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Test 2: Study Guide - Anthro 150

by: Elizabeth Pletzer

Test 2: Study Guide - Anthro 150 Anthro 150

Elizabeth Pletzer
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My very first study guide! Tried to be detailed but to the point. Let me know how it can be improved for next time! I want to help any way possible. Good luck!
The Ancient World
J. Karsten
Study Guide
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Pletzer on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anthro 150 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by J. Karsten in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see The Ancient World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.

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Date Created: 11/04/15
Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer Test 2: Study Guide Vocabulary provided in list form by Dr. Karsten  Neanderthals o Middle Paleolithic (Paleolithic: “stone age”; characterized by use of stone tools) subspecies of Homo sapiens  Homo sapiens neanderthalensis o Traits:  Cranial capacity larger than modern humans (1520 cubic centimeters)  Receding forehead  Occipital bun  A prominent bulge, or projection of the occipital bone, at the back of the skull  “Furrowed” brow ridge  Midface Prognathism  Outward projection of the lower face  No chin  Retro molar gap  Gap behind last molar on lower jaw before jaw “hinge”  Robust  “stuff-and-cut” tooth marks  Stuff-and-cut: a manner of consumption of food o Shoved large chunks of meat into mouth until full, cut off remaining portion using stone tool  Occasionally came into contact with incisors o Mousterian tool use  Mousterian tools: a style of tool involving a complicated manner of construction; characterized the Middle Paleolithic period  Involves working flake on the core and then breaking it off o Large game hunters o Evidence of cannibalism o Cared for elderly and sick  Shanadaar, Iraq  Individual found with orbital fracture o Would’ve caused blindness  Paralyzed on left half  Atrophy: missing lower portion of left arm  Severe arthritis  Lived long past time of injuries Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer  Arrival of anatomically modern Homo sapiens (us) o Evolved approximately 200,000 years ago o Most likely descend from Homo heidelbergensis o Traits:  Vertical forehead  Bony chin  Canine fossa  Hollowed portion below cheekbone  Gracile  Distal phalanx  Thumb separated from other fingers  Thin cortical bone  Longer limbs relative to body o How did they come to occupy entire planet?  Multiregional continuity model:  Anatomically modern humans evolved all over the world at approximately the same time from regional hominin groups  Replacement Model:  “out of Africa”  Anatomically modern humans evolved only in Africa 200,000 years ago and spread out from there  Eventually came to replace other hominins around the world  Complete vs. partial replacement o Refers to how modern humans came to replace the previous hominins o Complete replacement: suggests that modern humans either killed or outcompeted their fellow hominins, leading them to become the “champion” hominin o Partial replacement: suggests that modern humans positively interacted with other hominins, possibly even interbreeding until modern genetics simply won out  Supported by DNA evidence in living, non-African peoples o Sites:  Omo Kibish  Site in Ethiopia  Remains of two individuals o Omo 1: oldest anatomically modern Homo sapient o Omo 2: more robust, less modern  Both date to approximately 195,00 years ago  Supports partial replacement theory Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer o Modern human and ancestral hominin interacted  Herto  160,000 – 154,000 years ago  Ethiopian site  Most complete adult cranium o Long, low cranial vault o Large, arching brow o Occipital bun o No facial projection o Cranial capacity: 1450 cubic centimeters  Pre-Neanderthal  Homo sapiens idaltu o “first-born” – idaltu  Qafzeh Cave  120,000 – 92,000 years ago  Oldest intentional burial  Remains of 20 anatomically modern individuals  Skhul Cave  Mount Carmel, Israel  130,000 – 100,000 years ago  Remains of anatomically modern Homo sapiens and Neanderthals found in the same location o Date to relatively the same time o Suggests some form of interaction between different hominin groups  Klasies River Mouth  South African site  120,000 – 80,000 years ago  Suggests migration from near east, south o Reached Australia by 55,000 years ago  Lake Mungo  30,000 – 25,000 years ago  Anatomically modern remains  Kow Swamp  14,000 – 9,000 years ago  Remains with receding forehead and heavy supraorbital tori (brow ridges) o More ancestral characteristics o Step back in evolutionary process o Central Europe  Oase Cave  40,000 years ago Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer  