Business Ethics Notes (Al)
Business Ethics Notes (Al) PHI 121 103
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Savanna Maheux on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 121 103 at Pace University taught by Brusseau in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
Thursday September 3 2015 Course Introduction Outline Business ethics basic elements within larger fields of decision making Is it necessary It links to business What is business ethics Providing reasons for how things ought to be in the economic world Requires Values In business ethics these are the priorities elected to guide decisions Facts The people or things involved in a decision in business ethics Argument Showing how given the facts one action serves specific values better than other actions in business ethics Question What is more important The individual or the collective How well do we get along with each other OverallLarger Outcome Example curing cancer by putting serum into random water bottles seeing who lives dies curing cancer in the long run 0 Values what is more valuable the prioritysacrifice Facts facts of the world will it really cure cancer or kill people is it really true Putting together facts with values argument 1 Value collective welfare more important than individual dignity and freedom autonomy 2 Fact will it actually do 0 3 Argument directs one way or another easy to respond to Thursday September 3 2015 Ethics vs Brainwashing Ethics compared from clear values recognized facts and the comprehensible reasoning of solid arguments The Place of Business Ethics Distinction of morality taking accepted rules and applying them to the world everyday life Metaethics debate about basis of ethics and where it came from Dividing normative ethics from descriptive ethics Normative what we should ought to do Descriptive description of why Ethics above morality Ethics discusses why rules exist convert to morality Morality rules we follow Ethics factory of rules how rules are madewhat rules should bewhy some rules are better than others Comparing ethics against other forms of decision making nonethical ways Instinct or gut inclination Knowledge advancement Prudence not wanting to die Peer pressure Law jail Money influence Authority figures turn to ask Ethics discreet way of making decisions lt is1 way out of many It is the opposite of peer pressure Thursday September 3 2015 Inflection points Plato and Idealism 400 BC Idealism and truth one pure value is unchanging ex definition of a chair Locke and Rights 1700 Ethics against aristocratic repression prevailing individual autonomy and freedom Mill Bentham and Utility 1850 Social welfare Ethics is unchanging it doesn t progress Inflection points not considered advancements they build off of each other There are skeptics Nietzsche 1888 facts interpretations culture Tuesday September 22 2015 Kant The Duties of the Categorical Imperative Immanuel Kant 17241804 German Sought strict ethical regulationprinciple without ambiguity of perennial duties a firmer mechanism of decisionmaking Categorical Imperative Hypothetical versus categorical imperative absolute command apply to everybody all the time 3 expressions of 1 imperative Act only according to maxims that can be willed as universal law Treat others never only as a means but always as an end Act only according to maxims that cohere with a kingdom of ends In applied ethics first 2 expressions or versions are most common If you make one of the first two rules work the dilemmaquestion is answered First versionexpression of the categorical imperative Act in a way that the rule for your action could be universalized Act only according to that maxim whereby you can will that it becomes a universal law Consistency principle In ethics the requirement that similar people in similar situations be treated in similar ways see it if applies to everyone Tuesday September 22 2015 Universalized action An action that could be carried out by everyone all the time without internal contradiction imagine a world where everyone lies all the time Case ls Lying Possible Inside Kant s Categorical Imperative 39 Kant s first formulation of the categorical imperative Act in a way that the rule for your action could be universalized Universalizable action An action that could be carried out by everyone all the time without internal contradiction ls lying possible in Kant s categorical imperative Why or why not Example lying or stealing If everyone lies all the time reality not rationally conceivable Impossible to lie when everyone is lying all the time the concept of lying evaporates NO it is irrational If everybody is lying all the time there is no such thing as truth You would be forced to check out There would be no truth or lies idea would evaporate Everybody would be wondering what s the truth and what s not We cannot imagine a world where everybody lies all the time It would be like a movie or poker game Movie went in not expecting truth or lies to begin with ls stealing possible NO if everybody stole from everyone there would be no definition of ownership personal property it will disappear But if it doesn t belong to someone then it can t be stolen If it can t be stolen then it can t be done Example helping others in need I may be able to rationally conceive of a purely selfinterested reality A world where everyone only cares about themselves is imaginable But would I want to live there Kant Steps Maximrule Universalize rule Tuesday September 22 2015 Conceive a world in which everyone is doing this all the time Conclusion if you can conceive this then do it if you can t then don t Music File Sharing example 39 Can t steal music download illegally because then people will stop putting up their music and then there won t be any to download Objection to the first version of the categorical imperative A reality without lying can be uncomfortabledangerous