cell ATP Adenosine Tri phosphdle odenosine w 3 P s ADP Adenosine Qi phosphdle one P removed Troponintropomvosin blocking myosin binding siles on The dclin Troponin complex 3 molecules lhdl hold The lropomyosin in pldce covering up The binding sile Power slroke myosin pulls dclin loword cenler of sorcomere Types of nilrodenous wosle in onimdls Ammonia very loxic Very lillle energy To produce Con dilule wilh lols of woler To reduce loxici ry Urea less loxic EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Talltes energy to convert ammonia to urea Need water to dissolve and excrete Uric Acid not toxic Talltes lots of energy to produce Precipitates out of water as solid Requires littleno water Nephron Protonephridia closed system Hamecdb Metanephridia open system Malpighian tubules closed system Distal tubule salts pump out water passively follows Collecting duct collects filtrate from multiple nepnrons ADH antidiuretic hormone EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 iClicker aueslions asked in class If you regularly allend class or have read Through The syllabus Then you already know rha r rhese poin rs are only earned by allending class and clicking in on The day The ques rion is asked l r should also be no red rha r rhese ques rions are no r on The exam bu r more of a way To les r your knowledge in class and a very usefully sludy aid There is an answer sheet on the last page Week of October 12h 16h Whal is The advanlages of a gaslrovascular A You can eal a wide variely of foods B ll Takes less energy lo mainlain C You can slill ea r ano rher meal while The firer meal digesls D You can use ii To dislribule nulrienls To all cells and for digeslion loo Whal is The advanlages of a gaslrovascular A You can eal a wide variely of foods B ll Takes less energy lo mainlain C You can slill ea r ano rher meal while The firer meal digesls D You can use ii To dislribule nulrienls To all cells and for digeslion loo Whal is The mix of food digeslive juice called A Pepsin Amylase Bolus Chime Duodenum meow Why called small inleslines A IT is shor r B Small diameler C Made of very small cells D ll can only process small bils of food l d The blood would never be oxygendted b The lungs would never get oxygendted blood EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 c The mdjorify of fhe orgdns would never gef oxygen delivered d The blood in fhe sysfemic circuif would deliver foo much oxygen fo fhe orgdns When SAVo is ldrge whdf does fhdf meon d Lofs of surfdce dred reldfive fo volume b Ldrge volume reldfive fo surfdce dred Why does 0 fish suffocofe when if is on ldnd There is less oxygen in fhe dir fhdn in fhe wofer Fish gills connof obsorb oxygen from fhe dir buf fhey con from fhe wofer The gills slick fogefher dnd fhere is nof enough surfdce dred exposed fo fhe dir Fish connof open fheir moufhs fo bredfh dir in when on ldnd 9060 Air enfers fhe respirdfory sysfem fhrough fhe frdched The frdched bronch info smdller dnd smdller fubes thf is fhe home of fhe pdrf of fhe lung where gds exchdnge hoppens Spirocle Bronchiole Alveolus Copilldry 9060 thf hoppens when some Nd gofes open Nd diffuses in 0nd inside becomes more posifive Nd diffuses ouf dnd inside becomes more negdfive K diffuses in 0nd inside becomes more posifive Cl diffuses ouf dnd inside becomes more negdfive 9060 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 thT hoppens when some KgoTes open 0 The chdrge difference beTween inside amp ouTside The cell is resTored b The concenTrdTion grddienT of The ions beTween inside dnd ouTside The cell is resTored c The neuron becomes even more depoldrized ds more posiTive chdrge moves info The cell Would The nerve be dble To depoldrize 0 Yes b No How does The chdrge difference geT reseT during The dcTion poTenTidl K moves ouT K moves in Nd moves ouT Nd moves in 9060 Whof is happening of point d Nd ocTivoTion goTes close b Nd indcTivoTion goTes close and K nges sTdrT opening c K beings moving in OS Nd sTdrTs flowing ouT d K begins moving in ds Nd sTops moving dcross The membrdne a 1 fl E 3 4 in nmunse Tim Willisemu thT Type of chemicolly sensiTive nged chdnnels on d dendriTe would resulT in on EPSP Nd K Cl All of The dbove 9060 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Nome the ports of the sorcomere controctile unit o Actin MyosinZ Iine b Z ine Actin Myosin c M ine Z ine Myosin d Z ine M ine Actin If colcium ions ore not present in o sorcomere muscle controction connot occur becouse ATP connot