Earliest anatomically modern human in Europe  Pleistocene Humans o Pleistocene: time period characterized by repeated glaciations; “Ice Age” o Period of major cultural change  Tools made of: bone, wood, shell, ivory  Shell middens o Midden: trash pile  Artifact diversity  Art  First appears 40,000 – 10,000 years ago o Upper Paleolithic Europe o Upper (late) Paleolithic: period of the “stone age” characterized by Solutrean tools  Solutrean: method of tool making involving a soft-tool pressure flaking using and antler or bone point; uses indirect percussion  Indirect percussion technique: like chiseling; soft tool used with a “hammer” to make flaking more precise  Atlatl: tool used to throw light spears further faster and with greater precision o Sites:  An issue with Pleistocene sites, because of constant thawing and freezing of the ground experience solifluction  Solifluction: “soil fluctuation”; movement of soil with freezing and thawing moves artifacts  Dolni Vestonice, Czech Republic  Large semi-subterranean structure containing: o Hollow bird bones with ends cut off  Potentially musical instruments o Domed clay oven hearth  2300 clay figurines  Oldest example of fired clay  Year-round occupation  Gravettian tools  Mediterranean shells – landlocked area o Sign of trade  Ritual o Multiple carved masks depicting same individual  Woman with drooped left side of face o Remains of woman with similar features found  Individual of importance  Paleolithic Art o Centered in France Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer  Some also in Northern Spain o Sites:  Lascaux Cave, France  Upper Paleolithic site  Presence of both mural art and portable art o Mural art: paintings or engravings in cave walls o Portable art: molded or carved figurines; generally small; easily transportable  17,000 years ago  Magdalenian period: cultural epoch of the larger Paleolithic period; characterized by the increased diversity of artifacts, organic materials used to make artifacts, and the advancement of culture with the introduction of art  Not a living space o Cave used solely for potentially ritualistic reasons  Mural art o Mostly depicted animals o Multiple colors used o One human individual  Located in small cave shaft  Surrounded by various megafauna  Birdlike features o Hand prints – rarely whole (missing fingers)  Potentially some form of signature  Chauvet Cave, France  36,000 years ago  Very similar to Lascaux  Cosquer Cave, France  18,500 years ago  Portable Art (found in all three places)  Generally dates to 35,000 years ago  “Venus” figurines: depictions of woman with exaggerated feminine features; originates 25,000 years ago o Mural style: engraved into cave walls o Portable: carved from ivory, wood, or stone  Sometimes modeled in clay o Exaggerated female features o Often outlined pubic triangle o Some depicted as pregnant  Magdalenian period  More common in large settlements  Some pieces suggested an awareness of the seasons; counting; or astronomical awareness Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer o Abri Blanchard  Unique piece with 69 marks  Made with 24 different tools  Potentially records moon phases over 6 months  Peopling of the Americas o North and South America inhabited by 15,000 years ago o Beringia: land bridge between Asia and North America  Ice free corridor: strip of land from northwest Canada down into central North America that would have been the ideal path for migrating groups  Existed after 14,000 years ago  Very few sites to support Beringia and ice free corridor theory o Sites of Earliest Immigrants:  Monte Verde, Chile  13,000 years ago (before existence of ice-free corridor)  Bog site o Highly well-preserved soft tissues and organic materials o Sphagnan – removes calcium needed for decay; provides oxygen free environment  12 houses – animal hide walls  Wooden tools  Sling stones – hunting  Bola stones – weighted rope, used to trip or slow down prey  Presence of wide variety of edible and medicinal plants  Paisley Caves, Oregon  14,250 years ago  Coprolite: fossilized feces o Human: tested by sequencing DNA o Paleoindian Period: late Pleistocene – early Holocene (Holocene: modern epoch; began with end of “Ice Age”)  North American equivalent of Upper Paleolithic  Characterized by fluted stone spear points  Crafted with pressure flaking technique o Pressure flaking: pushing down on core with a point, at an angle, until the pressure buildup breaks off a flake  Clovis points  Clovis: a specific group of people who primarily utilized the pressure flaking technique  Lasted 200 years o Followed by regional variation of similar technique  Folsom Point – Great Plains o Kennewick Man  Whole skeleton Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer  Dates to 7500 BC  Lacked Native American features  Mainly European traits o Suggested European contact very early  But not likely  Likely just highly abnormal individual o Pleistocene megafauna extinction  35 species (50%) of land mammals extinct by end of Pleistocene  Why?  