Boss grandma deranged addict The question of ethics and etiquette can lying sometimes be justified as part of the world of etiquette not ethics Second expression of categorical imperative Treat people as an end and never as a means to an end People as ends not means requirement that people not be used as instruments tools to get something else Examples lying stealing doesn t matter if you can cure every disease forever you can t use people as a tool to get to that point Example if I own a restaurant can I hire waiters and cashiers Dignity principle People have value in themselves Dignity principle vs consistency principle Thursday September 24 2015 Kant and Chapter 2 Review Categorical Imperative Kant Act only to maxims that can be willed as universal law CONSISTENCY PRINCIPLE Treat others as ends not means tool Things that are ends are irreplaceable DIGNITY PRINCIPLE Act only according to maxims that cohere with kingdom of ends To do this 1 establish maxim 2 universalize 3 conceive a world in which everyone is doing action all the time 4 come to a conclusion Pat down example antipat down people vs TSA antipat down people vs propat down people Fairness Theories Treat equals equally and treat unequals unequally Veil of ignorance Perennial Duties Kidnapping Examples People involved police chief criminal kidnapper Thursday September 24 2015 victim court prosecutor The prosecutor was right to charge the police chief for threatening the criminal in order to find out where the boy was because if he hadn t done so then how would they have found out where the boy was This included the theoriesperennial duties of Police officer s ethical duty should be to not harm others Dignity argument and developed talents Fundamental Differences Founda onalques on Perennial duties Fakness Kant Rights a justified claim against others vs perennial duties which claims to press upon people Rights vs Duties Duties Protective in nature About assuring that people aren t mistreated Community oriented Rights Thursday October 1 2015 Chapter 3 What Is Consequentialism Kant don t use people as part of equation Morality of action judged by consequences Reversal from principle duties and rights to consequences how things are absolutely to how things turn out Consequentialist ethicists focus on the results of what you do not what you do Central ethical concern Since consequentialists are more worried about the outcome than the action the central ethical concern is what kind of outcome should I want Three principle answers Utilitarian Altruist Egoist Utilitarianism 39 Outline Definition Happiness calculation Global ethics Versions of utilitarian happiness Versions of utilitarian regulation Advantages and drawbacks Definition the ethically recommendable act is that which brings the greatest good to the greatest number if it increases net happiness or decreases net unhappiness when everyone is taken into account the outcome matters not the act Thursday October 1 2015 o The reciprocal relation between acting to increase happiness and decrease su enng Happiness Calculation Ethics as calculation Ethics as totaling the happiness pleasure unhappiness suffering that results from any act Act is good if it raises happiness by 10 points or decreases unhappiness by 10 points Global Ethics Global in the sense that the ethical dimension of any particular decision expands across places and time Ethics taking into account everyone affected by an act in all places Ethics taking into account everyone affected by an act now and in the future Task foresee present and future happinesssuffering for all affected What is Happiness Monetized utilitarianism hedonism idealism Monetized idea that when we need to calculate out happiness the best and most reliable way to do it is to attach dollar values to everything dollar value on happinesscertain experiences to judge whether or not something is considered happy or worth it Hedonism believe that getting pleasure right now is good but not as good as maximizing the feeling over the long term Going out for drinks in others words instead of going to the library isn t recommendable on the evening before midterms Utilitarianism seeking to maximize any and all sensations of happiness and pleasure go to bars Idealism utilitarianism seeking to maximize sensations of happiness and pleasure connected with intellectual life and culture go to library or museum Thursday October 1 2015 Perennial Duties Fakness Kant Rights YouTube example Pro YouTube I think YouTube left the video up because they were looking out for themselves and receiving views The lady from YouTube thinks that she s seen the video or similar videos on the news so she wants to know if what s on the news affects what goes on YouTube She s stating that it s basically the same thing The ethical decision in her perspective is that she thinks if it s fair for the news to post the video then it s fair for YouTube too as well YouTube woman is being fair to those who upload the videos Aristotle fairness She s being loyal to the YouTube users She has a duty to herself to not disrespect the company she works for to keep her job She has a duty to herself to fulfill her talent monitoring the posting of YouTube videos She s informing the public rather than entertaining them She universalizes this idea for every video posted on YouTube She says there was a greater good the dignity of the movement is why she wanted to keep the video up lf concentrating on dignity video would have to be taken down Woman killed is being used as tool for views if title was Watch Woman Die you d be using the title and content as a tool for views Leave other one with title up because it respects the project as a news item rather than using the death as a tool for views and entertainment Thursday October 1 2015 Respect the dignity of others If you leave the video up for views you re treating the person as a means for views