bind to myosin Myosin connot unbind from tropomyosin Myosin connot bind to octin ADP connot be converted into ATP 9060 Whot nitrogenous woste requires the greotest woter loss to rid it from the bod o Ureo b Ammonio c Uric Acid Which phylumphylo hove flome ces os port of their excretory system Porifero sponges Pldtyhelminthes fldtworms Annelido segmented worms Both Pldtyhelminthes amp Annelido Both Annelido amp Chordoto 939059 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Nome The porT of The nephron indicoTed Glomerulus Proximdl Tubule Bowmdn s copsule CollecTing ducT Loop of Henle 99999 thT is The descending loop of Henle permedble To H20 moving 0UT H20 moving IN NdCl moving OUT NdCl moving IN H20 moving 0UT dnd NdCl moving IN 99999 Nome The porT of The nephron indicoTed Glomerulus Proximdl Tubule Disle Tubule CollecTing ducT Loop of Henle 99999 Which of The following would resulT from ADH dcTion on The collecTing ducT d Urine more diIuTe b Urine more concenTrdTed EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Answer For Clicker Questions Yes the questions are not numbered sorry about that but there are a total of 26 questions and the answers will be listed in order of the questions 14 15 UOU 16 17 2 U 18 19 20 21 S 9 gt39 Uquot39gtS quot 22 H 0 23 H H 24 H Iquot 25 H S gtnngtwwwnnw 26 WOgtgtUJUJOUJUJOgtUJO EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Nutrition and Diqestion Complete Digestive System Incomplete Digestive System Tube shdped Bdg like Sepdrdte openings Single opening Mouth Food dnd woste some hole Anus Food digested exfrocellulorly Food digested exfrocellulorly Digestive enzymes secreted into lumen of the bog Advontdges of complete gut gredter surfdce dred you Cdn hdve dnother medl while your first one digests Intracelluldr digestion Enzymes inside the cell bredkdown food Only used by Poriferd bponge Extracelluldr digestion Food is digested by different enzymes outside of the cell This is used by everything but sponges Steps of Digestion i Ingestion d Mechdnicol digestion chewing b Chemicol digestion solivory enzymes 2 Swollowing d Mouth 9 Esophdgus 9 Stomdch 3 Digestion in stomdch d Gdstricjuices b Stomdch doesn t digest itself becouse lining is protected by mucus lining i Cells repldced every 3 ddys 4 Digestion in the smdll intestine Absorption of nutrients into bloodstredm d Duodenum first region b Digestive juices i Pdncreds bicorbondte trypsin dnd chemotrypsin ii Liver Bile iii Gdllblddder bile stored here c Jejunum second region i Villi ii Microvilli 5 Ldrgelntestine d Junction between smdll amp ldrge intestine cecum b Colon i Absorbs woter book into body from intestines EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Regions of lorde intestine Appendix Cecum Ascending colon Tronsverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum 0 Stores feces onus Match the term to the definition Gostric Juices o Breollts down storch amp chogen Pepsinogen b Mix of chewed up food Solivory omylose c Protein breolltdown Hydrochloric Acid d Food digestive juices Proteose e lnoctive form of pepsin Bolus f Bockflow of chyme into esophogus Acid reflux g HCL amp pepsin Chyme h Bredllts cells of medtplont tissue oport EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore Ligestive tract Longest Shortest long Size of cecum Ldrgest sdeI medium fermentdtion center Teeth M0l0r5 WbrOCJOI Ldrge shdrp Teeth for oil dctions ridged surfdce incisors and 39 39Srr cgg gor conines Jdgged moldrs Diet Pldnts only Medt combo Appetite reguldtion Requires multiple hormones Before medl o Ghrelin Secreted in thestomdch Stimuldtes dppetite After medl o PYY Smdll intestine reledses Opposite ofghrelin o Leptin Secreted by ddipose tissue fdt o Insulin Secreted by pdncreds Circuation and Gas Exchanqe Blood Hemolymph Confined to vessels Circuldtion fuid Corries oxygen Acts ds blood dnd interstitidl fuid Found in drthropods dnd mouslts Mdior types of blood cells 0 Red blood cells 0 White blood cells 0 Hemoglobin Open circuldtory systems dllow for certdin dnimdls to dllow gds exchdnge to use diffusion dcross their skin ds the only mechdnism The gredter the surfdce dred to volume the more efficient gds exchdnge will be becouse there is d gredter dmount of dred for gds exchdnge to occur EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Exomple fish gills ore delicdfe folds fhdf hove low volume buf gredf surfdce dred Counfercurrenf flow befween wofer dnd blood vessels incredses dbilify fo exfrdcf moximum 