Climate change – end of Ice Age  Over hunting  Post-Pleistocene hunter/gatherers o Mesolithic – cultural period between Pleistocene and Neolithic (agriculture)  European  10,000 – 5,500 BC  Characterized by:  Coastal living  Artifact deposition zones (certain areas used for certain things)  Living areas with o Hearths, food storage pits, construction materials, and few artifacts  Middens o Archaic – North American equivalent of Mesolithic  6000 – 1000 BC  Lasted until first North American transition to agriculture o Rich variety of plant and animal species utilized  Extensive exploitation o Sites  Vedbaek, Denmark  Mesolithic site  Cemetery o Sign of settlement o 22 individuals with grave goods  Red deer antlers with elderly  Males buried with flint knives  Females buried with shell jewelry  Vaenget Nord  Island site  Hazelnut shells  Adzes, arrowhead, burins o Adzes: stone axe o Burin: tool used for carving wood or bone Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer  Placement of artifacts suggests spatial division of island for certain tasks o Hunter/Gatherers  Vast majority of human history spent this way  Social structure:  Small, egalitarian societies  Nuclear family groups  Ephemeral (earned) leadership  Seasonal rounds  Labor divided by sex  “Original affluent society” o Healthier, worked less than early agriculturalists  Reconstructing Past Diets: o The transition from variety of wild meat/plants to more limited domesticates  Impact:  Agriculture creates a more complex social organization  Wider variety and more specific tools needs to maintain domesticates – technological advancements  Agriculture – larger group sizes  Residence pattern – where a couple live after marriage o Matrilocal – with wife’s family (agriculture) o Patrilocal – with husband’s family (hunter/gatherers)  Transportation: domestication of transportation animals o Agriculturalists more sedentary o Increase in trade o Approaches to reconstructing diet:  Dental health – number of cavities (increases with agriculture)  Bone chemistry  Uses chemical isotopes present in bones and teeth that can be traced to specific plants/animals  Carbon isotopic ratios o Carbon 13/Carbon 12  Carbon 13 present in grasses (sugar cane, corn) and marine resources (both plant and animals)  Higher C13 ratio indicates heavy reliance on marine resources  Nitrogen isotopic ratios o Nitrogen 15/Nitrogen 14  Increased N15 levels indicate trophic level  Trophic level: place in food chain  High N15 level indicates high level of meat consumption o Carrier Mills, Illinois Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer  Cultural Resource Management – private field of Anthropology; created in 1970s with passing of bill requiring Environmental Impact Survey for federally funded construction projects; performs site surveys in places where construction is imminent  Black Earth Site  Settled over a long period of time  3 middens over 13 acres site  Animal bones from 77 species  Turtles – used shells for cups and bowls  Stone and bone tools  Cemetery  154 mid archaic burials  High rate of infant death  Very low life expectancy  Average Heights o Males: 5’6’’ o Females: 5’2’’ o Height directly related to health  Early agriculturalists relatively short  Grave goods: materials of personal or ritualistic importance placed in a burial site o Males: sustenance tools o Females: tools for processing raw materials o Shell with infant  Likely from Gulf of Mexico  Sign of trade o Copper wedge placed above neck of a decapitated individual  Plant Domestication o The process of growing a plant and changing it genetically in ways that make it more useful to humans  Done through selective breeding o Almond – poisonous wild ancestor o Corn – domesticated from teosinte o Humans unconsciously select for:  Larger size  Better taste  Fleshiness  Seedlessness  Oily seeds and fibers (depending on use) o Select for non-shattering rachis  Seeds stay connected to stalk, easier to collect o Select against germination inhibitors Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer  Germination inhibitors: advantageous for wild plants; not all seeds grow immediately; ensures continuation of gene through poor growing year o Why are some plants easier to domesticate than others?  