ANTH 101 Exam 2 Study Guide
ANTH 101 Exam 2 Study Guide ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins)
Popular in Intro to cultural anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nichole Notetaker on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 101 (Anthropology Julie Jenkins) at Ball State University taught by Dr. Julie Jenkins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Intro to cultural anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ball State University.
Reviews for ANTH 101 Exam 2 Study Guide
If Nichole isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
-Alfonzo Balistreri Jr.
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/27/16
ANTH 101 Exam 2 Study Guide Vocabulary Terms ● Multilateral aid: from bigger organizations and institutions like World Bank ● Bilateral aid: aid money given from one government to another ● Patrilocal: women move into the husband’s father’s home after marriage ● Androcentric: focused on men ● Multifunctional: serves multiple purposes ● Unilineal: kinship traced through one side ● Patrilineal: kinship through the father’s line ● Matrilineal: kinship through the mother’s line ● Stipulated descent: lineages are related through a further removed ancestor ● Demonstrated descent: proof of being descended from one ancestor ● Parallel cousins: the father’s brother’s children in a patrilineage, mother’s brother’s children in a matrilineage ● Cross cousins: the father’s sister’s children in a patrilineage, the mother’s brother’s children in a matrilineage ● Bilateral descent: kinship traced through both the mother and the father ● Affinal relationships: relationships with inlaws ● Exogamy: “out marriage”; marrying outside of one particular group (clan, community, kinship, etc.) ● Endogamy: “in marriage”; marriage within a specific group (NOT kin) ● Levirate marriage: when a woman’s husband dies, she may be married to another man in his kin group ● Sororate marriage: when a married woman in a patrilineage dies, her kin group will replace her with another woman ● Bridewealth: an engaged groom’s family provides gifts and resources to the bride’s family in order to compensate them for the loss of her contribution to the household (practiced by the Kabre) ● Bride service: an engaged groom will provide labor for the bride’s family to compensate them for the loss of her contributions (practiced by the Kabre) ● Dowry: the bride’s family provides gifts/resources to the groom’s family to compensate them for the financial burden of taking on another woman ● Monogamy: having one spouse ● Polygamy: having multiple spouses ● Polygyny: having multiple wives ● Sororal polygyny: marrying biological sisters (not your own) ● Polyandry: having multiple husbands ● Fraternal polyandry: marrying biological brothers (not your own) Answers to Professor Jenkins’ Study Guide **This is a guide, only a guide…i.e. it is not an exhaustive list of what is going to be on the exam. Rather, it will guide you to the appropriate topics to study around from lectures & readings** * How do the Kabre explain how they came to be in their present location? What affect did colonialism have on the Kabre? The Kabre were forced north by colonial officials and the Ewe Personhood & Exchange: ○ What is personhood? ■ How do the Beng understand the personhood of babies? ● come from afterlife (wrugbe) ● reincarnated from the dead ancestors ● part of your essence stays in the afterlife ● transition to this life is slow and gradual ● when umbilical cord falls off, baby is born into this world, existing both here and in wrugbe ● start with knowledge that they must forget to learn to speak and integrate into human society ■ How do the Kabre conceptualize children? ○ What are the different types of reciprocity? ■ reciprocating (gift exchange) ■ redistribution ■ market transactions (commodity exchange) ■ Which type of reciprocity is at the heart of Kabre social life? What is the purpose of this exchange? ● back and forth exchange; give and take ● generalized: no overt account is kept ■ How does the Ikpanture exchange relationship operate? ● can begin with helping someone in need ○ timing is important ○ the need isn’t always concrete ● people better each other morally ○ learn to care for others without needing instant, exact reciprocation ● people grow each other’s wealth ○ the value of what is exchanged grows over time ● having access to things is important, but having access to people is an important part of this process ● Ikpanture tries to facilitate networking ● can begin as a way to alleviate tension between rivals ■ When does Piot speculate that formalized Ikpanture relationships developed? ● Piot speculates that the Ikpanture relationships developed long ago when one person had a need of something and their neighbor filled that need ■ If the norm in Kabre society is to exchange, how those who do not exchange understood? ● seen as a witch if she does not participate in Ikpanture properly ○ they refused her burial when she died (someone from out of town had to do it) ■ in doing this, they denied her right to become an ancestor ○ What is redistribution? ■ goods are collected from individuals in a group and redistributed in a new pattern ● example: taxes (money taken from paycheck of individuals and used to fund infrastructure, defense, education, etc.) ○ What is market exchange? ■ goods and services are bought and sold using a monetary price (money) ● money only has value because we believe it does The Life Cycle: ○ Life Course what do we mean by ‘culturally defined categories’? What aspect of culture does this represent? ○ categorizing people into age groups (construction of reality) ■ we choose the classification ■ can be scientifically subjective in some cases ○ Is childhood a universal category? ○ yes ○ Why is marriage important in signifying adulthood crossculturally? ○ It demonstrates that children have matured and are responsible enough to have a family of their own ○ What does the Kabre male initiation do? What is its purpose? ■ separation from androgenous self ● more necessary for men ○ less gendered roles in the beginning ● separation from the home (domestic life) ■ Rites of Passage definition & purpose ● transition children into adulthood; ceremony or big life moment ● Van Gennep/ Turner ○ Van Gennep set up the three stage system ○ Turner focused on transition/liminality ○ Three phases separation, transition/liminality, incorporation ■ separati on (preliminal): separation from former way of life (identity): preparation ■ transiti on (liminal): ambiguous place with no