Study Guide for Test 3
Study Guide for Test 3 1300-03
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Kaufman on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1300-03 at Tulane University taught by John Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Test 3 Study Guide 3/29/16 Chapter 11 Class Notes: Domestic Violence Rape: sexual intercourse without consent - forcible: threatening someone or you have a weapon at your disposal (usually between a married couple) Statutory Rape: intercourse with a minor - just discriminated by age - under a certain age, they aren’t consenting (don’t care about consent) - most likely to be involved: teenagers (one a few years older than the older) - parents report it Simple Rape: without a weapon (more likely to occur) Sexual Assault: non-consenting acts invoking, NO INTERCOURSE (unwanted touching) Femicide: murder of women Domestic Violence: sexual attacks by intimates -Rates higher for African Americans because of greater poverty, live in higher crime areas, lack of legal help Psychological Perspective: predisposed to commit their crimes Sociological Perspective: cultural roots of rape Backlash Hypothesis: violence against women is higher when men feel threatened by women’s growing equality *When in court you have to determine whether or not the person who claimed to be raped was actually raped and also whether they gave consent or not/that it was unwanted - before a jury - don’t ask if they wanted it or not (if it is obvious that you were battered) Rape Myths: 1. Women “ask” to be raped by the way they dress 2. Women like to be raped Assault Myths: 1. battered women must have angered their male partner 2. if women don’t leave their abuser, the situation cant be that bad Cops commonly respond to abuse in households, as a result they can be become desensitized Tholson: thinks that the victimization of women by men is for no different reason for the victimization of men by men (more likely to get involved in risky behavior, socialization, etc.) Stalking: harassing or intimidating other individuals (focusing on women), terrorizing somebody - Been around for a long time - More attention paid to it in the past 30 years - Cyber stalking (online), the access you have to people online is huge Can men be battered? - Less likely to occur (in both NCVS and UCR) How to reduce violence? - Reduce gender role disparity - Get rid of patriarchy –through socialization and introduction of values - Open up more crisis and battered women shelters (help to save lives and provide more resources) Batterers in particular: - What does arresting help? - Both positive and negative consequences - Threatening people with arrest particularly in these situations aren’t that useful - Not good correlations between threat of arrest for any type of crime - Things that happen in private doesn’t make people think that they will be caught for it Intimate Terrorism: an individual is extremely violent or controlling Situational Couple Violence: both partners commit relatively minor violence and neither partner is controlling Chapter 12 FBI classifies 4 types of property crimes 1. Larceny theft: hundreds of different charges that can be filed; unlawful taking of property from another possession involves stealth, not force - focused in text on shop-lifting - 15—20% is shop-lifting (biggest category) - Demographics are equal amongst all categories (race, gender) - Ages range greatly - Petty theft crime 2. Motor Vehicle Theft: on land vehicle - Doesn’t apply to airplanes, boats, farm equipment - Just autos or trucks - Why are people stealing those? 3. Burglary: unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony 4. Arson: malicious burning of a structure (biggest overrepresentation of juveniles) Property crimes are more likely committed than violent crimes Property crimes are highest in the south and lowest in the northeast In part 1 offenses, the most common is larceny Amateur theft: commit crimes when the opportunity arises Professional theft: plan their offenses carefully; high profit Tipsters: let burglars know of safe attractive targets Fences: sell the stolen goods to customers Sneaky thrill crimes: excited by the idea of stealing Target hardening: efforts to make residences more difficult to burglarize 3/16/16 Reason for Auto Theft: 1. Joyriding (most common) 2. Transportation (to and from crime scene, convenience) 3. Financial Gain (selling parts Reasons for Arson: 1. Revenge (number 1 reason) 2. Vandalism 3. Crime Concealment (minimize evidence for violent crime scenes) 4. Profit 5. Excitement Crime in terms of absence of guardianship (Routine Activities Theory) - What keeps people really away from crime is an effective guardianship - If not, you increase the opportunity for people to undertake criminal tasks - Example: people whose homes are vacant for long periods of time are more susceptible to burglaries Katz: sneaky thrill crimes - Crimes for the thrill of it - Excitement Reducing Crime Situational Prevention Techniques: 1. Target hardening: surveillance equipment (trying to make places more difficult to burglarize) - Home security measures 2. Community Prevention: neighborhood watches, volunteers to control the streets, more common in working and middle class areas Identity Threat: - Need your name, credit card number, social security number, bank account information - More common than check forgery because less checks are used today Tax Fraud/evasion: - Conceal revenue - Intentional failure to pay all taxes owed - Common for online shopping and for businesses - If you get caught, then all you have to do is pay a fine Auto Fraud - Fake accidents Hacking: trying to get information online - Majority of people who are hackers are not doing it for criminal reasons - Interested in trying to defeat a system (get a kick out of being able to beat a defense mechanism; intellectual) Phishing Schemes: - Anything through your email to try to get private information - Asking you to provide “important information”, fake emails - Or it contains viruses - Can look very real Malware: - Undermining your systems to get information from you - Some are noncriminal - Affects the computer’s performance Illegal downloading: - Has become a norm - You don’t get tracked legally for this - Neutralization techniques used to defend this act Anti-Trust Laws - Restricting monopolies (a company that controls too many shares, takes over the whole marketplace) - The laws are supposed to ensure fair competition (est. in 1890) - Problem: government interventions that sponsor monopolistic controls Chapter 13 White Collar Crime: crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of their occupation—usually wealthy and white (Sutherland’s definition) Similarities to street crime: both involve stealing and violence; do not usually break the law without motivation and opportunity to do so; use techniques of neutralization and try to justify their acts as being okay; lack self-control (?); more males are involved in both types of crime Differences to street crime: not due to biological or psychological abnormalities; not because they grew up with social disorganization, bad parenting, hung around other delinquent kids, had bad schooling experiences etc.; don’t have bad current economic circumstances Cultural and Social bases for white collar crime: Due to structural and cultural forces (differential association) Desire for power and money (go together) Occupational Crime: committed by individuals in the course of their occupation for personal gain Corporate Crime: committed by corporations for gain for the entire corporation Organized Crime: crime can be done by and on behalf of organizations Employee theft: costs $15 annually Pilferage: employee theft of merchandise, tools, stationary (usually done b/c of dissatisfaction or the type of workplace culture they are in) Embezzlement: theft of cash or misuse of funds, usually due to nonshareable financial problems Collective embezzlement: stealing of company funds working with groups like stock brokers or real estate agents Professional Fraud: health-care fraud, usually overbilling Medicare and other insurance, Insider trading: company executive buys or sells a stock before information on that stock has been released to the public (unfair advancement) Ponzi scheme: new investments are used to pay the interest on old investments (Bernie madoff) Price fixing: setting high prices for goals and services rather than allowing the free market to work, consumers pay more than they should Restraint of trade: one company buys out another, now they no longer need to worry about competition and are able to higher their prices Anticompetitive agreements: manufacturer sells its product to retailers who agree not to sell rival manufacturer products False advertising: deceptive advertising to make you want to buy the product, displays product differently than it actually is, lies about product results/capabilities/health benefits etc. Corporate violence: actions by corporations that cause injury, death, illness
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