Correlates with number of genetic changes needed to become crop plants  Fewer = easier  Animal Domestication o Anna Karenina Principle  “Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”  All domesticated animals have specific qualities that allowed them to be domesticated; animals that haven’t been or can’t be domesticated have very specific reasons for their difficulty with domestication  Traits needed for Domestication: (must have all traits)  Diet: broad; must be relatively easy to feed  Growth rate: faster=better  Captive breeding: ability to breed in captivity  Temperament: docile, comfortable in captivity  Tendency to panic: must have very low tendency; comfortable with being enclosed  Herds/Dominance Hierarchy/non-territorial o Must be social animals o Easier to domesticate if humans can be inserted into the social hierarchy o Domesticating animals:  Selectively bred in captivity and modified from wild ancestor for human use  Select most useful animals  Eventually form new species o Natural selection  Different selective pressures in human compared to wild environments o Changes associated with domestication:  Size: depends on purpose  Auroch: cow, smaller  Guinea Pig: used for meat, bigger  Hair: if used for fur retain hair instead of shedding  Sheep, llama, alpaca  Milk: produce more, longer  Brain: smaller, more docile  Sense organs: smaller, dumber  Horns: smaller or nonexistent o Taming  NOT the same as domestication  Does not involve genetic modification  Agriculture o A way of obtaining food involving domesticated plants and animals Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer o Involves a change in relationship with the environment  Extensive vs. Intensive exploitation  Extensive exploitation: involves travel; reliance on a wide variety of plant and animal species o Characterized Hunter/Gatherers  Intensive Exploitation: rely on fewer, domesticated species; requires a much smaller area o Characteristic of Agriculturalists o Requirements of Success in agriculture:  Propagation: breeding and planting  Husbandry: prep, protect, provide  Prepare land for planting; shelter for livestock  Protect plants from pests; livestock from predators  Provide plants with water and fertilizer; livestock with food and water  Harvest/slaughter crops and livestock  Storage/maintenance of food, seeds, meat  Cultivation: plowing land for planting and maintaining crop o Animal Domestication  Secondary product: anything received besides meat  Milk  Traction – plowing  Horns/hides  Transportation  Eggs (birds) o Importance of Storage:  Regulate food usage  Begin forming governments for distribution  Accumulate surplus  Allows for craft specialization  Primary vs. Secondary Centers of Agriculture o Primary Centers of Agriculture: place where original domestication of a species occurred o Secondary Center of Agriculture: place that adopted use of domesticated species after it had already been domesticated elsewhere o Theories for why domestication occurred when and where it did:  Oasis Hypothesis:  An increase in temperature and aridity globally following the end of the Ice Age forced congregation of life at oases  Limited resources in such small areas forced domestication for survival  Not Likely o Global carbon dioxide level increases would have promoted plant growth Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer o Temperature increase not significant enough to cause such a dramatic event  Natural Habitat Hypothesis  Domestication occurred wherever plants appeared naturally o Specifically within the Fertile Crescent  People of the time were simply culturally and technologically advanced enough to make the switch and so they did by choice  Population Pressure Hypothesis  Argues against Natural Habitat Hypothesis; agriculture is far too difficult for it to take place unless absolutely necessary  States: populations grew so large that there were not enough naturally available resources to support survival  Edge Hypothesis  Pairs with Population Pressure Hypothesis  Assumes that evolution of agriculture would have occurred on the very edges of fertile landscapes where land was agriculturally ideal but would not provide natural resources necessary to support a large population  Symbolic/Religious Hypothesis  Some change in ideas led to domestication  Social Hypothesis  Relies on culture  Entrepreneurs grew their own to develop a surplus o Potentially for trade o Likely for status gain  Potential Problems with Theories (focusing on Southwest Asia) o Some villages on margins – edge hypothesis  Population not massive o Cooler, moister climates at end of Pleistocene – contradicts oasis hypothesis o Assume: Sedentism -> plant domestication -> animal domestication -> pottery  Reality (Mesolithic): plant domestication -> sedentism  Sedentism: settling into permanent villages; characteristic of agriculturalists o Sites:  Ain Mahalla  Natufian: group of people; hunter/gatherers; Mesolithic  Levant: region made up of mostly of Israel; part of the fertile crescent  Round, semi-sunken houses o Significance of round shape:  Before agriculture: round houses  After agriculture: rectangular houses  Change seen worldwide  Pestles, mortars, hearths, and storage bins within houses Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer  Storage pits in common areas  Natufian artifacts: o Ground stone