concrete social status ■ incorpo ration (postliminal): new social status given and the individual is welcomed back into group life ○ Be able to apply to the Kabre initiation ■ Separat ion: boy runs from his mother’s house to his father’s field ■ Transiti on: boy remains (symbolically) in the field and is not allowed back into the home ■ Incorpo ration: man does a dance with antlers on his head in full view of the community to welcome him back ■ Rites of Cohesion Durkheim ● group identity ○ isolation leads to depression ○ rituals = unification ■ people come together around symbols ■ the group ascribes value to the symbol ■ people attach themselves to values using symbols Gender: ○ What is gender? How does it differ from sex? ■ Sex is biological, based on physical anatomy (primary and secondary sex organs) ■ Gender is social, it is a social construct/identity ● Meaning changes over time and in different cultures ■ Understand that people may be classified into more than two gender categories, or classified based on ideas other than sexual characteristics. ■ What is the relationship between gender & biology? ● Sex and gender are related, but gender is not determined by sex ○ Gender is how people interpret the raw material ● How do the Kabre make sense of gender and its relationship to sexual characteristics and biology? How is masculinity produced? ○ Is biology determinative? ■ No, children are androgynous at birth and throughout their childhood until they go through rites of passage ■ The Kabre take note of biological processes, but they are not determinative ○ Masculinity is produced through rites of passage including the ingestion of dog’s blood ● What symbols and norms are associated with men? Women? ○ Men: dog’s blood, ram’s testicles, death ○ Women: porridge, life, pots ● How do the Hua classify people into gender categories? ○ Gender is based on biology and the concept of “nu” (substance in the body with no Western equivalent) ■ Women have lots of nu, while men have little nu ● How is masculinity produced for the Sambia? ○ Masculinity ■ Substan ce called Jerungdu associated with strength ○ Children born with penises must acquire their masculinity through initiation rituals ■ Starting around age 15, male children have to consume semen from older males (past their reproductive years) through ritualized fellatio ■ What does it mean to say certain ideas about gender, masculinity, and femininity are hegemonic? ● hegemonic understanding (thought of as natural and having the most power and influence) ○ Understand the examples of cultures that recognize third + genders ■ Berdache, Hijra ● Hijras in India ○ Neither male nor female, but also both ■ Impote nce excludes them from being classified male ■ Male sexual anatomy excludes them from being classified female ● Berdache/Nadleehe (Berdache is the European term, Nadleehe is the Navajo term) ○ A third gender seen as both male and female ○ Incorporate masculine and feminine elements ■ How do these genders challenge an assumption of gender/sex binaries? ● They are seen as either both male and female, and/or neither ○ What is the sexual division of labor for the Kabre? ■ Men cultivate the fields, women cook Kinship & Marriage: ○ Tracing kinship ties (descent) unilineal (patrilineal & matrilineal), Bilateral, lineage & Clan ■ Clan vs. Lineage ● Clans: ○ You can have many lineages in a clan ○ Stipulated descent: lineages are related through a further removed ancestor ■ There is no evidence that can be pointed to ■ Usually the ancestor is from the time of creation ● Lineages: ○ Demonstrated descent: proof of being descended from one ancestor ○ Classification of relatives Why is the mother’s brother important in matrilineal descent systems? ■ Mother’s brother is responsible for the care of the children and their finances ■ What is the difference between cross cousins and parallel cousins? ● Cross cousins are not considered to be in the same kin group ■ What does kinship look like among the Kabre? ● The mother’s brother is central to the Kabre’s patrilineal society ● Why is the mother’s brother important in Kabre kinship? What idiom of kinship is valued over degree of biological relatedness? ○ The children are closer to their mother’s patrilineage at first; the mother’s patrilineage claims the children because they cared for their mother, and have therefore proven that they can care for a child the father must earn this right ● Are Kabre children members of their father’s patrilineage or mother’s patrilineage? ○ Mother’s patrilineage at first, but they eventually shift to their father’s patrilineage ○ What are affinal relationships (or affines)? ■ Inlaws; relatives by marriage ○ Understand variation in rules in choosing partners (endogamy, exogamy, incest taboo general principle/definition; levirate and sorarate) ■ What is the Kabre preferred/ideal choice for a marriage partner? ● Ikpanture (gift reciprocity) is one way to choose a partner ○ Two people may exchange so much and so often, that they eventually decide to exchange a son and a daughter ● FZD (Father Sister Daughter) ○ An individual marries their patrilineal cross cousin ○ This is NOT seen as incest ○ This is done to protect possessions and alliances ○ It can be seen as “returning” the gift of a wife ■ How does this relate to exchange and reciprocity? ● FZD seen as returning the gift of a wife ● Ikpanture establishes a relationship through gift reciprocity ○ Understand variation in negotiating marriage (dowry, bridewealth, & brideservice.) ■ Which does the Kabre practice? ● Bridewealth and brideservice ■ What implications does each have for the overall status of women? ● Women are valuable assets to the household, and their contributions must be replaced when they leave their fathers’ households for their husbands’ ○ Understand variation in number of partners (pay attention to the differences between polygamy, polygyny, polyandry. Also make sure you know what sororal polygyny and fraternal polyandry is) ○ What are the problems with the “classic” anthropological definition of marriage? ■ Says marriage is between a man and a woman: denies homosexual marriages and polygamy ○ Describe the relationship between Kabre husbands and wives. What are each associated with in terms of productions and reproduction? ■ Men cultivate fields and produce semen through drinking dog’s blood ■ Women cook and process the grain and enlarge their wombs with the consumption of porridge ■ Is the relationship equal? ● NO, Kabre women do more, but the society is still patrilineal
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'