instead of an ends views for the causeproject In the end her death is being treated with dignity The video is up to spread information about the movement Utilitarianism AdvantagesDrawbacks of Utilitarianism Advantages Clarity and simplicity Acceptability Bringing the greatest good to the greatest number coheres with common and popular ideas about ethical guidance Flexibility The weighing of individual actions in terms of their consequences allows for firm ethical rules without requiring that everyone be treated Drawbacks Subjectivity Diverging definition of happiness for distinct individuals Quantification Happiness can t be measured with a ruler or weighed on a scale Apparent injustices The dying grandmother who informs her son that she s got 200000 stuffed into her mattress She asks the sone to divide the money with his brother This brother however is a gambling alcoholic who ll quickly fritter away his share In this case the utilitarian recommends that the responsible brother with children to put through college just keep all the money That would produce the most happiness but do we really want to deny grandma her last wish Utilitarian monster An individual capable of feeling disproportionately high sensations of pleasure and happiness one who consequently requires many others to sacrifice their happiness in the name of maximizing new happiness Utilitarian sacrifice An individual whose happiness is sacrificed in order to increase the happiness of others Tuesday October 13 2015 Chapter 3 Notes Altruism vs Selflessness Altruist defines ethically good as any act that increases net happiness except for yourself sacrificing own happiness Selflessness sacrificing self altruism is one of the ways to do this TOMS example altruism ls Blake Mycoskie an altruist Definition You do whatever you can to bring the greatest amount of happiness to the greatest number without yourself in the equation So he is not an altruist since he is being paid OR he is an altruist because of his intentions to help the children He came up with the idea to help children get shoes and he just ends up being paid along the way Is he exploiting the children Some call him an egoist because he s exploiting children taking advantage of suffering to make the most amount of product and money for himself Altruism Rules of Altruism Personal practicing an altruistic ethics without regard for what others are doing or should do Impersonal the belief that everyone should practice an altruistic ethics Advocating and Challenging Ethical Altruism Advantages Clarity and simplicity Acceptability Flexibility Uncertainty about how the happiness of others can be servedcalculates The worry that you are shortchanging yourself failing the duty to develop your own talents and life DanceSafe example Tuesday October 13 2015 Against Altruism the people at DanceSafe should go because they are essentially harming the kids who give them the drugs In a way they are helping the people because they are ensuring that the ecstasy isn t laced but they are also giving the drugs back to the people which in the end can harm them They are encouraging the use of drugs This in essence by making people think it s safe has the effect of encouraging more drug use harming others The drug makes you think you re happy but actually increases sadness Remember Altruists don t have to suffer Altruism only means that you aren t part of the equation Egoism Everybody everybody but me just me Happiness calculation only counting ourselves Definition an act is ethically recommendable if it brings the most happiness or decreases the most sadness for you Egoism vs selfishness are not the same because selfishness is inability to help others egoist has many reasons to be aware of others around himherself because other people can help them make own life better Enlightened Egoism the idea that the ethically right thing to do is what creates the most happiness for you but generally the best way to make yourself happy is to make others happy too Thursday October 15 2015 Chapter 3 cont Egoism Ethical egoism whatever action serves my selfinterest is also the morally right ac on Invisible hand amp Adam Smith Adam Smith 17231790 Scottish economistphilosopher By pursuing hisher own interest shehe frequently promotes society and does so more effectively than when directly intending to promote it The Wealth of Nations 1776 Book IV Chapter 11 Rules of Egoism Personal versus Impersonal Egoism Personal Egoism Practicing an ethics of egoism without regard for what others are doing or should do Impersonal Egosim The belief that everyone should practice ethics of egoism invisible hand argument Four relationships between egoism and business Advocating and challenging ethical egoism advocate Clarity and simplicity Practicality Sincerity for those who subscribe to psychological egoism Unintended positive consequences invisible hand Advocating and challenging ethical egoism challenges Thursday October 15 2015 Egoism isn t ethics the reason we have ethics in the first place is to help us live together in society not always be out for ourselves Egoism ignores blatant wrongs Psychological egoism is not true Thursday October 22 2015 Toolbox What s In It Theories of Principles Perennial Duties Duties to self Promote abilities and develop talents Duties to Others Honesty honesty to others fairness fidelity honesty to selfcontract beneficence help others as far as reasonably possible gratitude reparation Fairness Veil of Ignorance Being blind to the outcome of a decision makes it fair because you don t know how it s going to affect yourself personally Examples two people buying pizza Aristotle cut it right in half Rawls cutting it and letting other person choose Kant He had two ideas Universalization Dignity principle treat everybody with dignity others are ends not means to ends tools Rights Theory The ethically right thing is that which