Study Guide for Test 3
Study Guide for Test 3 AVS 1500
Popular in Introduction to Animal Science
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Edwards on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AVS 1500 at Clemson University taught by Heather Walker Dunn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at Clemson University.
Reviews for Study Guide for Test 3
Not opening or downloading
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/04/15
Exam 3 11/4/15 7:08 PM October 14, 2015 Companion Animal Book 1. Urinary System (same across the board; monogastrics, ruminents, and hind gut fermenters.) a. Kidneys (2) i. In the average mammalian kidney, there are over a million glomeruli per kidney 1. Glomerulus is a capillary bed; there is an afferent and efferent section. a. High pressure bed of capillaries. Nutrients get pressed out because of the high level of pressure. ii. Nephron is the function unit of the kidney; million of them packed into one kidney. 1. Bowman’s Capsule: molecules, nutrients, get pressed out of the capillary bed and get picked up by the Bowman’s Capsule. Nonspecific, moves solely based on pressure. a. Molecules move through structure. i. Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT) ii. Descending loop of Henle 1. Only water is moved across the membrane iii. Ascending loop of Henle 1. Only solutes can move across the membrane. iv. Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) v. Collecting duct 1. A lot of these ducts put together form a section of the kidney. 2. Once in this section, everything will be sent to the ureters to be secreted out. b. Juxtamedullary---camels. b. Renal System: Name for the kidneys and the organs that are accompanied with them. i. Renal artery: takes blood into the kidneys ii. Renal vein: takes blood away from the kidneys iii. Renal Hilum: primarily where a lot of the blood vessels come together. 1. More a region of the kidney iv. Cortex: outer area of the kidney, hold the glomerulus structures. v. Midula: middle reagion of the kidney c. d. Bladder (1) i. Function: holding tank for the urine. ii. Have the ability to stretch e. Urethra (1) f. Ureters (2) i. Function: connect the kidneys and the bladder ii. Have the ability to stretch iii. Epithelium: cells are stacked together and have the ability to slide together and pull apart. g. Pg 157, 138, 140 October 19, 2015 1. Nervous System a. CNS i. b. PNS i. Sensory (afferent) 1. ii. Motor (efferent) 1. Somatic (skeletal muscle/voluntary) 2. Autonomic (involuntary) a. Typically deals with smooth muscle i. Organs, cardiac muscle b. Sympathetic i. has to be in charge ii. fight or flight c. Parasympathetic i. Daily activities, digestion ii. More of a signal coming from the skeletal and cardiac muscle, lungs and liver. 1. Skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle pump blood faster 2. Lungs need to help breathe faster 3. All other organs need to stop their funtions d. Cannot function sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems at the same time. 2. Respiratory System a. Deals with oxygen exchange i. Air exchange occurs because of pressure ii. Think of the lungs as a balloon, blow up balloon and close off opening. Is the pressure higher inside or outside of balloon? Inside. If you let opening of balloon go, air will come out because of the pressure gradient until the air is equal on inside and outside. iii. Its cold outside, warm in here. Cold air comes in, warm air goes out trying to reach the temperature gradient. b. Deals with the lungs October 21, 2015 Ruminant Anatomy 1. Respiratory System Cont. a. When an animal respires and they inhale, the air is humidified and brought into the animal’s body through the trachea, and then travels all through out the branches. b. Pg 95; bifurcation: is referring to the anatomical term meaning when a structure splits, a nerve can split/bifurcate. i. Trachea bifurcates going to either the left lung or the right lung. 1. When it bifurcates its called a bronchus 2. Then the bronchus bifurcates into the bronchiole 3. Then the bronchiole bifurcate into the alveolus(cluster of alveoli) and then alveoli. c. A developing fetus receives oxygen through the blood circulation in the umbilical cord. i. Right before birth, a hormone is released in the developing fetus (surfactant) is released into the lungs, causes the individual alveoli to pop open. ii. If born prematurely, the surfactant doesn’t have time to be released and the lungs are not fully developed or functioning. d. Lungs stay inflated through the help of the pleural cavity and surfactant. i. Can have one collapsed lung, but not the other. ii. Pleural cavity surrounds the lungs, surfactant is on the inside holding the lungs to the plural cavity. 