02 from wofer info blood Single circulofion svsfem 0 Found in fish 0 Two chdmbered hedrf o Afrium receiving pdrf of fhe hedrf o Venfricle ldrger chdmber of fhe hedrf more musculdr Gives fhe big push fo mdllte fhe blood ledve fhe hedrf dnd fhen come bdcllt Venfricle 9 mdin drfery 9 copilldry beds locofed in fhe gills 9 oxygendfed dnd odded fo blood dnd CO2 reledsed info fhe wofer 9 drfery 9 copilldry beds in body fissues delivers lood of O2 9mdin vein bdcllt fo fhe hedrf wifh deoxygendfed blood 9 venfricle 0 Remember fhdf fhe blood goes direcfly fo fhe fissues before refurning fo hedrf 0 Double Circuldfion Svsfem Four chdmbered hedrf o Definife woll befween fhe fwo sides Receiving chdmber is fhe leff dnd righf dfrium Leff dnd righf ventricle Afrium 9 volve 9 righf venfricle 9drfery 9 firsf copilldries bed in fhe lungs9 pick up lood of O2 reledses lood of CO2 wosfe 9 pulmondry vein bdcllt fo hedrf9 leff dfrium 9 leff venfricle 9 drfery fo body fissues9 delivers lood of 02 picks up CO2 wosfe 9 vein bdcllt fo fhe righf side of fhe hedrf 9 dfrium 9 venfricle EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Hemodlobin Solurdlion Curve E 1m lial fullliy sa39l currathrl wring DE unleaded 39 T E r r in tissues 39 a 3 39 at r331 E DE unloaded E E 39 w tissuas quot393 quotE I urng exerciae E 4 E 5 E E 39 5n S n I ran 4 an an 1n Tlssues during Tilsaues Llll urge exercise at rest F aimm How hemoglobin responds sove 02 To help supply dire siluolions Bohr Shifl E i ll l I I I I E pH Hi i E 3 quot pH 12 r A E m r 39 EITIEI Q In f E r retain5 base 39739 g it Inwalr pH E 4i 39 if A hilherr C g E 4 concentrator a E E f l x I I I an ill an a 1m Pmlmm Hg CO2 offecls dissocidlion from 02 from hemoglobin CO2 converled lo corbonic acids in woler of blood Nerves The nervous syslem sends dnd receives eleclricol dnd chemicol messoges in The body Slruclure of d neuron EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 0 Cell body 0 DendriTes o Axon o Axon Hillocllt Two Types of signdls ElecTricol dnd chemicol No Sodium ConcenTrdTed on The ouTside of The cell STill on inside buT in smaller omounTs Cl Chloride Higher concenTrdTion ouTside lower concenTroTion on The inside K Ponssium Higher concenTrdTion inside lower concenTroTion on The ouTside Edch ion hos iTs own concenTrdTion grddienT ResTing PoTenTial of an Ion o Medsure volege chdnge on inside of cell reldTive To The ouTside cell membrdne 0 Inside 70mv resTing poTenTidl o Volege sensiTive nged chdnnels ore Mosle closed dT resTing poTenTidl Open in response To elecTricol signdl No chdnnels ore double nged 0 dcTinTion nge Typicolly closed 0 inocTivoTion nge Typicolly open 0 Sodium Nodouble nged Incoming Signal Arrives l ResTing sTdTe o ElecTricol sTimulus Triggers Nd chdnnels To open acTivaTion nge o K chdnnels ore slower To respond dnd M open yeT 2 PosiTive feed bdck Triggers dcTion poTenTidl 0 When No chdnnels open acTivaTion nge o Nd ions flow IN EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 0 Inside becomes less nengive 0 Positive Feed back 0 lniTiol depoldrionion couses more nges To open 0 MusT be sTrong enough To redch Threshold 0 Once The Threshold is hiT The incoming Nd enough To susTdin posiTive feedbdcllt 3 Repoldrizofion begins 0 Nd chdnnels sToy open for i millisecond o Closes very quickly 0 AT pedllt inacfive nges close 0 STops influx of posiTive chdrge o Holfwoy Through Kll nges spoanneously open chdrges moving ouT of The inside of The cell 0 Repolarizafion begins gt Inside becomes more posiTively chdrged 4 Repolorionion o Possive flow of ions resTores chdrge difference 0 NdK pump resTores ion grddienT acfive flow 0 Pumps ions dgdinsT concenTrdTion grddienT o ReseTs concenTrdTion grddienT o OvershooT membrdne poTenTidl o CredTes refrdcTory period gt ExTrd nengive hyperpolarizafion o MusT depoldrize furTher To generdTe new dcTion poTenTidl PreSynapTic Cell When volTaqesensifive 902 qafes on cell membrdne open C02 rushes in 0nd binds To vesicles 0 Found only of syndeic clefT New Type of nge for us Vesicles fuse w cell membrdne conTenTs reledse inTo synapfic cleff EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 0 Calcium binds to receivers neurotransmitters only released when this occum Neurotransmitter Released into Synaptic Cleft Post synaptic cell 0 Has receptors for the neurotransmitters to bond to o Receptors are part of ion channels Nat Kt Cl etc Receptors are chemically sensitive on dendrites Can exhibit or inhibit membrane depends on the gate that