maximizes freedom No limits up until the point of what you re doing doesn t impede upon what other people are trying to do Libertarianism idea that my possessions are extensions of me do whatever you want with them Theories of Consequences Utilitarianism Thursday October 22 2015 The greatest goodhappiness to the greatest amount of people Key idea of happiness calculation has to be calculated as far into the future as possible and as wide as you can imagine Egoism An act is ethically good if it makes me happy Enlightened egoist at the end of the day I want the most happiness for myself but then I realize that the way to do that is by making others happy too making others happy because you care about yourself Freud three parts of personality ego rational part superego what balances two things out id hedonism what body wants right now Ex animals wanting food Altruism An act is ethically good if it makes others happy maximizing happiness without counting yourself The Resume Introduction Example Robert Irvine s stretched resume Basic resume abuses Positive resume misrepresentations invented items inserted into a resume False credentialsreferences False experience Embellished experience False chronology Negative resume misrepresentations parts of one s professional experience deleted from resume He shouldn t get his job back because he originally lied on his resume and he was fired Why would the network want to rehire him after a scandal like that They shouldn t rehire him so they can find someone else who potentially has more experience than Irvine Rehiring him could lead to an unhappy workplace because if everybody sees that lrvine got away with lying then other people could start doing the same thing which could lead to overall unhappiness in the workplace Terms of utilitarianism Could also 2 Thursday October 22 2015 create a lower amount of viewers because he s tainted by this lie so the viewers might not enjoy the show as much which would lead to more unhappiness Are we lying and cheating Yes but it s not worth it because he s already tainted by a lie so the viewers might not enjoy the show as much as before By lying you re harming other people who are applying for the job and did it the fair way you re also harming those people who actually did receive a degree etc You re not following the duties to yourself honesty fairness etc If everyone lied about credentials then credentials would eventually grow to not have any worth or matter KANT If no one is asking for a CB anymore then it becomes impossible to lie on it Utilitarianism He should be rehired because his cooking show brings much more happiness than suffering The viewers love the show the only unhappy people are the owners of the restaurants that Irvine yells at It s been proven that he creates more happiness than suffering so let s bring him back Are we lying and cheating Yes we are but it s worth it because the viewers are happy Everyone else is lying Fairness you have to lie too Kant forget it lying is never the solution What Am I Worth Contexts for setting wages Value to the organization market forces contributions to organization s profit Organization s ability to pay substandard pay accepted because the company in rough patch What other organizations pay for similar work setting wages by comparison with pay for similar work at similar wage levels Community wage level the same job provides a higher wage in NYC than in Buffalo NY Organizational wage level wages attuned to the organization Thursday October 22 2015 Seniority relative to others in the organization wages attuned to the seniority Future prospects the post creates the intern accepts low or no wages in hope of high wages later Plotting a Promotion Two kind of promotions Accomplishment promotions Elevations scheduled for workers attaining specific predetermined goals Competitive promotions Elevations won when a worker is selected from among peers to receive a higher post Tricks at work Exposure trick coercing others by threatening to make public their professional personal failings or secrets and sensitive information Bystander trick knowing that someone is in a problematic situation but standing on the sidelines doing nothing when intervention is appropriate and would be helpful to the business Looking for a Better Job Outside the Company Ethical issues along the way to a new job 12 Time abuse Using company time for activities unrelated to work including looking for a jobs elsewhere Equipmentuse abuse Using of an organization s equipment for activeness unrelated to work including looking for a job elsewhere Ethical issues along the way to a new job 22 Skill theft Taking specific jobrelated abilities acquired at one organization to anotherespecially a competitor Client adoption An employee moving to a new organization and helping to appropriate the former organization s client base Market adoption An employee moving to a new organization and helping it appropriate the former organization s market segment Thursday October 22 2015 Idea appropriation Taking ideas belonging to an organization and using them to benefit your own Trade secrets or proprietary data Ideas technologies and business strategies owned and maintained in secret by an organization Typically they provide a competitive advantage Patented or copyrighted information An idea or information belonging to a company and protected from use by others by being publicly registered Hard to draw lines for what stays with the company and what goes with you Beyonce example Who s involved Beyonce other 2 in group Fans Beyonce s dad Record company Justify Beyonce going solo Duty to herself to develop talent and career Utilitarianism monetized she brings more happiness to the world when she s alone than when she s in the group she had no choice but to leave because she creates the greatest happiness for the greatest number by herself just look at the amount of