1. Surfactant holds lungs open and keeps them from recoiling. Think rubberband. 2. Pleurasy: infection of the pleural cavity which can prevent effective breathing. e. If an animal’s lungs are not healthy, they are very heavy. Filled with fluid rather than air. October 23, 2015 1. Respiration cont. a. Boyle’s Law: The pressure of a gas in a container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container. i. Inversely proportional means that the are opposites. ii. Bigger container means a lower pressure. iii. Smaller container means a higher pressure. iv. Lung is the container, is decrease container size, pressure increases. If you exhale the ribcage moves down, diaphragm moves up, pressure going up bc smaller space. v. If you inhale, ribcage moves up, diaphragm moves down, pressure decreases due to bigger space. vi. Lungs are trying to reach an equilibrium of pressure with the gasses exchanged. (gas inside lungs vs outside) b. Dalton’s Law: Each gas in a mixture of gasses exerts its own pressure as if no other gasses were present. The pressure of a particular gas is then called Partial Pressure. i. Partial pressure determines how fast certain molecules move across a membrane. ii. At the level of the alveoli and the level of the tissues, we are moving gasses. Not all gasses move across the membrane at the same rate. iii. Carbon Dioxide is a byproduct. Not as fast as the exchange of Oxygen. c. The Haldane Effect: Increase oxygen causes a decrease affinity for carbon dioxide. d. The Bohr Effect: If you increase the carbon dioxide in blood, you decrease oxygen affinity in the blood. i. This is how in respiration we can load oxygen on and dump carbon dioxide off. ii. Erythrocytes: Red blood cells 1. Proteins are bound up in a ball. Globulins aka globins 2. Globin is made up of two alpha and two beta chains. 3. In the middle of the molecule is an Fe+ molecule. 4. 4 oxygens can bind to the Fe+ molecule. 5. Fe+ in the globin would be called “heme” 6. When it attaches with O2 it becomes a hemoglobin 7. Can it only hold 4 oxygens? That one hemoglobin can only hold 4, but there’s a lot of hemoglobins in an Erythrocyte so we don’t know how many potential oxygens can bind total. 8. If animal is deficient in Iron, it is anemic. a. Side affects: cold, difficult breathing, tired b. Means they lack the Fe+ for the oxygen to bind to. 9. Haldane and Bohr Effects: has to do with the carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange and their levels of affinity. 10. Carbon Monoxide has an affinity for hemoglobin that is so high that when it binds to a hemoglobin it wont let go. a. Carbon monoxide poisoning basically means that the person suffocates. October 26, 2015 Ruminant Anatomy Book 1. Diaphragm: a. Muscular structure that separates between the thoracic and abdominal body cavities. b. If you find the diaphragm, then your in a good position on the animal. c. Helps regulate the internal body temperature. d. Movement of diaphragm helps with the change in varying pressure in respiration. e. Pg 99 f. Tendons do have a blood supply, although it’s minimal to that of the muscles. Not as vascular so it doesn’t heal as quickly. g. 3 holes that go through the diaphragm. i. Esophagus ii. Descending Aorta: descends down and takes oxygenated blood throughout the body. iii. Vena Cava takes deoxygenated blood back to the heart. 2. Endocrinology a. The study of hormones b. In the brain of mammals, there are 2 structures that are very closely related i. Driving structures in all of Endocrinology as far as mammals are concerned. 1. Hypothalamus a. Latin means under, less than, below. b. Thalamus: relay station in the brain. Located right above Hypothalamus i. Message comes in “ow ow” needs to go out to sensory part of brain. c. Responsible for producing hormones that go to pituitary gland d. Regulates all the functions 2. Pituitary Gland a. Anterior and Posterior lobes b. Produces hormones from the hypothalamus and then secretes them into the blood stream. c. Hormones travel to wherever target organ location is d. Feedback goes to hypothalamus e. Anterior Pituitar i. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) ii. Leutinizing Hormone (LH) 1. Hormones target the ovaries and the testis. 2. Testis produce testosterone 3. Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone 4. Feedback to the hypothalamus to let it know that the levels are okay. a. Most of the time its negative feedback (99%) b. Positive feedback during birth c. In the neck region of the animal there are 2 other organs that are very close to each other i. Thyroid Gland, double lobed organ 1. Makes thyroid hormones: T3 and T4 2. Involved in metabolism 3. Too much of the hormone can cause weight loss, excitability 4. Too little of the hormone can cause weight gain ii. Parathyroid 1. Little nodules that site on the thyroid gland 2. Makes a hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH) a. Helps regulate Calcium in the bones to blood stream d. Adrenal Glands (2) i. Has a medulla and a cortex ii. Sits on top of Kidneys iii. From the Adrenal gland: 1. Medulla reproduces epinephrine and norepinephrine a. Associated with a natural high (runner’s high) 2. Cortex region produces cortisol a. Helps with stress levels, but shuts down immune system. October 30, 2015 1. Adrenal Gland a. Center of gland, Medulla, regulated by sympathetic nervous system i. Hormones that are regulated by Medulla 1. Epinephrine 2. Norepinephrine ii. Cortex produces different hormones, just a regular Endocrine gland 1. Cortisol, helps with stress. Highest level when sleeping 2. Aldosterone: helps regulate blood pressure. a. Increases and decreases diameter of blood vessels. b. Constrict blood vessels, increase blood pressure 3. Androgens: general class of sex hormones a. DHEA: precursor, converted by an enzyme into androstenedione. Another enzyme that then converts that into testosterone. Aromatase (enzyme) then converts testosterone into estrogen. i. Happens in Male and Female 2. Pancreas has 2 main functions (dual function) a. Attaches to the small intestine by way of the duodenum i. b. Production of hormones to aid in digestion i. In blood stream there is glucose, moved into blood cells ii. In the presence of insulin we have the ability to insert channels into the membrane of cells in order for glucose to move inside iii. Glucagon is the reverse; cuts attachment between molecules and it releases glucose back into bloodstream c. Production of hormones to aid in blood sugar regulation i. Beta cells produce insulin 1. Patient who lacks insulin do have defective Beta cells ii. Alpha cells produce glucagon 1. Dysfunctional alpha cells: low energy iii. Glucose is a 6-Carbon ion, stored as glycogen in cells iv. If we need sugar immediately then we will use it in the cell 1. Glycolysis: process of splitting glucose, split molecules are called pyruvate. Goes through Creb’s Cycle, and produces ATP November 2, 2015 Companion Animal Book 1. Cells communicate using chemicals and electrical signals 2. Hormones are released into blood stream from anterior pituitary gland and travel to the testicles. a. FSH; spermatogenesis or production of sperm b. LH; production of testosterone c. Inside the testicles: i. Leydig cells---LS ii. Seminiferous tubule---FSH 1. Spermatogenesis occurs d. Pg 157 e. Female reproduction: i. Litter bearing species if has defined uterine horns ii. From ovary estrogen and progesterone produced iii. FSH---follicle iv. LH---causes the follicle to rupture; ovulation starts 1. Follicle then regresses; structure changes; a. This is what produces progesterone b. Structure called corpus luteum P4 i. Produces progesterone P4 2. Egg is then picked up by infundibulum and progresses into the uterine horn 3. Sperm must swim all the way up to the upper third region of the uterine horn in order to fuse with an egg. a. Fertilization b. Become a structure called zygote c. Haploid: half the number of chromosomes d. Myosis---gametes e. Mitosis---division of mammalian cells f. Zygote---diploid g. Morula: big mass of cells; begins to migrate h. Blastocyst: formed by Morula and implants in female i. Ectopic pregnancy: human female; sperm and egg unite and don’t start migrating down uterine horn. Can cause death in both fetus and mother November 4, 2015 Companion Animal Book 1. Pg 161 2. Primordial germ cell: through hormonal signals, doesn’t start until puberty, from hypothalamus to pituitary to ovary to germ cell. a. Add in FSH, immature germ cell can develop into secondary, into tertiary structure, into a mature structure. b. As follicle gets bigger, more estrogen is produced. c. From pituitary, LH is released in large amounts and is responsible for ovulation. i. Menopause, when a female runs out of eggs for reproduction d. Corpus luteum: produces progesterone, if egg fertilized, P4 must be produced until the fetus has completely implanted and is self sustaining with a placenta, before the corpus luteum regresses completely. i. Corpus Albicans is the reminants of what was originally the primary follicle, and then matured into the corpus luteum for P4 production. Forms a scar on the ovary
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'