is open 0 Excitatory post synaptic potential EPSP o Inhibitory post synaptic potential IPSP Summation of Signals in PostSynaptic Neuron A single neuron might get many signals It can only do 1 thing in response 0 Action potential or not Axon Hillocllt sums incoming signals 0 Temporal Timing is important because of opening and closing gates Builds from where it left off until it reaches threshold and sends action potential 0 Spatial Excitatory axon l amp 2 at the same time Opens more gates at once Reaches action potential quick 0 Spatial Summation of EPSP amp IPSP Excitatory fires gates open and start to close Inhibitory fires cause gates to close Both fire together and cancel each other out 0 Never reaches action potential EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Muscles Three Types of muscles Skelerl muscle 9 helps move The body where dTTdched SmooTh muscle 9 moves fluid Through ducTs 9sTomdchblddderinTesTines Cordidc muscle 9 heorT beoT NEED TO KNOW WHERE THESE ARE LOCATED AcTin myosin Troponin Tropomyosin colcium recepTors Ploy by pldy of how muscle conTrocTion worlts ConTracTion signal To conTracT AcTion poTenTidl Triggers aceTyIcholine neuroTrdnsmiTTer To be reledsed inTo synopse beTween nerve dnd muscle cell Muscle ConTracTion o Begins when nerve cell ThoT is synopsihg wiTh muscle cell 0 Double sTrdnd dcTin 0 Grey sTrdnd Tropomyosin 0 Purple beods Troponin complex 0 C02 reledsed from endopldsmic reTiculum o C02 binds To Troponin o Couses Tropomyosin To move off binding siTes o Signdl To conTrdcT o Myosih con how bind To dcTih ConTracTion Sliding filamenTs o Myosin hedd dTTdches To binding siTe on dcTin cross bridge 0 Power sTrolte myosin pulls dcTin Toword cenTer of sorcomere EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 0 Energy comes from release of ADP amp P energy molecules 0 Bridge is brolten energy for this comes from attaching ATP 0 Myosin head re cocllted energy for this comes from rof l P ATP 9 ADP 0 Ready to attach again 0 Movement has ratchet like movement Muscle Relaxation 0 ATP binds to myosin breallts cross bridge 0 ATP pumps Ca2 back into sarc Reticulum o Troponin regains shape and binds tropomyosin 0 NOTE if not ATP available muscle remains contracted o Rigor mortisdead Osmoregulation and Excretion Compoundina problem Conserving water makes it hard to remove nitrogenous wastes Nitrogenous waster Breakdown of proteins 9 ammonia NHs Very toxic 0 Have to flush it out of the body Types of nitroaenous waste in animals Ammonia very toxic Very little energy to produce Can dilute with lots of water to reduce toxicity Urea less toxic Talltes energy to convert ammonia to urea Need water to dissolve and excrete Uric Acid not toxic Talltes lots of energy to produce EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 PrecipiTaTes ouT of waTer as solid Requires liTTleno waTer Trends Type of N wasTe and habiTaT Ammonia Produced by Those who live in wafer Fresh waTer fish marine and freshwaTer inyerTebraTes amphibian larvae Urea Produced by Those who live on land and where wafer is abundanf and who don T develop in shelled eggs AdulT amphibians marine fish land mammals Uric Acid Produced by Those who need To conserve waTer And Those who develop in shelled eggs RepTiles birds insecTs land snails FilTering Blood The nephron N wasTe removal Nephrons Basic process FilTraTe enTers Tubule from blood WaTer reclaimed as filTraTe moves Through sysTem creaTing urine Urine excreTed OTher Types of excreTory sysTems in Animals Profonephridia closed sysTem FlaT worms Body fluid enTers via flame cells WaTer and meTaboliTes reabsorbed inTo body from Tubule EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 106 Excreted through pores Metanephridia open system Annelids amp Mollusllts Tubule surrounded by network of blood vessels Wdter sugdr solts redbsorbed sttes excreted through excretory pores Malpighian tubules closed system lnsects dnd spiders Closed tubes extend into hemolymph Connected to gut Hemolymph flows down tube toword gut Distdl tubule Sdlts pump out woter possively follows Ledds to collection duct Collecting duct Collects filtrdte from multiply nephrons Permedble to woter 0 Little bit of solt Lost leg of the journey Lost chdnce to recldim woter Permedble to woter dnd ured dt the deepest port inner medulld o Helps mdintdin the osmotic grddient in the interstitidl fluid ground the loop of Henley Reguldtion by ADH ontidiuretic hormone
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