money she makes Rights I m free to do whatever I want up until the point where my freedom hinges upon others freedom Beyonce had this freedom Reasons to stay Duty to contract Fidelity to group Fairness to group because they were all equal they all put in the same amount of work to become stars Gratitude she wouldn t have gotten where she was at without the help of the other two Thursday October 22 2015 Kant ends and means in a sense Beyonce used her group partner as tools to get ahead and as soon she she didn t need them she got rid of them She used them as toolsmeans to achieve something Rawls Veil of Ignorance in case Here s the deal one of you three will turn out to be a superstar but we don39t know which it will be they would all probably say no I don t want that deal not worth the risk Gifts Bribes and Kickbacks Conflict of interestappearances of conflict of interest Conflict of interest conflict between professional responsibilities and personal interests andor a conflict between personal and professional interests An employee in a situation especially as a result of being offered a gift where his or her interest in personal welfare may corrupt his or her ability to serve the employer s interest GiftBribeKickback Definitions Gifts things of value given without the expectation of return Bribes something given in the hope of influence or benefit They are gifts given to media buyers with the direct purpose of corrupting their professional judgement by appealing to their personal welfare Kickbacks resemble bribes except that instead of the gift or entertainment being given over first then the ad space getting purchased the ad space is purchased and then a portion of that revenue is sent back to the media buyer as cash or something of value Standard practices for dealing with gifts that may actually be a bribekickback Outright refusal Transparency Recusal Adherence to organizational codespractices Thursday October 22 2015 Thursday October 29 2015 Review Toolbox Perennial Duties Self develop talents Others beneficence help someone to most reasonable extent fidelity true to self commitment or contract honesty true to others gratitude if others help you then you have obligation to help them reparation if you harm others then you have obligation to make it up to them Fakness Only one way to cut the pizza equally or any way to cut it is fair because you don t know which one the other person is going to choose Aristotle treat equals equally treat unequals unequally or Rawls veil of ignorance not knowing how the outcome is going to affect you Kant Dignity principle others are ends not means tools using them to get something elsereplaceable Consistency theory universalization an act is ethically acceptable if and only if you can imagine a world in which everybody does that act all the time and you can conceive that world Truth and lies evaporate because everybody else is lying faking Rights Rights is about freedom maximization I am free to do whatever I want in this world up until the point where my free actions affectinterferes with other people s freedom Libertarianism my property is an extension of myself Thursday October 29 2015 Chapter 3 Consequence ethics An act is good if it creates the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people 39 Happiness calculation practice of figuring out what causes happiness Monetized utilitarianism trying to use money to measure happiness Utilitarianism happiness to everyone happiness calculation Altruism happiness to everyone but selves Egosim happiness to selves Invisible hand enlightened egoism Example CEO is ethically justified in keeping the alcoholic even though he was losing money for the following reasons First he is obligated by gratitude Gratitude is the obligation to help others who have helped you Give an example of gratitude natural inclination to respond Definition of gratitude He was displaying signs of gratitude because he respected the employee and felt that he had an obligation to help him lf Next gratitude applies to the alcoholic because he has proven his importance to the company so the CEO feels the need to reciprocate that action Conclusion because he has helped my company reach its goals so many times it is my ethical obligationresponsibiity based on gratitude to help him reach his goals Definition How it attaches to the problem Conclusions Extra paragraph or two of countering opinions someone might say that my definition of is wrong or incorrect Thursday October 29 2015 Example First guy faking everything Second group is it ethically justifiable to be lip syncing in the Super Bowl but still creating your own music Justify Kant consistency theory making it universal that many people lip sync when performing live in order to sound their best and create the most happiness for their fans who paid to see them Against 1 Fairness treat equals equally and unequals unequally not knowing how outcome is going to affect you Ethically reproachable because they treated others as means and not ends This means that they used people for their own performance to make it the best Kant says that we treat others as ends and not means Treating people as a tool to get something or somewhere Kant does not accept this Using fans as means and not ends to promote their own album instead of the real experience to entertain their fans Not being fair to fans who wanted to see them perform live which is what the Super Bowl hired them to do 2 Honesty what s expected of fans Fidelity what was expected from the contract Doing well is not the point the point is that there are rules you have to follow and if you follow them then what you re doing is ethically acceptable Even though no one knew they were lying it was still ethically wrong Setup 1 Theory we re using and why 2 Defined theory 3 How it attaches Thursday October 29 2015 4 Conclusion
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