artifacts o Plates, bowls, mortars, pestles o Animal bones: wild pig, deer, wild goat, auroch, gazelle o Dental caries – disease, cavities  Can lead to infection and death  Large increase with reliance on cereals  More sugar o Wild barley seeds o Sickle blades  Chip stone blades mounted in bone or antler  Prior to plant domestication  Kites - narrowing rock enclosures o Used to herd migrating gazelles into a small area  Easier to trap and kill  Gobekli Tepe  Mountain ridge site o All other period sites in valleys o Not a habitation site  Oldest human-made stone structures  Potentially first temple  20 round structures o T-shaped pillars o Benches o Stone floor o Pillars highly decorated  8000 BC – entire site intentionally covered in sand  Abu Hurayra  Tell – mound; accumulation of garbage and rubble from previous settlements built up over time  25ft of debris  10000 BC – forests disappear o Wild wheats remain – sign of cultivation o Lentils disappear and reappear  Rectangular houses  Presence of exotic items o Trade  Jericho  Tell  Oldest continuously inhabited site  Headless burials Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer o Skulls found elsewhere  Molded clay mask  Shell eyes  First wall – 27ft tall o No warfare o Possibly protection from flood waters  Extensive trade o Shells, turquoise, obsidian  Catalhoyuk  Fertile crescent  Tell  Egalitarian  Many shrines o Depict bulls in many ways  Source of obsidian o Prosperous regional center  Adjoined rectangular buildings o No doors  Enter through roof o Courtyards  Mehrgarh  Domestication of local barley  Domesticate zebu cattle  Ban-po-ts’un  Yangshao – cultural group of Neolithic  Domesticate millet and pigs  Defensive ditch around site  Children buried in ceramics  Central building o Sign of social inequality? o Communal building?  Valley of Oaxaca  Guila Naquitz Cave o Seasonal occupation o Domesticate beans and squash o Maize domestication  Tehuacan Valley  Preceramic  Seasonal site  Reliance on maize by 4 millennium BC  Evidence of stone tool evolution o Bifacial Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer o Unifacial o Ground stone  Gutarrero Cave  Andes mountains o Cold, lots of precipitation  Domesticate lima bean – 6000 BC  Montana Zone – most rainfall  Potatoes  Llama and alpaca  Demographic effects of Agriculture o Children weened earlier  Associated with mobility  Easier to feed weening foods earlier with rise of agriculture  Lactational amenorrhea: menstruation stops while breastfeeding  Natural birth control  Weening earlier allows women to get pregnant more frequently o Contributes to population growth o Health effects:  Stress: deviation from homeostasis; physiological disruption due to impoverished environmental circumstances  Skeletal signs: o Enamel Hypoplasias: areas of deficient enamel  Lines appear on teeth  Increases in frequency after rise of agriculture o Porotic hyperostosis/cribra orbitalia  Spongy bone  Childhood anemia  Also increases after rise of agriculture o Comparison of hunter/gatherer vs agriculturalist skeleton shows increased stress in agriculturalists  Causes of stress in agriculturalists:  Zoonotic diseases  Reduced dietary variety – malnutrition  Sanitation problems due to sedentary lifestyle o Increased warfare among agriculturalists  Vertebra Cave, Ukraine  Over half of present remains show signs of violent trauma  Execution style blunt force trauma  Ancient North America o Thomas Jefferson  Father of American Archaeology  First person to strategically excavate mounds Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer o Native America  40 million people  400 languages  Wide range of sociopolitical organizations  Ethnohistory: branch of anthropology focused on history of non-Western peoples and cultures (especially prehistoric; rely on oral histories and written sources from Westerners who contacted pre-historic groups)  Diverse resource exploitation  Appearance of soapstone containers (1500 BC) – sign of sedentism o Poverty Point, Louisiana  6 concentric earthen mounds  Settlement systems: multiple smaller settlements within few miles of one larger settlement  Post-molds present  Post-mold: place where posts were driven into the ground to create a hole o Sign that structures were built on top of mounds  Open plaza for ritual  Relied on river resources  Cultivation not significant  Lapidary – stone work  Red stone jewelry  Baked clay objects – “Poverty Point Objects”  Lumps of baked clay  Likely used for cooking o Buried, fire built over top, remove fire, slow roast food on hot clay  Unique shapes  Declines same time as mound appearance in Ohio o Hopewell Mounds  Hopewell: a cultural group of Native Americans  Ohio River valley  Massive mounds – up to 330ft in diameter  Many shapes  Burial mounds  Log tombs  Grave goods o Gorgets, jewelry, copper, smoking pipes  Gorgets: worked concave/convex stone o Grave goods not present in child burials  Sign of achieved social status (vs inherited) o Pipes  Highly detailed craftsmanship Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer o Copper  Mined from Isle Royale, Michigan  Specific chemical signature  Hammered into art  Copper celts – like an axe head o Mica sheets: thin, metal-like stone sheets  Peace pipe: used by leaders; no weapons allowed in presence of ceremonial pipe; usually highly decorative  extensive trade system  Hopewell Interaction Sphere  3 types of trade systems: o Reciprocity: gift giving; gift and receive something of equal value o Redistribution: central figure gathers and redistributes goods and forms surplus o Market: money standard; supply and demand  Mound City  Hopewell site  24 mounds within 13 acres  Mississippian period o Maize agriculture – major importance  Alluvial floodplains – excellent for agriculture o Reliance on wild game o Symbolism associated with warfare o Cahokia site  Size suggests city-state or large chiefdom  Contact group name – named Cahokia by French traders  American Bottom: 3 rivers come together; fertile; trade center  Swamps, ponds, forest, river, prairie  Site characteristics:  Massive mounds  Flat-topped platform mounds – with post holes  Open plazas – suggests a planned settlement  Palisades – suggests warfare o Palisades: massive wooden fence (think 1800s fort)  “Downtown” – area within wall  Woodhenges o Used to observe equinoxes and solstices o Like Stonehenge  Monks mound  Plaza and 16 platforms  4 platforms on main mound Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer  Large public structures  Built in 14 stages  Mound 72  Burial mound  Individuals of high importance accompanied by sacrifices o Commemorative sacrifices o Cache of valuable artifacts  Bed of shell beads o One individual accompanied by 50 young women lined up near individual of importance  4 young men o Beheaded and behanded o AD 1250 – mounds fall into disuse  Possible reasons for decline:  Diminished area resources  Warfare  Another center became more important o Southeastern United States  Shell tempered pottery  Pottery with shell fragments baked into clay  Stable class system  Regional polities: settlement hierarchies o Moundville  Exotic goods in elite burials  Southeastern Ceremonial Complex  “Southern Cult Motifs”  Motifs (symbols/images) used by and associated with the particular group  Built in stages  Large and small paired mounds  Large for buildings  Small for burials  Art – very similar to Mesoamerica  Craft specific areas  Presence of valuable burial goods in child graves  Ascribed (inherited) status  Northeastern North America o Achieved leadership o Maize significant o Long houses: long houses of wood and animal hides; home to a lineage (rather than just nuclear family); multiple hearths; seasonal occupation o Palisades Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer o Iroquoian o Sweat baths: small circular structure; similar to a sauna; social bonding time  American Southwest o 4 Corners region  Pit houses: wood lattice covered with mud  Earliest villages used storage facilities, basketry, manos and mutates  Manos and mutataes: mortar and pestle  Regional variation in ceramics  Hohokam o Southern Arizona  Ancestral Pueblo o Four Corners o Hohokam  Occupied Sonoran Desert  Irrigation necessary for maize cultivation  Snaketown site:  Phoenix basin  Highly impressive irrigation system – still visible around Phoenix today  High water table  Many villages by AD 600  Ball courts o Rubber balls – got through trade o Game similar to famous Mayan game with hoop  Platform mounds  Red-on-buff pottery  Craft specialization by AD 900 o Etched shells with acid – often depict lizards  Shared courtyards  Abandoned after AD 1150 o Ancestral Pueblo  Chaco Canyon, New Mexico  9 miles long  No permanent rivers  Floodwater farming o Diverted floodwaters to fields  Kiva: circular common area; sunken pit  Black-on-white pottery  AD 700 – start to build above ground rooms o Adobe and masonry  Population congregates in pueblos o Pueblo: adobe structure  Buildings 4 stories high Anthro 150: The Ancient World Lecture by: Dr. Jordan Karsten Notes by: Elizabeth Pletzer o Villages 10-20 rooms  Great houses o City o 100s of rooms o Great kiva – massive village common area  Pueblo Bonito  2.5 acres  >600 rooms  Built at the base of a towering mesa – defensive purposes  Dendrochronology – tree ring dating o Can be used to count back over 1000 years in the southwest o Pueblo Bonito active AD 861-1115  Petroglyphs: rock carving  Social hierarchy present  No great wealth accumulation  Trade roads up to 120 miles away  Timber  Jet, turquoise, copper, macaw feathers, conch shells  Theobromine residue on ceramics o Cacao drinks  1100s AD – disrupted culture  Cities abandoned for defensive locations


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